A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864) species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa.
ABSTRACT: The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE) at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to Pseudobarbus afer across the species' distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i) the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii) the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii) the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv) the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to Pseudobarbus phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to Pseudobarbus afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the Pseudobarbus afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for Pseudobarbus afer s.s (Mandela lineage), revalidate Pseudobarbus senticeps (Krom lineage) as a distinct species, and describe a new species Pseudobarbus swartzi (St Francis lineage). The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both Pseudobarbus afer and Pseudobarbus swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger) scales (25-33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10-12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales) and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate Pseudobarbus senticeps from Pseudobarbus afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye. Pseudobarbus afer s.s differs from Pseudobarbus swartzisp. n. by possession of fewer scale rows along the lateral line (29-35, mode 32 vs 34-37, mode 36 in Pseudobarbus swartzi), fewer scales around the caudal peduncle (12-16, mode 12 vs 13-17, mode 16 in Pseudobarbus swartzi) and a distinct mesh or net-like pigmentation pattern on latero-ventral scales.
Project description:Pseudobarbusverloreni, a new species, is described from material collected in the Verlorenvlei River system on the west coast of South Africa. It differs from its congeners (except Pseudobarbusskeltoni, Pseudobarbusburchelli, and Pseudobarbusburgi) by the presence of two pairs of oral barbels. Pseudobarbusverloreni sp. n. can be distinguished from the three currently described double barbeled Pseudobarbus species by the following combination of characters: pigment pattern, generally deeper body relative to standard length, a longer intestine associated with the deeper body form, shorter snout relative to head length, and much shorter anterior barbels relative to head length. The new species is distinguished from Pseudobarbusburgi in the neighbouring Berg River system by its longer head and longer pre-dorsal length. It seems as if Pseudobarbusverloreni sp. n. has been extirpated from the Langvlei River system and face several threats to its survival in the Verlorenvlei River system.
Project description:This study used phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences to investigate genetic diversity within three broadly co-distributed freshwater fish genera (Galaxias, Pseudobarbus and Sandelia) to shed some light on the processes that promoted lineage diversification and shaped geographical distribution patterns. A total of 205 sequences of Galaxias, 177 sequences of Pseudobarbus and 98 sequences of Sandelia from 146 localities across nine river systems in the south-western Cape Floristic Region (South Africa) were used. The data were analysed using phylogenetic and haplotype network methods and divergence times for the clades retrieved were estimated using *BEAST. Nine extremely divergent (3.5-25.3%) lineages were found within Galaxias. Similarly, deep phylogeographic divergence was evident within Pseudobarbus, with four markedly distinct (3.8-10.0%) phylogroups identified. Sandelia had two deeply divergent (5.5-5.9%) lineages, but seven minor lineages with strong geographical congruence were also identified. The Miocene-Pliocene major sea-level transgression and the resultant isolation of populations in upland refugia appear to have driven widespread allopatric divergence within the three genera. Subsequent coalescence of rivers during the Pleistocene major sea-level regression as well as intermittent drainage connections during wet periods are proposed to have facilitated range expansion of lineages that currently occur across isolated river systems. The high degree of genetic differentiation recovered from the present and previous studies suggest that freshwater fish diversity within the south-western CFR may be vastly underestimated, and taxonomic revisions are required.
Project description:A new species of algae-scraping cyprinid of the genus Capoeta Valenciennes, 1842 is described from the Kheyroud River, located in the southern part of the Caspian Sea basin in Iran. The species differs from other members of this genus by a combination of the following characters: one pair of barbels; predorsal length equal to postdorsal length; maxillary barbel slightly smaller than eye's horizontal diameter and reach to posterior margin of orbit; intranasal length slightly shorter than snout length; lateral line with 46-54 scales; 7-9 scales between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line, and 6-7 scales between anal-fin origin and lateral line.