MicroRNA 10b promotes abnormal expression of the proto-oncogene c-Jun in metastatic breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs have been shown to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressers via various cellular pathways. Specifically, in breast cancer, upregulation of miR-10b is positively associated with aggressiveness of tumors. However, the mechanism by which miR-10b contributes to cell malignancy is largely unknown. Here we show that at the receiving end of the miR-10b pathway is the proto-oncogene c-Jun, a transcription factor that plays a critical role in stimulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. c-Jun is known to be translationally activated by loss of cell contacts or restructuring of the cytoskeleton. A comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression exhibited a significant increase in miR-10b expression. This was supported by analysis of breast cancer cells, which showed that loss of E-cadherin in metastatic cells is accompanied by elevation of miR-10b and interestingly, by a marked increase in accumulation of c-Jun. Silencing miR-10b in metastatic breast cancer cells leads to a decline in c-Jun expression, whereas overexpression of miR-10b in HaCaT cells is sufficient to elevate the accumulation of c-Jun. The increase in c-Jun protein accumulation in metastatic cells is not accompanied by an increase in c-Jun mRNA and is not dependent on MAPK activity. Knockdown and overexpression experiments revealed that the increase is mediated by NF1 and RhoC, downstream targets of miR-10b that affect cytoskeletal dynamics through the ROCK pathway. Overall, we show the ability of miR-10b to activate the expression of c-Jun through RhoC and NF1, which represents a novel pathway for promoting migration and invasion of human cancer cells.
Project description:Dysregulation of microRNAs is observed in many cancers, including breast cancer. In particular, miR-10b appears to play an important role in tumor cell invasion and breast cancer progression. In this study, we investigated hyaluronan (HA)-induced CD44 (a primary HA receptor) interaction with c-Src kinase and the transcriptional factor, Twist, in breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231 cells). Our results indicate that HA binding to CD44 promotes c-Src kinase activation, which, in turn, increases Twist phosphorylation, leading to the nuclear translocation of Twist and transcriptional activation. Further analyses reveal that miR-10b is controlled by an upstream promoter containing the Twist binding site(s), whereas ChIP assays demonstrate that stimulation of miR-10b expression by HA/CD44-activated c-Src is Twist-dependent in breast tumor cells. This process results in the reduction of a tumor suppressor protein (HOXD10), RhoA/RhoC up-regulation, Rho-kinase (ROK) activation, and breast tumor cell invasion. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with PP2 (a c-Src inhibitor) or Twist-specific siRNAs effectively blocks HA-mediated Twist signaling events, abrogates miR-10b production, and increases HOXD10 expression. Subsequently, this c-Src/Twist signaling inhibition causes down-regulation of RhoA/RhoC expression and impairment of ROK-regulated cytoskeleton function (e.g. tumor cell invasion). To further evaluate the role of miR-10b in RhoGTPase signaling, MDA-MB-231 cells were also transfected with a specific anti-miR-10b inhibitor in order to silence miR-10b expression and block its target functions. Our results demonstrate that anti-miR-10b inhibitor not only enhances HOXD10 expression but also abrogates HA/CD44-mediated tumor cell behaviors in breast tumor cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that the HA-induced CD44 interaction with c-Src-activated Twist plays a pivotal role in miR-10b production, leading to the down-regulation of tumor suppressor protein (HOXD10), RhoGTPase-ROK activation, and tumor cell invasion. All of these events are critical prerequisite steps for the acquisition of metastatic properties by human breast cancer cells.
Project description:Treatment of stage IV metastatic breast cancer patients is limited to palliative options and represents an unmet clinical need. Here, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of miRNA-10b - a master regulator of metastatic cell viability - leads to elimination of distant metastases in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. This was achieved using the miRNA-10b inhibitory nanodrug, MN-anti-miR10b, which consists of magnetic nanoparticles, conjugated to LNA-based miR-10b antagomirs. Intravenous injection of MN-anti-miR10b into mice bearing lung, bone, and brain metastases from breast cancer resulted in selective accumulation of the nanodrug in metastatic tumor cells. Weekly treatments of mice with MN-anti-miR-10b and low-dose doxorubicin resulted in complete regression of pre-existing distant metastases in 65% of the animals and a significant reduction in cancer mortality. These observations were supported by dramatic reduction in proliferation and increase in apoptosis in metastatic sites. On a molecular level, we observed a significant increase in the expression of HOXD10, which is a known target of miRNA-10b. These results represent first steps into the uncharted territory of therapy targeted to the metastatic niche.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are naturally occurring single-stranded RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of target mRNA transcripts. Many of these target mRNA transcripts are involved in regulating processes commonly altered during tumorigenesis and metastatic growth. These include cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Among the several miRNAs, miRNA-10b (miR-10b) expression is increased in metastatic breast cancer cells and positively regulates cell migration and invasion through the suppression of the homeobox D10 (HOXD10) tumor suppressor signaling pathway. In breast metastatic cells, miR-10b expression is enhanced by a transcription factor TWIST1. We find that miR-10b expression in breast cancer cells can be suppressed by CCN5, and this CCN5 effect is mediated through the inhibition of TWIST1 expression. Moreover, CCN5-induced inhibition of TWIST1 expression is mediated through the translational inhibition/modification of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? via impeding JNK signaling pathway. Collectively, these studies suggest a novel regulatory pathway exists through which CCN5 exerts its anti-invasive function. On the basis of these findings, it is plausible that reactivation of CCN5 in miR-10b-positive invasive/metastatic breast cancers alone or in combination with current therapeutic regimens could provide a unique, alternative strategy to existing breast cancer therapy.
Project description:Increased microRNA-10b (miR-10b) expression in the cancer cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a marker of disease aggressiveness. In the present study, we determined that plasma miR-10b levels are significantly increased in PDAC patients by comparison with normal controls. By gene profiling, we identified potential targets downregulated by miR-10b, including Tat-interacting protein 30 (TIP30). Immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assays confirmed that TIP30 was a direct miR-10b target. Downregulation of TIP30 by miR-10b or siRNA-mediated silencing of TIP30 enhanced epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent invasion. The actions of miR-10b were abrogated by expressing a modified TIP30 cDNA resistant to miR-10b. EGF-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine phosphorylation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation were enhanced by miR-10b, and these effects were mimicked by TIP30 silencing. The actions of EGF in the presence of miR-10b were blocked by EGFR kinase inhibition with erlotinib and by dual inhibition of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase) and MEK. Moreover, miR-10b, EGF and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) combined to markedly increase cell invasion, and this effect was blocked by the combination of erlotinib and SB505124, a type I TGF-? receptor inhibitor. miR-10b also enhanced the stimulatory effects of EGF and TGF-? on cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and decreased the expression of RAP2A, EPHB2, KLF4 and NF1. Moreover, miR-10b overexpression accelerated pancreatic cancer cell (PCC) proliferation and tumor growth in an orthotopic model. Thus, plasma miR-10b levels may serve as a diagnostic marker in PDAC, whereas intra-tumoral miR-10b promotes PCC proliferation and invasion by suppressing TIP30, which enhances EGFR signaling, facilitates EGF-TGF-? cross-talk and enhances the expression of EMT-promoting genes, whereas decreasing the expression of several metastasis-suppressing genes. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of miR-10b in PDAC may interrupt growth-promoting deleterious EGF-TGF-? interactions and antagonize the metastatic process at various levels.
Project description:Recent studies revealed that micro RNA-10b (mir-10b) is highly expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells and positively regulates breast cancer cell migration and invasion through inhibition of HOXD10 target synthesis. In this study we designed anti-mir-10b molecules and combined them with poly L-lysine (PLL) to test the delivery effectiveness. An RNA molecule sequence exactly matching the mature mir-10b minor antisense showed strong inhibition when mixed with PLL in a wound-healing assay with human breast cell line MDA-MB-231. The resulting PLL-RNA nanoparticles delivered the anti-microRNA molecules into cytoplasm of breast cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner that displayed sustainable effectiveness.
Project description:Since microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) have been implicated in oncogenesis, many of them have been identified as therapeutic targets. Previously we have demonstrated that miRNA-10b acts as a master regulator of the viability of metastatic tumor cells and represents a target for therapeutic intervention. We designed and synthesized an inhibitor of miR-10b, termed MN-anti-miR10b. We showed that treatment with MN-anti-miR10b led to durable regression/elimination of established metastases in murine models of metastatic breast cancer. Since miRNA-10b has been associated with various metastatic and non-metastatic cancers, in the present study, we investigated the effect of MN-anti-miR10b in a panel of over 600 cell lines derived from a variety of human malignancies. We observed an effect on the viability of multiple cell lines within each cancer type and a mostly dichotomous response with cell lines either strongly responsive to MN-anti-miR10b or not at all even at maximum dose tested, suggesting a very high specificity of the effect. Genomic modeling of the drug response showed enrichment of genes associated with the proto-oncogene, c-Jun.
Project description:The median survival time of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis is less than 6 months, and even a small metastatic lesion often causes severe neurological disabilities. Because of the location of metastatic lesions, a surgical approach is limited and most chemotherapeutic drugs are ineffective owing to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Despite this clinical importance, the molecular basis of the brain metastasis is poorly understood. In this study, we have isolated RNA from samples obtained from primary breast tumors and also from brain metastatic lesions followed by microRNA profiling analysis. Our results revealed that the miR-509 is highly expressed in the primary tumors, whereas the expression of this microRNA is significantly decreased in the brain metastatic lesions. MicroRNA target prediction and the analysis of cytokine array for the cells ectopically expressed with miR-509 demonstrated that this microRNA was capable of modulating the two genes essential for brain invasion, RhoC and TNF-? that affect the invasion of cancer cells and permeability of BBB, respectively. Importantly, high levels of TNF-? and RhoC-induced MMP9 were significantly correlated with brain metastasis-free survival of breast cancer patients. Furthermore, the results of our in vivo experiments indicate that miR-509 significantly suppressed the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to the brain. These findings suggest that miR-509 has a critical role in brain metastasis of breast cancer by modulating the RhoC-TNF-? network and that this miR-509 axis may represent a potential therapeutic target or serve as a prognostic tool for brain metastasis.
Project description:The therapeutic promise of microRNA (miRNA) in cancer has yet to be realized. In this study, we identified and therapeutically exploited a new role for miR-10b at the metastatic site, which links its overexpression to tumor cell viability and proliferation. In the protocol developed, we combined a miR-10b-inhibitory nanodrug with low-dose anthracycline to achieve complete durable regressions of metastatic disease in a murine model of metastatic breast cancer. Mechanistic investigations suggested a potent antiproliferative, proapoptotic effect of the nanodrug in the metastatic cells, potentiated by a cell-cycle arrest produced by administration of the low-dose anthracycline. miR-10b was overexpressed specifically in cells with high metastatic potential, suggesting a role for this miRNA as a metastasis-specific therapeutic target. Taken together, our results implied the existence of pathways that regulate the viability and proliferation of tumor cells only after they have acquired the ability to grow at distant metastatic sites. As illustrated by miR-10b targeting, such metastasis-dependent apoptotic pathways would offer attractive targets for further therapeutic exploration.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly implicated in the regulation of metastasis. Despite their potential as targets for anti-metastatic therapy, miRNAs have only been silenced in normal tissues of rodents and nonhuman primates. Therefore, the development of effective approaches for sequence-specific inhibition of miRNAs in tumors remains a scientific and clinical challenge. Here we show that systemic treatment of tumor-bearing mice with miR-10b antagomirs-a class of chemically modified anti-miRNA oligonucleotide-suppresses breast cancer metastasis. Both in vitro and in vivo, silencing of miR-10b with antagomirs significantly decreases miR-10b levels and increases the levels of a functionally important miR-10b target, Hoxd10. Administration of miR-10b antagomirs to mice bearing highly metastatic cells does not reduce primary mammary tumor growth but markedly suppresses formation of lung metastases in a sequence-specific manner. The miR-10b antagomir, which is well tolerated by normal animals, appears to be a promising candidate for the development of new anti-metastasis agents.