Rapid Room-Temperature, Chemoselective Csp2 -Csp2 Coupling of Poly(pseudo)halogenated Arenes Enabled by Palladium(I) Catalysis in Air.
ABSTRACT: While chemoselectivities in Pd0 -catalyzed coupling reactions are frequently non-intuitive and a result of a complex interplay of ligand/catalyst, substrate, and reaction conditions, we herein report a general method based on PdI that allows for an a priori predictable chemoselective Csp2 -Csp2 coupling at C-Br in preference to C-OTf and C-Cl bonds, regardless of the electronic or steric bias of the substrate. The C-C bond formations are extremely rapid (<5?min at RT) and are catalyzed by an air- and moisture-stable PdI dimer under open-flask conditions.
Project description:While nickel catalysts have previously been shown to activate even the least reactive Csp2-O bonds, i.e. aryl ethers, in the context of C-C bond formation, little is known about the reactivity limits and molecular requirements for the introduction of valuable functional groups under homogeneous nickel catalysis. We identified that due to the high reactivity of Ni-catalysts, they are also prone to react with existing or installed functional groups, which ultimately causes catalyst deactivation. The scope of the Ni-catalyzed coupling protocol will therefore be dictated by the reactivity of the functional groups towards the catalyst. Herein, we showed that the application of computational tools allowed the identification of matching functional groups in terms of suitable leaving groups and tolerated functional groups. This allowed for the development of the first efficient protocol to trifluoromethylthiolate Csp2-O bonds, giving the mild and operationally simple C-SCF3 coupling of a range of aryl, vinyl triflates and nonaflates. The novel methodology was also applied to biologically active and pharmaceutical relevant targets, showcasing its robustness and wide applicability.
Project description:The hydroamination of various substituted vinyl arenes with benzenesulfonamide was explored using an NHC-amidate-alkoxide palladium catalyst in conjunction with p-TsOH. Utilizing halide-substituted and electron-rich vinyl arenes, this methodology selectively furnished the cross-coupled hydroamination products in moderate to excellent yields in a Markovnikov fashion while greatly reducing undesired acid-catalyzed homocoupling of the vinyl arenes. Electron-rich vinyl arenes typically required milder conditions than electron-poor ones. While most effective for para-substituted substrates, the catalyst system also furnished the desired products from ortho- and meta-substituted vinyl arenes with high chemoselectivities.
Project description:Alkyl xanthate esters are perhaps best known for their use in deoxygenation chemistry. However, their use in cross-coupling chemistry has not been productive, which is due, in part, to inadequate xanthate activation strategies. Herein, we report the use of O-benzyl xanthate esters, readily derived from alcohols, as radical pronucleophiles in Csp3-Csp2 cross-couplings under Ni/photoredox dual catalysis. Xanthate (C-O) cleavage is found to be reliant on photogenerated (sec-butyl) radical activators to form new carbon-centered radicals primed for nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings. Mechanistic experiments support the fact that the key radical components are formed independently, and relative rates are carefully orchestrated, such that no cross reactivity is observed.
Project description:The dehydrogenative cross-coupling of arenes and alkenes is a particularly ideal approach for the synthesis of aryl alkenes. Herein, we report a photo-induced C-H/C-H cross-coupling between electron-rich arenes and styrene derivatives using a dual catalytic system containing an acridinium photosensitizer and a cobaloxime proton-reducing catalyst. This catalytic system enables the Csp2-Csp2 bond formation accompanying H2 evolution. Various substituted aryl alkenes can be afforded with good to excellent yields and high ?-regioselectivity.
Project description:Full control over multiple competing coupling sites would enable straightforward access to densely functionalized compound libraries. Historically, the site selection in Pd<sup>0</sup> -catalyzed functionalizations of poly(pseudo)halogenated arenes has been unpredictable, being dependent on the employed catalyst, the reaction conditions, and the substrate itself. Building on our previous report of C-Br-selective functionalization in the presence of C-OTf and C-Cl bonds, we herein complete the sequence and demonstrate the first general arylations and alkylations of C-OTf bonds (in <10?min), followed by functionalization of the C-Cl site (in <25?min), at room temperature using the same air- and moisture-stable Pd<sup>I</sup> dimer. This allowed the realization of the first general and triply selective sequential C-C coupling (in 2D and 3D space) of C-Br followed by C-OTf and then C-Cl bonds.
Project description:The mechanism of the gold-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling of arenes and alkynes has been studied in detail combining stoichiometric experiments with putative reaction intermediates and DFT calculations. Our data suggest that ligand exchange between the alkyne, the Au(i)-catalyst and the hypervalent iodine reagent is responsible for the formation of both an Au(i)-acetylide complex and a more reactive "non-symmetric" I(iii) oxidant responsible for the crucial Au(i)/Au(iii) turnover. Further, the reactivity of the in situ generated Au(iii)-acetylide complex is governed by the nature of the anionic ligands transferred by the I(iii) oxidant: while halogen ligands remain unreactive, acetato ligands are efficiently displaced by the arene to yield the observed Csp2-Csp cross-coupling products through an irreversible reductive elimination step. Finally, the nature of competitive processes and catalyst deactivation pathways has also been unraveled. This detailed investigation provides insights not only on the specific features of the species involved in oxidative gold-catalyzed cross couplings but also highlights the importance of both ancillary and anionic ligands in the reactivity of the key Au(iii) intermediates.
Project description:A simple method for the preparation of aryl methyl ketones is reported. The transformation involves the Pd-catalyzed coupling of an acyl anion equivalent, acetyltrimethylsilane, with aryl bromides to afford the corresponding acetylated arenes in synthetically useful yields. The methodology is tolerant of heterocycles and provides a new method for arene functionalization.
Project description:Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling of arenes provides efficient access to biaryl compounds. The biaryl product forms via C-H activation of two arenes to afford a Pd(II)ArAr' intermediate, which then undergoes C-C reductive elimination. The key Pd(II)ArAr' intermediate could form via a "monometallic" pathway involving sequential C-H activation at a single Pd(II) center, or via a "bimetallic" pathway involving parallel C-H activation at separate Pd(II) centers, followed by a transmetalation step between two Pd(II)-aryl intermediates. Here, we investigate the oxidative coupling of o-xylene catalyzed by a PdX2/2-fluoropyridine catalyst (X = trifluoroacetate, acetate). Kinetic studies, H/D exchange experiments, and kinetic isotope effects provide clear support for a bimetallic/transmetalation mechanism.
Project description:Herein, we report on our findings of the Sonogashira-Hagihara reaction with 1-iodinated and 2-brominated glycals using several aromatic and aliphatic alkynes. This Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction presents a facile access to alkynyl C-glycosides and sets the stage for a reductive/oxidative refunctionalization of the enyne moiety to regenerate either C-glycosidic structures or pyran derivatives with a substituent in position 2.
Project description:The [6.5.6]-tricyclic indole ?-lactam represents a common key intermediate for the synthesis of a broad variety of structurally intriguing indole alkaloids. The development of a method for the versatile and straightforward construction of such structural motif is of great importance for potential synthetic applications. Herein, we present a co-ligand-prompted Pd-catalyzed 6-exo-trig intramolecular cyclization of indolyl amides via the aerobic oxidative Heck cross-coupling. The method provided a general and efficient way for the construction of [6.5.6]-tricyclic indole ?-lactams. A mechanistic study suggests that a Pd<sup>(I)</sup>/Pd<sup>(III)</sup> catalytic cycle should be responsible for effective coupling, which represents a mechanistically alternative pathway when compared with the Pd<sup>(0)</sup>/Pd<sup>(II)</sup> cycle proposed for other related coupling reactions.