Bladder cancer cell growth and motility implicate cannabinoid 2 receptor-mediated modifications of sphingolipids metabolism.
ABSTRACT: The inhibitory effects demonstrated by activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB) on cancer proliferation and migration may also play critical roles in controlling bladder cancer (BC). CB expression on human normal and BC specimens was tested by immunohistochemistry. Human BC cells RT4 and RT112 were challenged with CB agonists and assessed for proliferation, apoptosis, and motility. Cellular sphingolipids (SL) constitution and metabolism were evaluated after metabolic labelling. CB1-2 were detected in BC specimens, but only CB2 was more expressed in the tumour. Both cell lines expressed similar CB2. Exposure to CB2 agonists inhibited BC growth, down-modulated Akt, induced caspase 3-activation and modified SL metabolism. Baseline SL analysis in cell lines showed differences linked to unique migratory behaviours and cytoskeletal re-arrangements. CB2 activation changed the SL composition of more aggressive RT112 cells by reducing (p?
Project description:Cannabinoid (CB1) receptor activation acts neuronally, reducing GI motility, diarrhoea, pain, transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) and emesis, and promoting eating. CB2 receptor activation acts mostly via immune cells to reduce inflammation. What are the key questions which now need answering to further understand endocannabinoid pathophysiology? GPR55. Does this receptor have a GI role? Satiety, Nausea, Vomiting, Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux, Gastric Emptying. Endocannabinoids acting at CB1 receptors can increase food intake and body weight, exert anti-emetic activity, reduce gastric acid secretion and TLESRs; CB2 receptors may have a small role in emesis. Question 1: CB1 receptor activation reduces emesis and gastric emptying but the latter is associated with nausea. How is the paradox explained? Q2: Do non-CB receptor actions of endocannabinoids (for example TRPV1) also modulate emesis? Q3: Is pathology necessary (gastritis, gastro-oesophageal reflux) to observe CB2 receptor function? Intestinal Transit and Secretion. Reduced by endocannabinoids at CB1 receptors, but not by CB2 receptor agonists. Q1: Do the effects of endocannabinoids rapidly diminish with repeat-dosing? Q2: Do CB2 receptors need to be pathologically upregulated before they are active? Inflammation. CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors may mediate an ability of endocannabinoids to reduce GI inflammation or its consequences. Q1: Are CB2 receptors upregulated by inflammatory or other pathology? Pain. Colonic bacterial flora may upregulate CB2 receptor expression and thereby increase intestinal sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Q1: Are CB2 receptors the interface between colonic bacteria and enteric- or extrinsic nerve sensitivity? Relevance of endocannabinoids to humans. Perhaps apart from appetite, this is largely unknown.
Project description:The emerging potential for the cannabinoid (CB) system in modulating gastrointestinal inflammation has gained momentum over the last few years. Traditional and anecdotal use of marijuana for gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhoea and abdominal cramps is recognized, but the therapeutic benefit of cannabinoids in the 21st century is overshadowed by the psychoactive problems associated with CB1 receptor activation. However, the presence and function of the CB2 receptor in the GI tract, whilst not yet well characterized, holds great promise due to its immunomodulatory roles in inflammatory systems and its lack of psychotropic effects. This review of our current knowledge of CB2 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract highlights its role in regulating abnormal motility, modulating intestinal inflammation and limiting visceral sensitivity and pain. CB2 receptors represent a braking system and a pathophysiological mechanism for the resolution of inflammation and many of its symptoms. CB2 receptor activation therefore represents a very promising therapeutic target in gastrointestinal inflammatory states where there is immune activation and motility dysfunction.
Project description:Ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a pivotal mechanism of organ injury during stroke, myocardial infarction, organ transplantation and vascular surgeries. Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) is a potent endogenous form of tissue protection against I/R injury. On the one hand, endocannabinoids have been implicated in the protective effects of IPC through cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. However, there is evidence suggesting that endocannabinoids are overproduced during various forms of I/R, such as myocardial infarction or whole body I/R associated with circulatory shock, and may contribute to the cardiovascular depressive state associated with these pathologies. Previous studies using synthetic CB1 receptor agonists or knockout mice demonstrated CB1 receptor-dependent protection against cerebral I/R injury in various animal models. In contrast, several follow-up reports have shown protection afforded by CB1 receptor antagonists, but not agonists. Excitedly, emerging studies using potent CB2 receptor agonists and/or knockout mice have provided compelling evidence that CB2 receptor activation is protective against myocardial, cerebral and hepatic I/R injuries by decreasing the endothelial cell activation/inflammatory response (for example, expression of adhesion molecules, secretion of chemokines, and so on), and by attenuating the leukocyte chemotaxis, rolling, adhesion to endothelium, activation and transendothelial migration, and interrelated oxidative/nitrosative damage. This review is aimed to discuss the role of endocannabinoids and CB receptors in various forms of I/R injury (myocardial, cerebral, hepatic and circulatory shock) and preconditioning, and to delineate the evidence supporting the therapeutic utility of selective CB2 receptor agonists, which are devoid of psychoactive effects, as a promising new approach to limit I/R-induced tissue damage.
Project description:We have previously reported the development of CB-25 and CB-52, two ligands of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. We assessed here their functional activity.The effect of the two compounds on forskolin-induced cAMP formation in intact cells or GTP-gamma-S binding to cell membranes, and their action on nociception in vivo was determined.CB-25 enhanced forskolin-induced cAMP formation in N18TG2 cells (EC50 approximately 20 nM, max. stimulation = 48%), behaving as an inverse CB1 agonist, but it stimulated GTP-gamma-S binding to mouse brain membranes, behaving as a partial CB1 agonist (EC50 =100 nM, max. stimulation = 48%). At human CB1 receptors, CB-25 inhibited cAMP formation in hCB1-CHO cells (EC50 = 1600 nM, max. inhibition = 68% of CP-55,940 effect). CB-52 inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP formation by N18TG2 cells (IC50 = 450 nM, max. inhibition = 40%) and hCB1-CHO cells (EC50 = 2600 nM, max. inhibition = 62% of CP-55,940 effect), and stimulated GTP-gamma-S binding to mouse brain membranes (EC50 = 11 nM, max. stimulation approximately 16%). Both CB-25 and CB-52 showed no activity in all assays of CB2-coupled functional activity and antagonized CP55940-induced stimulation of GTP-gamma-S binding to hCB2-CHO cell membranes. In vivo, both compounds, administered i.p., produced dose-dependent nociception in the plantar test carried out in healthy rats, and antagonised the anti-nociceptive effect of i.p. WIN55,212-2. In the formalin test in mice, however, the compounds counteracted both phases of formalin-induced nociception.CB-25 and CB-52 behave in vitro mostly as CB1 partial agonists and CB2 neutral antagonists, whereas their activity in vivo might depend on the tonic activity of cannabinoid receptors.
Project description:Collybistin (CB) is a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) selectively activating Cdc42. CB mutations cause X-linked mental retardation due to defective clustering of gephyrin, a postsynaptic protein associated with both glycine and GABA(A) receptors. Using a combination of biochemistry and cell biology we provide novel insights into the roles of the CB2 splice variants, CB2(SH3+) and CB2(SH3-), and their substrate, Cdc42, in regulating gephyrin clustering at GABAergic synapses. Transfection of Myc-tagged CB2(SH3+) and CB2(SH3-) into cultured neurons revealed strong, but distinct, effects promoting postsynaptic gephyrin clustering, denoting mechanistic differences in their function. In addition, overexpression of constitutively active or dominant-negative Cdc42 mutants identified a new function of Cdc42 in regulating the shape and size of postsynaptic gephyrin clusters. Using biochemical assays and native brain tissue, we identify a direct interaction between gephyrin and Cdc42, independent of its activation state. Finally, our data show that CB2(SH3-), but not CB2(SH3+), can form a ternary complex with gephyrin and Cdc42, providing a biochemical substrate for the distinct contribution of these CB isoforms in gephyrin clustering at GABAergic postsynaptic sites. Taken together, our results identify CB and Cdc42 as major regulators of GABAergic postsynaptic densities.
Project description:The bark of Magnolia officinalis is used in Asian traditional medicine for the treatment of anxiety, sleeping disorders, and allergic diseases. We found that the extract and its main bioactive constituents, magnolol and honokiol, can activate cannabinoid (CB) receptors. In cAMP accumulation studies, magnolol behaved as a partial agonist (EC50 = 3.28 ?M) with selectivity for the CB2 subtype, while honokiol was less potent showing full agonistic activity at CB1 and antagonistic properties at CB2. We subsequently synthesized the major metabolites of magnolol and found that tetrahydromagnolol (7) was 19-fold more potent than magnolol (EC50 CB2 = 0.170 ?M) exhibiting high selectivity versus CB1. Additionally, 7 behaved as an antagonist at GPR55, a CB-related orphan receptor (K B = 13.3 ?M, ?-arrestin translocation assay). Magnolol and its metabolites may contribute to the biological activities of Magnolia extract via the observed mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the biphenylic compound magnolol provides a simple novel lead structure for the development of agonists for CB receptors and antagonists for the related GPR55.
Project description:The pharmacological activation of the cannabinoid receptor type 2, CB2, has been shown to elicit anti-tumoral mechanisms in different cancer types. However, little is known about its endogenous role in tumor pathophysiology, and different studies have attributed pro-tumorigenic properties to this receptor. In a previous work, we showed that CB2 expression is a poor prognostic factor in colon cancer patients. Here we report that activation of CB2 with low doses of specific agonists induce cell proliferation and favor the acquisition of aggressive molecular features in colon cancer cells. We show that sub-micromolar concentrations of CB2-specific agonists, JWH-133 and HU-308, promote an increase in cell proliferation rate through the activation of AKT/PKB pathway in colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. AKT activation promotes GSK3? inhibition and thus, a more aggressive cell phenotype with the subsequent elevation of SNAIL levels, E-cadherin degradation and ?-catenin delocalization from cell membrane. Taken together, our data show that CB2 activation with sub-micromolar doses of agonists, which could be more similar to endogenous levels of cannabinoids, promote colon cancer progression, implicating that CB2 could have a pro-tumorigenic endogenous role in colon cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic inflammatory conditions, such as granulomas, are associated with angiogenesis. Mast cells represent the main cell type orchestrating angiogenesis, through the release of their granule content. Therefore, compounds able to modulate mast cell behaviour may be considered as a new pharmacological approach to treat angiogenesis-dependent events. Here, we tested the effect of selective cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists in a model of angiogenesis-dependent granuloma formation induced by lambda-carrageenin in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Granulomas were induced by lambda-carrageenin-soaked sponges implanted subcutaneously on the back of male Wistar rats. After 96 h, implants were removed and granuloma formation was measured (wet weight); angiogenesis was evaluated by histological analysis and by the measurement of haemoglobin content. Mast cells in the granulomas were evaluated histologically and by RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis for mast cell-derived proteins (rat mast cell protease-5 (rMCP-5) and nerve growth factor). Selective CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists(,) ACEA and JWH-015 (0.001-0.1 mg mL(-1)), were given locally only once, at the time of implantation. KEY RESULTS: The CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists decreased the weight and vascularization of granulomas after 96 h. This treatment also reduced mast cell number and activation in granulomatous tissue. Specifically, these compounds prevented the transcription and expression of rMCP-5, a protein involved in sprouting and advance of new blood vessels. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Modulation of mast cell function by cannabinoids reduced granuloma formation and associated angiogenesis. Therefore cannabinoid-related drugs may be useful in the management of granulomatous diseases accompanied by angiogenesis.
Project description:Although previously thought of as the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, it is now accepted that the CB? receptor is expressed in the central nervous system on microglia, astrocytes and subpopulations of neurons. Expression of the CB? receptor in the brain is significantly lower than that of the CB? receptor. Conflicting findings have been reported on the neurological effects of pharmacological agents targeting the CB? receptor under normal conditions. Under inflammatory conditions, CB? receptor expression in the brain is enhanced and CB2 receptor agonists exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. These findings have prompted research into the CB? receptor as a possible target for the treatment of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroinflammatory alterations are also associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and polymorphisms in the CB? gene have been reported in depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. This review will examine the evidence to date for a role of brain CB? receptors in neuropsychiatric disorders.
Project description:In developing brain neuronal migration, dendrite outgrowth and dendritic spine outgrowth are controlled by Cdc42, a small GTPase of the Rho family, and its activators. Cdc42 function in promoting actin polymerization is crucial for glutamatergic synapse regulation. Here, we focus on GABAergic synapse-specific activator of Cdc42, collybistin (CB) and examine functional differences between its splice isoforms CB1 and CB2. We report that CB1 and CB2 differentially regulate GABAergic synapse formation in vitro along proximal-distal axis and adult-born neuron maturation in vivo. The functional specialization between CB1 and CB2 isoforms arises from their differential protein half-life, in turn regulated by ubiquitin conjugation of the unique CB1 C-terminus. We report that CB1 and CB2 negatively regulate Cdc42; however, Cdc42 activation is dependent on CB interaction with gephyrin. During hippocampal adult neurogenesis CB1 regulates neuronal migration, while CB2 is essential for dendrite outgrowth. Finally, using mice lacking Gabra2 subunit, we show that CB1 function is downstream of GABAARs, and we can rescue adult neurogenesis deficit observed in Gabra2 KO. Overall, our results uncover previously unexpected role for CB isoforms downstream of ?2-containing GABAARs during neuron maturation in a Cdc42 dependent mechanism.