The role of microbiota in compensatory growth of protein-restricted rats.
ABSTRACT: Compensatory growth is a physiological phenomenon found in both humans and animals. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, for the first time, we investigated the role of microbiota in compensatory growth induced by protein restriction using a rat model. Weaned Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low protein diet (L group), a normal protein diet (N group) and a low protein diet for 2 weeks followed by a normal protein diet (LN group). The results showed that in contrast with the inhibited growth of rats in the L group, compensatory growth was observed in the LN group. Meanwhile, rats in the LN group had increased concentrations of total short chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate, and an altered bacterial composition with modified abundances of Peptostreptococcaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae in the colonic content. Furthermore, gene expression analysis indicated that the rats that experienced compensatory growth had improved barrier function and innate immune function in the colon. Our data revealed the importance of colonic microbiota in achieving compensatory growth.
Project description:We previously reported that protein-restricted rats experienced compensatory growth when they were switched to a normal protein diet (NPD). This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene expression and microbiome in the jejunum of compensatory-growth rats. Weaned Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to an N group, an LN group and an L group. The rats in the L and N groups were fed a low protein diet (LPD) and the NPD respectively. The rats in the LN group were fed with the LPD for 2 weeks, followed by the NPD. The experiment lasted 70 days, and the rats were sacrificed for sampling on days 14, 28 and 70 to determine the jejunal morphology, microbiome and gene expression related to digestive, absorptive and barrier function. The results showed that, although rats in the LN group had temporarily impaired morphology and gene expression in the jejunum on day 14 in response to the LPD, they had improved jejunal morphology and gene expression related to jejunal function on day 28 compared to rats in the N group. This improvement might promote compensatory growth of rats. However, lower expression of genes related to nutrient absorption and undifferentiated villous height (VH) were observed in the jejunum of rats in the LN group on day 70. In contrast, rats in the L group had lower VH on day 28 and day 70, while the expression of absorptive genes increased on day 28 compared to rats in the N group. Additionally, dramatic microbial changes in the jejunum of compensatory-growth rats were observed, principally for Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus. Moreover, the abundance of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus significantly correlated with gene expression in the jejunum as revealed by the correlation analysis.
Project description:Infant microbiota is influenced by numerous factors, such as delivery mode, environment, prematurity and diet (breast milk or formula) and last but not least, the diet composition. In the diet composition, protein and carbohydrate are very important for the growth of microbiota, many infant fomulas (different ratio protein/carbohydrate) can regulate the development of gut microbiota by different metabolism. The effect of low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula on the establishment of microbiota remains unclear, and the effect of human breast milk on the gut microbiota of the rats has also not been reported.In a 7 d intervention, a total of 36 neonatal SD rats (14 d old) were randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) breast-fed group (A group); (2) low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula-fed group (B group); (3) human breast milk-fed group (C group). After 7 days, we selected 6 rats at random from each group to study. Microbial composition in the contents of the large intestines was analysed by Miseq Sequencing. Significantly different (p<0.05) microbial colonisation patterns were observed in the large intestines of breast-fed group from low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula-fed and human breast milk-fed rats, but the microbiota of low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula-fed group and human breast milk-fed group have high similarity. At the phylum level, the absolute quantity of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (p<0.001) significantly differentiated in breast-fed group from low- protein, high- carbohydrate infant formula-fed and human breast milk-fed groups. Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae were the 4 top families in breast-fed group, but the top 4 families in low-protein, high- carbohydrate infant formula-fed and human breast milk-fed groups were the same, which were Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Porphyromonadaceae and Lachnospiraceae. At the genus level, Bacteroides was the most abundant division, their OTUS abundance in three groups was 14.91%, 35.94%, 43.24% respectively.This study showed that infant formula closer resembling human milk was more different than rats' breast milk and led to a microbiota profile similar to that for human breast milk-fed neonates. The finding could support a new thinking to develop infant formulas, and provide much more details than what is known previously.
Project description:Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by colonic microbiota from dietary carbohydrates and proteins that reach the colon. It has been suggested that SCFA may promote obesity via increased colonic energy availability. Recent studies suggest obese humans have higher faecal SCFA than lean, but it is unclear whether this difference is due to increased SCFA production or reduced absorption.To compare rectal SCFA absorption, dietary intake and faecal microbial profile in lean (LN) versus overweight and obese (OWO) individuals.Eleven LN and eleven OWO individuals completed a 3-day diet record, provided a fresh faecal sample and had SCFA absorption measured using the rectal dialysis bag method. The procedures were repeated after 2 weeks.Age-adjusted faecal SCFA concentration was significantly higher in OWO than LN individuals (81.3±7.4 vs 64.1±10.4?mmol?kg(-1), P=0.023). SCFA absorption (24.4±0.8% vs 24.7±1.2%, respectively, P=0.787) and dietary intakes were similar between the groups, except for a higher fat intake in OWO individuals. However, fat intake did not correlate with SCFAs or bacterial abundance. OWO individuals had higher relative Firmicutes abundance (83.1±4.1 vs 69.5±5.8%, respectively, P=0.008) and a higher Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P=0.023) than LN individuals. There was a positive correlation between Firmicutes and faecal SCFA within the whole group (r=0.507, P=0.044), with a stronger correlation after adjusting for available carbohydrate (r=0.615, P=0.005).The higher faecal SCFA in OWO individuals is not because of differences in SCFA absorption or diet. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that OWO individuals produce more colonic SCFA than LN individuals because of differences in colonic microbiota. However, further studies are needed to prove this.
Project description:The gut microbiota interacts with the host gut environment, which is influenced by such factors as sex, age, and host diet. These factors induce changes in the microbial composition. The aim of this study was to identify differences in the gut microbiome of Fisher-344 (F344) rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), depending on their age and sex. Fecal microbiomes from 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old, and 2-year-old both male and female rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans) were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states, and enterotype (E) assessment. Moreover, the effect of an HFD on colonic epithelial cells was measured using real-time quantitative PCR. Alpha diversity decreased in the HFD group regardless of age and sex. Based on the enterotype clustering of the whole fecal microbiome, clusters from male rats were divided into E1 and E2 enterotypes, while clusters from female rats were divided into E1, E2, and E3 enterotypes. The female E3 group showed a significantly high abundance in the <i>Ruminococcus</i> genus and expression of <i>Tlr2</i> mRNA, which may reflect compensation to the HFD. Moreover, the female E3 group showed a lower ratio of opportunistic pathogenic strains to commensal strains compared to the female E2 group. Administration of an HFD influenced the rat fecal microbiota in all assessed age groups, which could be further differentiated by sex. In particular, female rats showed a compensatory enterotype response to an HFD compared to male rats.
Project description:<h4>Background/objectives</h4>High dietary fibre intakes may protect against obesity by influencing colonic fermentation and the colonic microbiota. Though, recent studies suggest that increased colonic fermentation contributes to adiposity. Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota. Previous research has not evaluated dietary intakes, body mass index (BMI), faecal microbiota and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the same cohort. Our objectives were to compare dietary intakes, faecal SCFA concentrations and gut microbial profiles in healthy lean (LN, BMI⩽25) and overweight or obese (OWOB, BMI>25) participants.<h4>Design</h4>We collected demographic information, 3-day diet records, physical activity questionnaires and breath and faecal samples from 94 participants of whom 52 were LN and 42 OWOB.<h4>Results</h4>Dietary intakes and physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups. OWOB participants had higher faecal acetate (P=0.05), propionate (P=0.03), butyrate (P=0.05), valerate (P=0.03) and total short chain fatty acid (SCFA; P=0.02) concentrations than LN. No significant differences in Firmicutes to Bacteroides/Prevotella (F:B) ratio was observed between groups. However, in the entire cohort, Bacteroides/Prevotella counts were negatively correlated with faecal total SCFA (r=-0.32, P=0.002) and F:B ratio was positively correlated with faecal total SCFA (r=0.42, P<0.0001). Principal component analysis identified distinct gut microbiota and SCFA-F:B ratio components, which together accounted for 59% of the variation. F:B ratio loaded with the SCFA and not with the microbiota suggesting that SCFA and F:B ratio vary together and may be interrelated.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results support the hypothesis that colonic fermentation patterns may be altered, leading to different faecal SCFA concentrations in OWOB compared with LN humans. More in-depth studies looking at the metabolic fate of SCFA produced in LN and OWOB participants are needed in order to determine the role of SCFA in obesity.
Project description:Iron (Fe) deficiency anemia is a global health concern and Fe fortification and supplementation are common corrective strategies. Fe is essential not only for the human host but also for nearly all gut bacteria. We studied the impact of Fe deficiency and Fe repletion on the gut microbiota in rats. Weanling rats were fed an Fe-deficient diet for 24 d and then repleted for 13 d with FeSO? (n = 15) or electrolytic Fe (n = 14) at 10 and 20 mg Fe · kg diet?¹. In addition, one group of rats (n = 8) received the Fe-deficient diet and one group (n = 3) received a Fe-sufficient control diet for all 37 d. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after the depletion and repletion periods, and colonic tissues were examined histologically. Microbial metabolite composition in cecal water was measured and fecal samples were analyzed for microbial composition with temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and qPCR. Compared to Fe-sufficient rats, Fe-deficient rats had significantly lower concentrations of cecal butyrate (-87%) and propionate (-72%) and the abundance of dominant species was strongly modified, including greater numbers of lactobacilli and Enterobacteriaceae and a large significant decrease of the Roseburia spp./E. rectale group, a major butyrate producer. Repletion with 20 mg FeSO? · kg diet?¹ significantly increased cecal butyrate concentrations and partially restored bacterial populations compared to Fe-deficient rats at endpoint. The effects on the gut microbiota were stronger in rats repleted with FeSO? than in rats repleted with electrolytic Fe, suggesting ferrous Fe may be more available for utilization by the gut microbiota than elemental Fe. Repletion with FeSO? significantly increased neutrophilic infiltration of the colonic mucosa compared to Fe-deficient rats. In conclusion, Fe depletion and repletion strongly affect the composition and metabolic activity of rat gut microbiota.
Project description:SCOPE:The long-lasting consequences of nutritional programming during the early phase of life have become increasingly evident. The effects of maternal nutrition on the developing intestine are still underexplored. METHODS AND RESULTS:In this study, we observed (1) altered microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content, and (2) differential gene expression in the intestinal wall in 2-week-old mouse pups born from dams exposed to a Western-style (WS) diet during the perinatal period. A sexually dimorphic effect was found for the differentially expressed genes in the offspring of WS diet-exposed dams but no differences between male and female pups were found for the microbiota composition. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and gene expression data revealed that the maternal WS diet independently affected gene expression and microbiota composition. However, the abundance of bacterial families not affected by the WS diet (Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Lachnospiraceae) correlated with the expression of genes playing a key role in intestinal development and functioning (e.g. Pitx2 and Ace2). CONCLUSION:Our data reveal that maternal consumption of a WS diet during the perinatal period alters both gene expression and microbiota composition in the intestinal tract of 2-week-old offspring.
Project description:The ability to predictably engineer the composition of bowel microbial communities (microbiota) using dietary components is important because of the reported associations of altered microbiota composition with medical conditions. In a synecological study, weanling conventional Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old) were fed a basal diet (BD) or a diet supplemented with resistant starch (RS) at 5%, 2.5%, or 1.25% for 28 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) profiles in the colonic digesta showed that rats fed RS had altered microbiota compositions due to blooms of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The altered microbiota was associated with changes in colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, colonic-tissue gene expression (Gsta2 and Ela1), and host physiology (serum metabolite profiles and colonic goblet cell numbers). Comparisons between germ-free and conventional rats showed that transcriptional and serum metabolite differences were mediated by the microbiota and were not the direct result of diet composition. Altered transcriptomic and physiological responses may reflect the young host's attempts to maintain homeostasis as a consequence of exposure to a new collection of bacteria and their associated biochemistry.
Project description:High protein diet alter gut microbiota composition and activity. The objective of this study is to determine the consequences of a high protein diet for the colonic epithelium in rats. Overall design: Wistar male rats were fed a normal or a high protein diet (NP and HP) during 15 days. At the end of the dietary intervention, colonocytes were isolated and RNA extracted.
Project description:Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.