Neuropsychological outcome following frontal lobectomy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy in adults.
ABSTRACT: This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy.Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning. Objective methods were used to assess meaningful change across a wide range of abilities and to identify factors associated with neuropsychological decline following frontal lobectomy. Detailed postoperative neuroimaging analysis was conducted to characterize region, extent, and volume of resection.Forty-eight percent of patients did not demonstrate meaningful postoperative declines in cognition and an additional 42% demonstrated decline in 1 or 2 cognitive domains. When cognitive decline was observed, it usually occurred on measures of intelligence, visuomotor processing speed, or executive functioning. Side and site of resection were unrelated to cognitive outcome, but played a role in decline of contralateral manual dexterity following supplementary motor area resection. Higher preoperative ability, older age at surgery, absence of a malformation of cortical development on MRI, and poor seizure outcome were related to cognitive decline on some measures, but had poor sensitivity in identifying at-risk patients.The vast majority of patients who undergo frontal lobectomy for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy demonstrate good cognitive and motor outcomes.
Project description:Long-term therapy of Parkinson's disease with L‑DOPA is associated with a high risk of developing motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can improve these motor complications. Although the positive effect on motor symptoms has been proven, postoperative cognitive decline has been documented. To tackle the impact of DBS on cognition, 18 DBS patients were compared to 25 best medically treated Parkinson's patients, 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 12 healthy controls using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version (NTBV-short) for cognitive outcome 12 months after the first examination. Reliable change index methodology was used. Roughly 10% of DBS patients showed cognitive decline mainly affecting the domains attention and executive functioning (phonemic fluency). Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that lead to improvement or deterioration of cognitive functions in individual cases.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common consequence of coronary artery bypass grafting. However, domain-specific associations between postoperative changes and long-term performance are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether domain-specific cognitive changes after cardiac surgery predict long-term cognitive outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We assessed 100 patients (86 men, mean age 60) before coronary artery bypass grafting, with re-examinations after one week, three months, and a mean of 6.7 years. The extensive neuropsychological test battery was organized into seven functional cognitive domains. Cognitive decline and improvement were defined with the reliable change index derived from 17 matching healthy controls. Analyses were adjusted for baseline cognitive performance, age, gender, education and cardiovascular risks factors. RESULTS:On group level, one week after surgery 71% patients showed cognitive decline and 9% improvement in any functional domain, as compared to preoperative results. Three months postsurgery, decline was observed in 47% and improvement in 25% of patients. Executive functioning was the most sensitive domain to both decline and improvement. Postoperative dysfunction predicted long-term cognitive deterioration six years after operation, particularly in the domain of executive functioning. CONCLUSIONS:POCD after coronary artery bypass grafting is an essential risk factor for long-term deterioration and an indication for neuropsychological follow-up. Assessment of change in executive functioning after coronary artery bypass grafting may help to identify patients at risk for unfavorable long-term outcome.
Project description:Resective neurosurgery carries the risk of postoperative cognitive deterioration. The concept of 'hub (over)load', caused by (over)use of the most important brain regions, has been theoretically postulated in relation to symptomatology and neurological disease course, but lacks experimental confirmation. We investigated functional hub load and postsurgical cognitive deterioration in patients undergoing lesion resection. Patients (n?=?28) underwent resting-state magnetoencephalography and neuropsychological assessments preoperatively and 1-year after lesion resection. We calculated stationary hub load score (SHub) indicating to what extent brain regions linked different subsystems; high SHub indicates larger processing pressure on hub regions. Dynamic hub load score (DHub) assessed its variability over time; low values, particularly in combination with high SHub values, indicate increased load, because of consistently high usage of hub regions. Hypothetically, increased SHub and decreased DHub relate to hub overload and thus poorer/deteriorating cognition. Between time points, deteriorating verbal memory performance correlated with decreasing upper alpha DHub. Moreover, preoperatively low DHub values accurately predicted declining verbal memory performance. In summary, dynamic hub load relates to cognitive functioning in patients undergoing lesion resection: postoperative cognitive decline can be tracked and even predicted using dynamic hub load, suggesting it may be used as a prognostic marker for tailored treatment planning.
Project description:Anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) controls seizures in up to 70% of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but, in the language dominant hemisphere, may impair language function, particularly naming. Functional reorganization can occur within the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. We investigated reorganization of language in left-hemisphere-dominant patients before and after ATLR; whether preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicts postoperative naming decline; and efficiency of postoperative language networks.We studied 44 patients with TLE due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (24 left) on a 3T GE-MRI scanner. All subjects performed language fMRI and neuropsychological testing preoperatively and again 4 months after left or right ATLR.Postoperatively, individuals with left TLE had greater bilateral middle/inferior frontal fMRI activation and stronger functional connectivity from the left inferior/middle frontal gyri to the contralateral frontal lobe than preoperatively, and this was not observed in individuals with right TLE. Preoperatively, in left and right TLE, better naming correlated with greater preoperative left hippocampal and left frontal activation for verbal fluency (VF). In left TLE, stronger preoperative left middle frontal activation for VF was predictive of greater decline in naming after ATLR. Postoperatively, in left TLE with clinically significant naming decline, greater right middle frontal VF activation correlated with better postoperative naming. In patients without postoperative naming decline, better naming correlated with greater activation in the remaining left posterior hippocampus. In right TLE, naming ability correlated with left hippocampal and left and right frontal VF activation postoperatively.In left TLE, early postoperative reorganization to the contralateral frontal lobe suggests multiple systems support language function. Postoperatively, ipsilateral recruitment involving the posterior hippocampal remnant is important for maintaining language, and reorganization to the contralateral hemisphere is less effective. Preoperative left middle frontal activation for VF was predictive of naming decline in left TLE after ATLR.
Project description:Gamma ventral capsulotomy (GVC) radiosurgery is intended to minimize side effects while maintaining the efficacy of traditional thermocoagulation techniques for the treatment of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Neuropsychological outcomes are not clear based on previous studies and, therefore, we investigated the effects of GVC on cognitive and motor performance. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted with 16 refractory OCD patients allocated to active treatment (n=8) and sham (n=8) groups. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation including intellectual functioning, attention, verbal and visuospatial learning and memory, visuospatial perception, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and motor functioning was applied at baseline and one year after the procedure. Secondary analysis included all operated patients: eight from the active group, four from the sham group who were submitted to surgery after blind was broken, and five patients from a previous open pilot study (n=5), totaling 17 patients. In the RCT, visuospatial memory (VSM) performance significantly improved in the active group after GVC (p=0.008), and remained stable in the sham group. Considering all patients operated, there was no decline in cognitive or motor functioning after one year of follow-up. Our initial results after 1 year of follow-up suggests that GVC not only is a safe procedure in terms of neuropsychological functioning but in fact may actually improve certain neuropsychological domains, particularly VSM performance, in treatment refractory OCD patients.
Project description:The decrease in verbal fluency in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is usually assumed to reflect a frontal lobe-related cognitive dysfunction, although evidence for this is lacking.To explore its underlying mechanisms, we combined neuropsychological, psychiatric and motor assessments with an examination of brain metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, in 26 patients with PD, 3 months before and after surgery. We divided these patients into two groups, depending on whether or not they exhibited a postoperative deterioration in either phonemic (10 patients) or semantic (8 patients) fluency. We then compared the STN-DBS groups with and without verbal deterioration on changes in clinical measures and brain metabolism.We did not find any neuropsychological change supporting the presence of an executive dysfunction in patients with a deficit in either phonemic or semantic fluency. Similarly, a comparison of patients with or without impaired fluency on brain metabolism failed to highlight any frontal areas involved in cognitive functions. However, greater changes in cognitive slowdown and apathy were observed in patients with a postoperative decrease in verbal fluency.These results suggest that frontal lobe-related cognitive dysfunction could play only a minor role in the postoperative impairment of phonemic or semantic fluency, and that cognitive slowdown and apathy could have a more decisive influence. Furthermore, the phonemic and semantic impairments appeared to result from the disturbance of distinct mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A relevant fraction of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibit a fronto-temporal pattern of cognitive and behavioural disturbances with pronounced deficits in executive functioning and cognitive control of behaviour. Structural imaging shows a decline in fronto-temporal brain areas, but most brain imaging studies did not evaluate cognitive status. We investigated microstructural white matter changes underlying cognitive impairment using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in a large cohort of ALS patients. METHODS: We assessed 72 non-demented ALS patients and 65 matched healthy control subjects using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and DTI. We compared DTI measures of fiber tract integrity using tract-based spatial statistics among ALS patients with and without cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Neuropsychological performance and behavioural measures were correlated with DTI measures. RESULTS: Patients without cognitive impairment demonstrated white matter changes predominantly in motor tracts, including the corticospinal tract and the body of corpus callosum. Those with impairments (ca. 30%) additionally presented significant white matter alterations in extra-motor regions, particularly the frontal lobe. Executive and memory performance and behavioural measures were correlated with fiber tract integrity in large association tracts. CONCLUSION: In non-demented cognitively impaired ALS patients, white matter changes measured by DTI are related to disturbances of executive and memory functions, including prefrontal and temporal regions. In a group comparison, DTI is able to observe differences between cognitively unimpaired and impaired ALS patients.
Project description:Patients with a diffuse glioma may experience cognitive decline or improvement upon resective surgery. To examine the impact of glioma location, cognitive alteration after glioma surgery was quantified and related to voxel-based resection probability maps. A total of 59 consecutive patients (range 18-67 years of age) who had resective surgery between 2006 and 2011 for a supratentorial nonenhancing diffuse glioma (grade I-III, WHO 2007) were included in this observational cohort study. Standardized neuropsychological examination and MRI were obtained before and after surgery. Intraoperative stimulation mapping guided resections towards neurological functions (language, sensorimotor function, and visual fields). Maps of resected regions were constructed in standard space. These resection cavity maps were compared between patients with and without new cognitive deficits (z-score difference >1.5 SD between baseline and one year after resection), using a voxel-wise randomization test and calculation of false discovery rates. Brain regions significantly associated with cognitive decline were classified in standard cortical and subcortical anatomy. Cognitive improvement in any domain occurred in 10 (17%) patients, cognitive decline in any domain in 25 (42%), and decline in more than one domain in 10 (17%). The most frequently affected subdomains were attention in 10 (17%) patients and information processing speed in 9 (15%). Resection regions associated with decline in more than one domain were predominantly located in the right hemisphere. For attention decline, no specific region could be identified. For decline in information speed, several regions were found, including the frontal pole and the corpus callosum. Cognitive decline after resective surgery of diffuse glioma is prevalent, in particular, in patients with a tumor located in the right hemisphere without cognitive function mapping.
Project description:Due to anticipated postoperative neuropsychological sequelae, patients with gliomas infiltrating the corpus callosum rarely undergo tumor resection and mostly present in a poor neurological state. We aimed at investigating the benefit of glioma resection in the corpus callosum, hypothesizing neuropsychological deficits were mainly caused by tumor presence. Between 01/2017 and 1/2020, 21 patients who underwent glioma resection in the corpus callosum were prospectively enrolled into this study. Neuropsychological function was assessed preoperatively, before discharge and after 6 months. Gross total tumor resection was possible in 15 patients, and in 6 patients subtotal tumor resection with a tumor reduction of 97.7% could be achieved. During a median observation time of 12.6 months 9 patients died from glioblastoma after a median of 17 months. Preoperatively, all cognitive domains were affected in up to two thirds of patients, who presented a median KPS of 100% (range 60–100%). After surgery, the proportion of impaired patients increased in all neurocognitive domains. Most interestingly, after 6 months, significantly fewer patients showed impairments in attention, executive functioning, memory and depression, which are domains considered crucial for everyday functionality. Thus, the results of our study strongly support our hypothesis that in patients with gliomas infiltrating the corpus callosum the benefit of tumor resection might outweigh morbidity.