Beyond chemotherapeutics: cisplatin as a temporary buckle to fabricate drug-loaded nanogels.
ABSTRACT: A cisplatin templated nanogel with targeting capability was synthesized, inspired by cisplatin as a chemotherapeutic drug. After crosslinking the natural polysaccharide hyaluronan, a ligand for CD44, cisplatin could be removed by simple dialysis in a salt solution while the withheld drug remains entrapped.
Project description:Inspired by cisplatin's deactivation by glutathione (GSH) in cancer, a GSH responsive nanogel loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) was prepared using hyaluronan as a matrix and cisplatin as a crosslinker. The elevated GSH depletes the cisplatin crosslinker in the nanogel, enhances Dox release and boosts cytotoxicity, thus providing a new GSH responsive platform to reverse cisplatin resistance.
Project description:Targeted drug delivery using multifunctional polymeric nanocarriers is a modern approach for cancer therapy. Our purpose was to prepare targeted nanogels for selective delivery of chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor overexpressing tumor in vivo. Building blocks of such delivery systems consisted of innovative soft block copolymer nanogels with ionic cores serving as a reservoir for cisplatin (loading 35%) and a synthetic analogue of LHRH conjugated to the nanogels via poly(ethylene glycol) spacer. Covalent attachment of (D-Lys6)-LHRH to nanogels was shown to be possible without loss in either the ligand binding affinity or the nanogel drug incorporation ability. LHRH-nanogel accumulation was specific to the LHRH-receptor positive A2780 ovarian cancer cells and not toward LHRH-receptor negative SKOV-3 cells. The LHRH-nanogel cisplatin formulation was more effective and less toxic than equimolar doses of free cisplatin or untargeted nanogels in the treatment of receptor-positive ovarian cancer xenografts in mice. Collectively, the study indicates that LHRH mediated nanogel-cisplatin delivery is a promising formulation strategy for therapy of tumors that express the LHRH receptor.
Project description:We report the design, synthesis and efficacy of a new class of gel-like nano-carrier, or 'nanogel', prepared via templated electrostatic assembly of anionic hyaluronic acid (HA) polysaccharides with the cationic peptide amphiphile poly-L-lysine (PLL). Small molecules and proteins present during nanogel assembly become directly encapsulated within the carrier and are precisely released by tuning the nanogel HA:PLL ratio to control particle swelling. Remarkably, nanogels exhibit versatile and complimentary mechanisms of cargo delivery depending on the biologic context. For example, in mammalian cells, nanogels are rapidly internalized and escape the endosome to both deliver membrane-impermeable protein cargo into the cytoplasm and improve chemotherapeutic potency in drug resistant cancer cells. In bacteria, nanogels permeabilize microbial membranes to sensitize bacterial pathogens to the action of a loaded antibiotic. Thus, peptide nanogels represent a versatile, readily scalable and bio-responsive carrier capable of augmenting and enhancing the utility of a broad range of biomolecular cargoes.
Project description:A series of functional nanogels were synthesized by a step-growth mechanism that involved diisocyanate addition to a modest stoichiometric excess of multi-thiols. Nanogels with sizes less than 10 nm were obtained as room temperature liquids with residual thiol groups used to attach methacrylate functionality. Depending on nanogel structure, bulk nanogel properties varied widely, as did the properties of the nanogel-derived and nanogel-modified polymers. Photopolymerization of the reactive nanogels in combination with a dimethacrylate monomer showed dramatically enhanced reaction rate and conversion compared with the dimethacrylate homopolymer. Polymerization shrinkage/ stress as well as mechanical properties of the polymer networks were controlled by changing the ratio of nanogels and dimethacrylate monomers used in formulations. Thus, this study shows the potential of step-growth nanogels for beneficial changes in resin reactivity and application-based performance.
Project description:A facile and efficient approach for design and synthesis of organic fluorescent nanogels has been developed by using a pre-synthesized polymeric precursor. This strategy is achieved by two key steps: (i) precise synthesis of core?shell star-shaped block copolymers with crosslinkable AIEgen-precursor (AIEgen: aggregation induced emission luminogen) as pending groups on the inner blocks; (ii) gelation of the inner blocks by coupling the AIEgen-precursor moieties to generate AIE-active spacers, and thus, fluorescent nanogel. By using this strategy, a series of star-shaped block copolymers with benzophenone groups pending on the inner blocks were synthesized by grafting from a hexafunctional initiator through atom transfer radical copolymerization (ATRP) of 4-benzoylphenyl methacrylate (BPMA) or 2-(4-benzoylphenoxy)ethyl methacrylate (BPOEMA) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and tert-butyldimethylsilyl-protected 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (ProHEMA) followed by a sequential ATRP to grow PMMA or PProHEMA. The pendent benzophenone groups were coupled by McMurry reaction to generate tetraphenylethylene (TPE) groups which served as AIE-active spacers, affording a fluorescent nanogel. The nanogel showed strong emission not only at aggregated state but also in dilute solution due to the strongly restricted inter- and intramolecular movement of TPE moiety in the crosslinked polymeric network. The nanogel has been used as a fluorescent macromolecular additive to fabricate fluorescent film.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles are known as Pickering emulsions. To date, soft microgel particles as well as inorganic and organic particles have been utilized as Pickering emulsifiers. Although cyclodextrin (CD) works as an attractive emulsion stabilizer through the formation of a CD-oil complex at the oil-water interface, a high concentration of CD is normally required. Our research focuses on an effective Pickering emulsifier based on a soft colloidal CD polymer (CD nanogel) with a unique surface-active property.<h4>Results</h4>CD nanogels were prepared by crosslinking heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin with phenyl diisocyanate and subsequent immersion of the resulting polymer in water. A dynamic light scattering study shows that primary CD nanogels with 30-50 nm diameter assemble into larger CD nanogels with 120 nm diameter by an increase in the concentration of CD nanogel from 0.01 to 0.1 wt %. The CD nanogel has a surface-active property at the air-water interface, which reduces the surface tension of water. The CD nanogel works as an effective Pickering emulsion stabilizer even at a low concentration (0.1 wt %), forming stable oil-in-water emulsions through interfacial adsorption by the CD nanogels.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Soft CD nanogel particles adsorb at the oil-water interface with an effective coverage by forming a strong interconnected network and form a stable Pickering emulsion. The adsorption property of CD nanogels on the droplet surface has great potential to become new microcapsule building blocks with porous surfaces. These microcapsules may act as stimuli-responsive nanocarriers and nanocontainers.
Project description:The use of functional nanogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for effectively scavenging compounds (here, the model drug bupivacaine) is demonstrated using an in vitro cell-based assay. Nanogels containing higher loadings of acidic functional groups or more core-localized functional group distributions bound more bupivacaine, while nanogel size had no significant effect on drug binding. Increasing the dose of nanogel applied also facilitated more bupivacaine binding for all nanogel compositions tested. Binding was driven predominantly by acid-base interactions between the nanogels (anionic) and bupivacaine (cationic) at physiological pH, although both non-specific absorption and hydrophobic partitioning also contributed to drug scavenging. Nanogels exhibited minimal cytotoxicity to multiple cell types and were well tolerated in vivo via peritoneal injections, although larger nanogels caused limited splenic toxicity at higher concentrations. The cell-based assay described herein is found to facilitate more robust drug uptake measurements for nanogels than conventional centrifugation-based assays, in which nanogels can be compressed (and thus drug released) during the measurement.
Project description:We present a strategy for directly and efficiently polymerizing aqueous dispersions of reactive nanogels into covalently crosslinked polymer networks with properties that are determined by the initial chemical and physical nanogel structure. This technique can extend the range of achievable properties and architectures for networks formed in solution, particularly in water where monomer selection for direct polymerization and the final network properties are quite limited. Nanogels were initially obtained from a solution polymerization of a hydrophilic monomethacrylate and either a hydrophilic PEG-based dimethacrylate or a more hydrophobic urethane dimethacrylate, which produced globular particles with diameters of 10-15 nm with remarkably low polydispersity in some cases. Networks derived from a single type of nanogel or a blend of nanogels with different chemistries when dispersed in water gelled within minutes when exposed to low intensity UV light. Modifying the nanogel structure changes both covalent and non-covalent secondary interactions in the crosslinked networks and reveals critical design criteria for the development of networks from highly internally branched, nanoscale prepolymer precursors.
Project description:The success of immunotherapeutic vaccines is often limited by their inability to activate the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-inducing Th1 pathway. We investigated the ability of self-assembled nanogels (CHP or CH-CDex) to activate this pathway, and characterised them chemically and biologically. Once loaded with antigen (ovalbumin, OVA) their OVA encapsulation and dissociation rates suggested the possibility of effective antigen delivery. The DC2.4 dendritic cell line took up either vaccine time-dependently, but both vaccines required CpG DNA for class I MHC presentation. The nanogel vaccines interacted with RAW264.7, a Balb/c mouse-derived macrophage cell line, and co-localised with lysosomes, suggesting their endocytotic internalization in RAW264.7. Both vaccines activated CTLs better than OVA alone. Unlike OVA alone, the nanogel vaccines induced IgG2a antibody production in mice, whereas the former induced IgG1 antibodies. OVA-nanogel delivery to the draining lymph nodes (DLNs) was higher than that for OVA alone, reaching a deeper medullary area. Furthermore, Langerin<sup>+</sup> CD103<sup>+</sup> DCs interacted with the nanogel vaccines effectively, which is a subset of cross-presentation DC, in the DLNs. The nanogel vaccines each had good anti-tumour efficacy in OVA tumour-bearing mice compared with the OVA alone. Thus, CHP and CH-CDex nanogels should be investigated further because of the great potential they offer for immunotherapy.
Project description:Although nanoparticle-based drug delivery formulations can improve the effectiveness and safety of certain anticancer drugs, many drugs, due to their chemical composition, are unsuitable for nanoparticle loading. Here, we describe a targeted nanogel drug delivery platform that can (i) encapsulate a wide range of drug chemotypes, including biological, small molecule, and cytotoxic agents; (ii) display targeting ligands and polymeric coatings on the surface; (iii) enhance drug retention within the nanogel core after photo-cross-linking; and (iv) retain therapeutic activity after lyophilization allowing for long-term storage. For therapeutic studies, we used integrin ?v?3-targeted lipid-coated nanogels with cross-linked human serum albumin in the core for carrying therapeutic cargoes. These particles exhibited potent activity in tumor cell viability assays with drugs of distinct chemotype, including paclitaxel, docetaxel, bortezomib, 17-AAG, sorafenib, sunitinib, bosutinib, and dasatinib. Treatment of orthotopic breast and pancreas tumors in mice with taxane-loaded nanogels produced a 15-fold improvement in antitumor activity relative to Abraxane by blocking both primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. With a modifiable surface and core, the lipid-coated nanogel represents a platform technology that can be easily adapted for specific drug delivery applications to treat a wide range of malignant diseases.