HDL Cholesterol Efflux Does Not Predict Cardiovascular Risk in Hemodialysis Patients.
ABSTRACT: The cardioprotective effect of HDL is thought to be largely determined by its cholesterol efflux capacity, which was shown to inversely correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in populations with normal kidney function. Patients with ESRD suffer an exceptionally high cardiovascular risk not fully explained by traditional risk factors. Here, in a post hoc analysis in 1147 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis who participated in the German Diabetes Dialysis Study (4D Study), we investigated whether the HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is predictive for cardiovascular risk. Efflux capacity was quantified by incubating human macrophage foam cells with apoB-depleted serum. During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 423 patients reached the combined primary end point (composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke), 410 patients experienced cardiac events, and 561 patients died. Notably, in Cox regression analyses, we found no association of efflux capacity with the combined primary end point (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.88 to 1.06; P=0.42), cardiac events (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.02; P=0.11), or all-cause mortality (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.05; P=0.39). In conclusion, HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is not a prognostic cardiovascular risk marker in this cohort of patients with diabetes on hemodialysis.
Project description:High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are involved in the protection against cardiovascular disease by promoting cholesterol efflux, in which accumulated cholesterol is removed from macrophage foam cells. We investigated whether HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is associated with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and graft failure in a cohort of renal transplant recipients (n=495, median follow-up 7.0 years). Cholesterol efflux capacity at baseline was quantified using incubation of human macrophage foam cells with apolipoprotein B-depleted plasma. Baseline efflux capacity was not different in deceased patients and survivors (P=0.60 or P=0.50 for cardiovascular or all-cause mortality, respectively), whereas recipients developing graft failure had lower efflux capacity than those with functioning grafts (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a lower risk for graft failure (P=0.004) but not cardiovascular (P=0.30) or all-cause mortality (P=0.31) with increasing gender-stratified tertiles of efflux capacity. Cox regression analyses adjusted for age and gender showed that efflux capacity was not associated with cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.67 to 1.19; P=0.43). Furthermore, the association between efflux capacity and all-cause mortality (HR, .79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.98; P=0.031) disappeared after further adjustment for potential confounders. However, efflux capacity at baseline significantly predicted graft failure (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.64; P<0.001) independent of apolipoprotein A-I, HDL cholesterol, or creatinine clearance. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that cholesterol efflux capacity from macrophage foam cells is not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality but is a strong predictor of graft failure independent of plasma HDL cholesterol levels in renal transplant recipients.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>HDL particles obtained from patients on chronic hemodialysis exhibit lower cholesterol efflux capacity and are enriched in inflammatory proteins compared with those in healthy individuals. Observed alterations in HDL proteins could be due to effects of CKD, but also may be influenced by the hemodialysis procedure, which stimulates proinflammatory and prothrombotic pathways.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>We compared HDL-associated proteins in 143 participants who initiated hemodialysis within the previous year with those of 110 participants with advanced CKD from the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study. We quantified concentrations of 38 HDL-associated proteins relative to total HDL protein using targeted mass spectrometry assays that included a stable isotope-labeled internal standard. We used linear regression to compare the relative abundances of HDL-associated proteins after adjustment and required a false discovery rate <i>q</i> value ?10% to control for multiple testing. We further assessed the association between hemodialysis initiation and cholesterol efflux capacity in a subset of 80 participants.<h4>Results</h4>After adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and other clinical characteristics, eight HDL-associated proteins met the prespecified false discovery threshold for association. Recent hemodialysis initiation was associated with higher HDL-associated concentrations of serum amyloid A1, A2, and A4; hemoglobin-<i>?</i>; haptoglobin-related protein; cholesterylester transfer protein; phospholipid transfer protein; and apo E. The trend for participants recently initiating hemodialysis for lower cholesterol efflux capacity compared with individuals with advanced CKD did not reach statistical significance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Compared with advanced CKD, hemodialysis initiation within the previous year is associated with higher concentrations of eight HDL proteins related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. Identified associations differ from those recently observed for nondialysis-requiring CKD. Hemodialysis initiation may further impair cholesterol efflux capacity. Further work is needed to clarify the clinical significance of the identified proteins with respect to cardiovascular risk.<h4>Podcast</h4>This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2018_07_25_CJASNPodcast_18_8_W.mp3.
Project description:It is unclear whether high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration plays a causal role in atherosclerosis. A more important factor may be HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, the ability of HDL to accept cholesterol from macrophages, which is a key step in reverse cholesterol transport. We investigated the epidemiology of cholesterol efflux capacity and its association with incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcomes in a large, multiethnic population cohort.We measured HDL cholesterol level, HDL particle concentration, and cholesterol efflux capacity at baseline in 2924 adults free from cardiovascular disease who were participants in the Dallas Heart Study, a probability-based population sample. The primary end point was atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, defined as a first nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or coronary revascularization or death from cardiovascular causes. The median follow-up period was 9.4 years.In contrast to HDL cholesterol level, which was associated with multiple traditional risk factors and metabolic variables, cholesterol efflux capacity had minimal association with these factors. Baseline HDL cholesterol level was not associated with cardiovascular events in an adjusted analysis (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 1.99). In a fully adjusted model that included traditional risk factors, HDL cholesterol level, and HDL particle concentration, there was a 67% reduction in cardiovascular risk in the highest quartile of cholesterol efflux capacity versus the lowest quartile (hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.55). Adding cholesterol efflux capacity to traditional risk factors was associated with improvement in discrimination and reclassification indexes.Cholesterol efflux capacity, a new biomarker that characterizes a key step in reverse cholesterol transport, was inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events in a population-based cohort. (Funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation and others.).
Project description:High-density lipoprotein (HDL) may provide cardiovascular protection by promoting reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages. We hypothesized that the capacity of HDL to accept cholesterol from macrophages would serve as a predictor of atherosclerotic burden.We measured cholesterol efflux capacity in 203 healthy volunteers who underwent assessment of carotid artery intima-media thickness, 442 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease, and 351 patients without such angiographically confirmed disease. We quantified efflux capacity by using a validated ex vivo system that involved incubation of macrophages with apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from the study participants.The levels of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I were significant determinants of cholesterol efflux capacity but accounted for less than 40% of the observed variation. An inverse relationship was noted between efflux capacity and carotid intima-media thickness both before and after adjustment for the HDL cholesterol level. Furthermore, efflux capacity was a strong inverse predictor of coronary disease status (adjusted odds ratio for coronary disease per 1-SD increase in efflux capacity, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.83; P<0.001). This relationship was attenuated, but remained significant, after additional adjustment for the HDL cholesterol level (odds ratio per 1-SD increase, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.90; P=0.002) or apolipoprotein A-I level (odds ratio per 1-SD increase, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.89; P=0.002). Additional studies showed enhanced efflux capacity in patients with the metabolic syndrome and low HDL cholesterol levels who were treated with pioglitazone, but not in patients with hypercholesterolemia who were treated with statins.Cholesterol efflux capacity from macrophages, a metric of HDL function, has a strong inverse association with both carotid intima-media thickness and the likelihood of angiographic coronary artery disease, independently of the HDL cholesterol level. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others.).
Project description:High-density lipoproteins (HDL) exert anti-atherosclerotic effects via reverse cholesterol transport, yet this salutary property is impaired in the setting of inflammation. GlycA, a novel integrated glycosylation marker of five acute phase reactants, is linked to cardiovascular (CV) events. We assessed the hypothesis that GlycA is associated with measures of impaired HDL function and that dysfunctional HDL may contribute to the association between GlycA and incident CV events. Baseline measurements of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL particle concentration (HDL-P), apoliprotein A1 (Apo A1), cholesterol efflux capacity, GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were obtained from the Dallas Heart Study, a multi-ethnic cohort of 2643 adults (median 43 years old; 56% women, 50% black) without cardiovascular disease (CVD). GlycA was derived from nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were followed for first nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or CV death over a median of 12.4 years (<i>n</i> = 197). The correlation between GlycA and hs-CRP was 0.58 (<i>p</i> < 0.0001). In multivariate models with HDL-C, GlycA was directly associated with HDL-P and Apo A1 and inversely associated with cholesterol efflux (standardized beta estimates: 0.08, 0.29, -0.06, respectively; all <i>p</i> ? 0.0004) GlycA was directly associated with incident CV events (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for Q4 vs. Q1: 3.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.99, 5.57). Adjustment for cholesterol efflux mildly attenuated this association (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 3.00, 95% CI 1.75 to 5.13). In a multi-ethnic cohort, worsening inflammation, as reflected by higher GlycA levels, is associated with higher HDL-P and lower cholesterol efflux. Impaired cholesterol efflux likely explains some of the association between GlycA and incident CV events. Further studies are warranted to investigate the impact of inflammation on HDL function and CV disease.
Project description:Recent failures of drugs that raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels to reduce cardiovascular events in clinical trials have led to increased interest in alternative indices of HDL quality, such as cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL quantity, such as HDL particle number. However, no studies have directly compared these metrics in a contemporary population that includes potent statin therapy and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.HDL cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein A-I, cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL particle number were assessed at baseline and 12 months in a nested case-control study of the JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized primary prevention trial that compared rosuvastatin treatment to placebo in individuals with normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but increased C-reactive protein levels. In total, 314 cases of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, arterial revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular death) were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for risk factors evaluated associations between HDL-related biomarkers and incident CVD.Cholesterol efflux capacity was moderately correlated with HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and HDL particle number (Spearman r= 0.39, 0.48, and 0.39 respectively; P<0.001). Baseline HDL particle number was inversely associated with incident CVD (adjusted odds ratio per SD increment [OR/SD], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.86; P<0.001), whereas no significant association was found for baseline cholesterol efflux capacity (OR/SD, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; P=0.28), HDL cholesterol (OR/SD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.02; P=0.08), or apolipoprotein A-I (OR/SD, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.03; P=0.08). Twelve months of rosuvastatin (20 mg/day) did not change cholesterol efflux capacity (average percentage change -1.5%, 95% CI, -13.3 to +10.2; P=0.80), but increased HDL cholesterol (+7.7%), apolipoprotein A-I (+4.3%), and HDL particle number (+5.2%). On-statin cholesterol efflux capacity was inversely associated with incident CVD (OR/SD, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.92; P=0.02), although HDL particle number again emerged as the strongest predictor (OR/SD, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.33-0.77; P<0.001).In JUPITER, cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with incident CVD in individuals on potent statin therapy but not at baseline. For both baseline and on-statin analyses, HDL particle number was the strongest of 4 HDL-related biomarkers as an inverse predictor of incident events and biomarker of residual risk.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Impairment of HDL function has been associated with cardiovascular events in patients with kidney failure. The protein composition of HDLs is altered in these patients, presumably compromising the cardioprotective effects of HDLs. This post hoc study assessed the relation of distinct HDL-bound proteins with cardiovascular outcomes in a dialysis population.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>The concentrations of HDL-associated serum amyloid A (SAA) and surfactant protein B (SP-B) were measured in 1152 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis participating in The German Diabetes Dialysis Study who were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment of 20 mg atorvastatin daily or matching placebo. The association of SAA(HDL) and SP-B(HDL) with cardiovascular outcomes was assessed in multivariate regression models adjusted for known clinical risk factors.<h4>Results</h4>High concentrations of SAA(HDL) were significantly and positively associated with the risk of cardiac events (hazard ratio per 1 SD higher, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.19). High concentrations of SP-B(HDL) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per 1 SD higher, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.19). Adjustment for HDL cholesterol did not affect these associations.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with diabetes on hemodialysis, SAA(HDL) and SP-B(HDL) were related to cardiac events and all-cause mortality, respectively, and they were independent of HDL cholesterol. These findings indicate that a remodeling of the HDL proteome was associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with ESRD.
Project description:(1) Background and Aims: Efforts to reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) by raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) have not been uniformly successful. A more important factor than HDL-C may be cellular cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL, which has been shown to be associated with CAD. In this report, we analyzed the influence of cardiovascular biomarkers and risk factors on cholesterol efflux in a prospective observational study of patients referred to coronary angiography. (2) Methods: HDL-mediated efflux capacity was determined for 2468 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study who were referred to coronary angiography at baseline between 1997 and 2000. Median follow-up time was 9.9 years. Primary and secondary endpoints were cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, respectively. (3) Results: Cholesterol efflux strongly correlated with HDL-related markers including HDL cholesterol, HDL phospholipids, and apolipoproteins AI and AII, as well as HDL particle concentration, which was not seen for low density lipoprotein (LDL) markers including LDL cholesterol and apoB. Cholesterol efflux was associated negatively with C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum amyloid A. Cardiovascular mortality was higher in patients in the lowest cholesterol efflux quartile. This association was weakened, but not fully abolished, after adjustment for HDL cholesterol. (4) Conclusions: We demonstrate that cholesterol efflux was associated with HDL-composition as well as inflammatory burden in patients referred for coronary angiography, and that this inversely predicts cardiovascular mortality independently of HDL cholesterol.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although HDL cholesterol concentrations are strongly and inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease, interventions that raise HDL cholesterol do not reduce risk of coronary heart disease. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity-a prototypical measure of HDL function-has been associated with coronary heart disease after adjusting for HDL cholesterol, but its effect on incident coronary heart disease risk is uncertain.<h4>Methods</h4>We measured cholesterol efflux capacity and assessed its relation with vascular risk factors and incident coronary heart disease events in a nested case-control sample from the prospective EPIC-Norfolk study of 25 639 individuals aged 40-79 years, assessed in 1993-97 and followed up to 2009. We quantified cholesterol efflux capacity in 1745 patients with incident coronary heart disease and 1749 control participants free of any cardiovascular disorders by use of a validated ex-vivo radiotracer assay that involved incubation of cholesterol-labelled J774 macrophages with apoB-depleted serum from study participants.<h4>Findings</h4>Cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol concentration (r=0·40; p<0·0001) and apoA-I concentration (r=0·22; p<0·0001). It was also inversely correlated with type 2 diabetes (r=-0·18; p<0·0001) and positively correlated with alcohol consumption (r=0·12; p<0·0001). In analyses comparing the top and bottom tertiles, cholesterol efflux capacity was significantly and inversely associated with incident coronary heart disease events, independent of age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and alcohol use, waist:hip ratio, BMI, LDL cholesterol concentration, log-triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol or apoA-I concentrations (odds ratio 0·64, 95% CI 0·51-0·80). After a similar multivariable adjustment the risk of incident coronary heart disease was 0·80 (95% CI 0·70-0·90) for a per-SD change in cholesterol efflux capacity.<h4>Interpretation</h4>HDL cholesterol efflux capacity might provide an alternative mechanism for therapeutic modulation of the HDL pathway beyond HDL cholesterol concentration to help reduce risk of coronary heart disease.<h4>Funding</h4>US National Institutes of Health, UK Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease events. Yet, emerging evidence suggests that it is the functional properties of HDL, in particular, reverse cholesterol transport, which is a key protective mechanism mediating cholesterol removal from macrophage cells and reducing plaque lipid content. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) measures the capacity of HDL to perform this function. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to explore the association of CEC and adverse cardiovascular events. <b>Methods:</b> A comprehensive literature review of Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science Core Collection from inception to September 2019 was performed for all studies that examined the association between CEC and cardiovascular outcomes. The primary outcome was adverse cardiovascular events, which were inclusive of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or mortality. <b>Results:</b> A total of 20 trials were included. Compared with low CEC levels, high CEC levels were associated with a 37% lower risk of adverse cardiovascular events (crude RR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.52-0.76; <i>P</i> < 0.00001). Every SD increase of CEC was associated with a 20% lower risk of adverse cardiovascular events (HR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.97; P = 0.02). The association remained significant after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and HDL-C levels (HR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.91; <i>P</i> = 0.004). A significant CEC-endpoint relationship was observed (<i>P</i> = 0.024) such that for every 0.1 unit increase in CEC, there was a 5% reduced risk for adverse cardiovascular events (RR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99). <b>Conclusions:</b> Higher CEC is associated with lower adverse cardiovascular outcomes. These findings warrant further research on whether CEC is merely a biomarker or a mechanism that could be targeted as a pharmacologic intervention for improving clinical outcomes. <b>PROSPERO Registration Number:</b> CRD42020146681; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.