Rapid and sensitive diagnoses of dry root rot pathogen of chickpea (Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler) using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.
ABSTRACT: Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5.8S rDNA sequence for visual detection of R. bataticola. The reaction was optimized at 63?°C for 75?min using minimum 10?fg of DNA. After adding SYBR Green I in LAMP products, the amplification was found to be highly specific in all the 94 isolates of R. bataticola collected from diverse geographical regions as well as DRR infected plants and sick soil. No reaction was found in other pathogenic fungi infecting chickpea (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium solani) and pigeonpea (Fusarium udum and Phytophthora cajani). The standardised LAMP assay with its simplicity, rapidity and specificity is very useful for the visual detection of this emerging disease in chickpea.
Project description:Drought stress and pathogen infection simultaneously occur in the field. In this study, the interaction of these two stresses with chickpea, their individual and combined effect and the net impact on plant growth and yield traits were systematically assessed under field and confined pot experiments. The field experiments were conducted for four consecutive years from 2014-15 to 2017-18 at different locations of India. Different irrigation regimes were maintained to impose mild to severe drought stress, and natural incidence of the pathogen was considered as pathogen stress. We observed an increased incidence of fungal diseases namely, dry root rot (DRR) caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola, black root rot (BRR) caused by Fusarium solani under severe drought stress compared to well-irrigated field condition. Similar to field experiments, pot experiments also showed severe disease symptoms of DRR and BRR in the presence of drought compared to pathogen only stress. Overall, the results from this study not only showed the impact of combined drought and DRR stress but also provided systematic data, first of its kind, for the use of researchers.
Project description:Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non-rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.
Project description:A Bacillus velezensis strain from the rhizosphere of Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr., a grass in central-north México, was isolated during a biocontrol of phytopathogens scrutiny study. The 2A-2B strain exhibited at least 60% of growth inhibition of virulent isolates of phytopathogens causing root rot. These phytopathogens include Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, the 2A-2B strain is an indolacetic acid producer, and a plant inducer of PR1, which is an induced systemic resistance related gene in chili pepper plantlets. Whole genome sequencing was performed to generate a draft genome assembly of 3.953 MB with 46.36% of GC content, and a N50 of 294,737. The genome contains 3713 protein coding genes and 89 RNA genes. Moreover, comparative genome analysis revealed that the 2A-2B strain had the greatest identity (98.4%) with Bacillus velezensis.
Project description:Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07, previously isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat grown in Hebei province, China, suppresses the soilborne disease of wheat take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. We report here that strain HC1-07 also suppresses Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8. Strain HC1-07 produced a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) with a molecular weight of 1,126.42 based on analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Extracted CLP inhibited the growth of G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro. To determine the role of this CLP in biological control, plasposon mutagenesis was used to generate two nonproducing mutants, HC1-07viscB and HC1-07prtR2. Analysis of regions flanking plasposon insertions in HC1-07prtR2 and HC1-07viscB revealed that the inactivated genes were similar to prtR and viscB, respectively, of the well-described biocontrol strain P. fluorescens SBW25 that produces the CLP viscosin. Both genes in HC1-07 were required for the production of the viscosin-like CLP. The two mutants were less inhibitory to G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro and reduced in ability to suppress take-all. HC1-07viscB but not HC-07prtR2 was reduced in ability to suppress Rhizoctonia root rot. In addition to CLP production, prtR also played a role in protease production.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dry pea production has increased substantially in North America over the last few decades. With this expansion, significant yield losses have been attributed to an escalation in Fusarium root rots in pea fields. Among the most significant rot rotting pathogenic fungal species, Fusarium solani fsp. pisi (Fsp) is one of the main causal agents of root rot of pea. High levels of partial resistance to Fsp has been identified in plant genetic resources. Genetic resistance offers one of the best solutions to control this root rotting fungus. A recombinant inbred population segregating for high levels of partial resistance, previously single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing, was phenotyped for disease reaction in replicated and repeated greenhouse trials. Composite interval mapping was deployed to identify resistance-associated quantitative trait loci (QTL). RESULTS:Three QTL were identified using three disease reaction criteria: root disease severity, ratios of diseased vs. healthy shoot heights and dry plant weights under controlled conditions using pure cultures of Fusarium solani fsp. pisi. One QTL Fsp-Ps 2.1 explains 44.4-53.4% of the variance with a narrow confidence interval of 1.2 cM. The second and third QTL Fsp-Ps3.2 and Fsp-Ps3.3 are closely linked and explain only 3.6-4.6% of the variance. All of the alleles are contributed by the resistant parent PI 180693. CONCLUSION:With the confirmation of Fsp-Ps 2.1 now in two RIL populations, SNPs associated with this region make a good target for marker-assisted selection in pea breeding programs to obtain high levels of partial resistance to Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani fsp. pisi.
Project description:Loose smut of wheat caused by the basidiomycete fungus Ustilago tritici, a seed-borne disease, is difficult to control because of the expanse of wheat planting area and difficulty in pathogen detection. In this study, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays are used to rapidly amplify the DNA of U. tritici. Five pairs of primers for qPCR and two series primers for LAMP were designed. Primarily, the specificity of the primer was assessed by using genomic DNA of U. tritici, Fusarium graminearum, Blumeria graminis, Rhizoctonia cerealis, Puccinia striiformis, Bipolaris sorokiniana, and Alternaria solani as templates. Further, the amplification systems were optimized. Finally, the sensitivity of qPCR and LAMP assays were evaluated. The results showed that the primer Y-430 F/R, Y-307 F/R, Y-755 F/R, and Y-139 F/R for qPCR and primers L-139 and L-988 for LAMP could be used for U. tritici detection. In the sensitivity test, the detection limit of qPCR assay was identified as 10 pg ?L-1 of genomic DNA, the detection limit for LAMP assay was 100 fg ?L-1. We successfully performed qPCR and LAMP assays on wheat loose smut wheat samples. This paper establishes two methods for U. tritici detection, which can be used for diagnosis of wheat loose smut in the laboratory and in the field.
Project description:Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot disease of wheat, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, develops as distinct patches of stunted plants and limits the yield of direct-seeded (no-till) wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. At the site of a long-term cropping systems study near Ritzville, WA, a decline in Rhizoctonia patch disease was observed over an 11-year period. Bacterial communities from bulk and rhizosphere soil of plants from inside the patches, outside the patches, and recovered patches were analyzed by using pyrosequencing with primers designed for 16S rRNA. Taxa in the class Acidobacteria and the genus Gemmatimonas were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of healthy plants outside the patches than in that of diseased plants from inside the patches. Dyella and Acidobacteria subgroup Gp7 were found at higher frequencies in recovered patches. Chitinophaga, Pedobacter, Oxalobacteriaceae (Duganella and Massilia), and Chyseobacterium were found at higher frequencies in the rhizosphere of diseased plants from inside the patches. For selected taxa, trends were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and observed shifts of frequencies in the rhizosphere over time were duplicated in cycling experiments in the greenhouse that involved successive plantings of wheat in Rhizoctonia-inoculated soil. Chryseobacterium soldanellicola was isolated from the rhizosphere inside the patches and exhibited significant antagonism against R. solani AG-8 in vitro and in greenhouse tests. In conclusion, we identified novel bacterial taxa that respond to conditions affecting bare patch disease symptoms and that may be involved in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare batch disease.
Project description:A novel slightly distorted octahedral complex of Cr(III) of norfloxacin (Nor) with the formula [Cr(III)(Nor)(Bipy)Cl2]Cl·2CH3OH has been synthesized hydrothermally in the presence of a N-containing heterocyclic compound 2,2'-bipyridyl (Bipy). The complex was characterized with FT-IR, elemental analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Spectral studies suggest that the Nor acts as a deprotonated bidentate ligand. Thermal studies were also carried out. The synthesised complex was screened against four fungi Pythium aphanidermatum (PA), Sclerotinia rolfsii (SR), Rhizoctonia solani (RS), and Rhizoctonia bataticola (RB).
Project description:The gene chiA, which codes for endochitinase, was cloned from a soilborne Enterobacter agglomerans. Its complete sequence was determined, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme designated Chia_Entag yielded an open reading frame coding for 562 amino acids of a 61-kDa precursor protein with a putative leader peptide at its N terminus. The nucleotide and polypeptide sequences of Chia_Entag showed 86.8 and 87.7% identity with the corresponding gene and enzyme, Chia_Serma, of Serratia marcescens, respectively. Homology modeling of Chia_Entag's three-dimensional structure demonstrated that most amino acid substitutions are at solvent-accessible sites. Escherichia coli JM109 carrying the E. agglomerans chiA gene produced and secreted Chia_Entag. The antifungal activity of the secreted endochitinase was demonstrated in vitro by inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum spore germination. The transformed strain inhibited Rhizoctonia solani growth on plates and the root rot disease caused by this fungus in cotton seedlings under greenhouse conditions.
Project description:The rhizosphere microbiome is crucial for plant health, especially for preventing roots from being infected by soil-borne pathogens. Microbiota-mediated pathogen response in the soil-root interface may hold the key for microbiome-based control strategies of phytopathogens. We studied the pathosystem sugar beet-late sugar beet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani in an integrative design of combining in vitro and in vivo (greenhouse and field) trials. We used five different cultivars originating from two propagation sites (France, Italy) with different degrees of susceptibility towards R. solani (two susceptible, one moderately tolerant and two cultivars with partial resistance). Analyzing bacterial communities in seeds and roots grown under different conditions by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we found site-, cultivar-, and microhabitat-specific amplicon sequences variants (ASV) as well as a seed core microbiome shared between all sugar beet cultivars (121 ASVs representing 80%-91% relative abundance). In general, cultivar-specific differences in the bacterial communities were more pronounced in seeds than in roots. Seeds of Rhizoctonia-tolerant cultivars contain a higher relative abundance of the genera Paenibacillus, Kosakonia, and Enterobacter, while Gaiellales, Rhizobiales, and Kosakonia were enhanced in responsive rhizospheres. These results indicate a correlation between bacterial seed endophytes and Rhizoctonia-tolerant cultivars. Root communities are mainly substrate-derived but also comprise taxa exclusively derived from seeds. Interestingly, the signature of Pseudomonas poae Re*1-1-14, a well-studied sugar-beet specific biocontrol agent, was frequently found and in higher relative abundances in Rhizoctonia-tolerant than in susceptible cultivars. For microbiome management, we introduced microbial inoculants (consortia) and microbiome transplants (vermicompost) in greenhouse and field trials; both can modulate the rhizosphere and mediate tolerance towards late sugar beet root rot. Both, seeds and soil, provide specific beneficial bacteria for rhizosphere assembly and microbiota-mediated pathogen tolerance. This can be translated into microbiome management strategies for plant and ecosystem health.