The X-linked juvenile retinoschisis protein retinoschisin is a novel regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and apoptosis in the retina.
ABSTRACT: X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a hereditary retinal dystrophy in young males, caused by mutations in the RS1 gene. The function of the encoded protein, termed retinoschisin, and the molecular mechanisms underlying XLRS pathogenesis are still unresolved, although a direct interaction partner of the secreted retinoschisin, the retinal Na/K-ATPase, was recently identified. Earlier gene expression studies in retinoschisin-deficient (Rs1h-/Y ) mice provided a first indication of pathological up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling in disease pathogenesis. To further investigate the role for retinoschisin in MAP kinase regulation, we exposed Y-79 cells and murine Rs1h-/Y retinae to recombinant retinoschisin and the XLRS-associated mutant RS1-C59S. Although normal retinoschisin stably bound to retinal cells, RS1-C59S exhibited a strongly reduced binding affinity. Simultaneously, exposure to normal retinoschisin significantly reduced phosphorylation of C-RAF and MAP kinases ERK1/2 in Y-79 cells and murine Rs1h-/Y retinae. Expression of MAP kinase target genes C-FOS and EGR1 was also down-regulated in both model systems. Finally, retinoschisin treatment decreased pro-apoptotic BAX-2 transcript levels in Y-79 cells and Rs1h-/Y retinae. Upon retinoschisin treatment, these cells showed increased resistance against apoptosis, reflected by decreased caspase-3 activity (in Y-79 cells) and increased photoreceptor survival (in Rs1h-/Y retinal explants). RS1-C59S did not influence C-RAF or ERK1/2 activation, C-FOS or EGR1 expression, or apoptosis. Our data imply that retinoschisin is a novel regulator of MAP kinase signalling and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect on retinal cells. We therefore discuss that disturbances of MAP kinase signalling by retinoschisin deficiency could be an initial step in XLRS pathogenesis.
Project description:Mutations in the <i>RS1</i> gene cause X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS), a hereditary retinal dystrophy. We recently showed that retinoschisin, the protein encoded by <i>RS1</i>, regulates ERK signaling and apoptosis in retinal cells. In this study, we explored an influence of retinoschisin on the functionality of the Na/K-ATPase, its interaction partner at retinal plasma membranes. We show that retinoschisin binding requires the ?2-subunit of the Na/K-ATPase, whereas the ?-subunit is exchangeable. Our investigations revealed no effect of retinoschisin on Na/K-ATPase-mediated ATP hydrolysis and ion transport. However, we identified an influence of retinoschisin on Na/K-ATPase-regulated signaling cascades and Na/K-ATPase localization. In addition to the known ERK deactivation, retinoschisin treatment of retinoschisin-deficient (<i>Rs1h<sup>-/Y</sup></i> ) murine retinal explants decreased activation of Src, an initial transmitter in Na/K-ATPase signal transduction, and of Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling marker Camk2. Immunohistochemistry on murine retinae revealed an overlap of the retinoschisin-Na/K-ATPase complex with proteins involved in Na/K-ATPase signaling, such as caveolin, phospholipase C, Src, and the IP3 receptor. Finally, retinoschisin treatment altered Na/K-ATPase localization in photoreceptors of <i>Rs1h<sup>-/Y</sup></i> retinae. Taken together, our results suggest a regulatory effect of retinoschisin on Na/K-ATPase signaling and localization, whereas Na/K-ATPase-dysregulation caused by retinoschisin deficiency could represent an initial step in XLRS pathogenesis.
Project description:X linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is caused by mutations in RS1 which encodes the discoidin domain protein retinoschisin, secreted by photoreceptors and bipolar cells. Missense mutations occur throughout the gene and some of these are known to interfere with protein secretion. This study was designed to investigate the functional consequences of missense mutations at different locations in retinoschisin.The authors developed a structural model of the retinoschisin discoidin domain and used this to predict the effects of missense mutations. They expressed disease associated mutations and found that those affecting conserved residues prevented retinoschisin secretion. Most of the remaining mutations cluster within a series of loops on the surface of the beta barrel structure and do not interfere with secretion, suggesting this region may be a ligand binding site. They also demonstrated that wild type retinoschisin octamerises and associates with the cell surface. A subgroup of secreted mutations reduce oligomerisation (C59S, C219G, C223R).It is suggested that there are three different molecular mechanisms which lead to XLRS: mutations interfering with secretion, mutations interfering with oligomerisation, and mutations that allow secretion and oligomerisation but interfere with retinoschisin function. The authors conclude that binding of oligomerised retinoschisin at the cell surface is important in its presumed role in cell adhesion.
Project description:Gene mutations that encode retinoschisin (RS1) cause X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), a form of juvenile macular and retinal degeneration that affects males. RS1 is an adhesive protein which is proposed to preserve the structural and functional integrity of the retina, but there is very little evidence of the mechanism by which protein changes are related to XLRS disease. Here, we report molecular modeling of the RS1 protein and consider perturbations caused by mutations found in human XLRS subjects. In 60 XLRS patients who share 27 missense mutations, we then evaluated possible correlations of the molecular modeling with retinal function as determined by the electroretinogram (ERG) a- and b-waves. The b/a-wave ratio reflects visual-signal transfer in retina. We sorted the ERG b/a-ratios by patient age and by the mutation impact on protein structure. The majority of RS1 mutations caused minimal structure perturbation and targeted the protein surface. These patients' b/a-ratios were similar across younger and older subjects. Maximum structural perturbations from either the removal or insertion of cysteine residues or changes in the hydrophobic core were associated with greater difference in the b/a-ratio with age, with a significantly smaller ratio at younger ages, analogous to the ERG changes with age observed in mice with no RS1-protein expression due to a recombinant RS1-knockout gene. The molecular modeling suggests an association between the predicted structural alteration and/or damage to retinoschisin and the severity of XLRS as measured by the ERG analogous to the RS1-knockout mouse.
Project description:X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS, MIM 312700) is a common early onset macular degeneration in males characterized by mild to severe loss in visual acuity, splitting of retinal layers, and a reduction in the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG). The RS1 gene (MIM 300839) associated with the disease encodes retinoschisin, a 224 amino acid protein containing a discoidin domain as the major structural unit, an N-terminal cleavable signal sequence, and regions responsible for subunit oligomerization. Retinoschisin is secreted from retinal cells as a disulphide-linked homo-octameric complex which binds to the surface of photoreceptors and bipolar cells to help maintain the integrity of the retina. Over 190 disease-causing mutations in the RS1 gene are known with most mutations occurring as non-synonymous changes in the discoidin domain. Cell expression studies have shown that disease-associated missense mutations in the discoidin domain cause severe protein misfolding and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum, mutations in the signal sequence result in aberrant protein synthesis, and mutations in regions flanking the discoidin domain cause defective disulphide-linked subunit assembly, all of which produce a non-functional protein. Knockout mice deficient in retinoschisin have been generated and shown to display most of the characteristic features found in XLRS patients. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) mediated delivery of the normal RS1 gene to the retina of young knockout mice result in long-term retinoschisin expression and rescue of retinal structure and function providing a 'proof of concept' that gene therapy may be an effective treatment for XLRS.
Project description:AIM:To identify the mutations in RS1 gene associated with typical phenotype of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) and a rare condition of concomitant glaucoma. METHODS:Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed in the proband. The coding regions of the RS1 gene that encode retinoschisin were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced. RESULTS:The proband showed a typical phenotype of XLRS with large peripheral retinal schisis in both eyes, involving the macula and combined with foveal cystic change, reducing visual acuity. A typical phenotype of recurrent glaucoma with high intraocular pressure (IOP) and reduced visual field was also demonstrated with the patient. Mutation analysis of RS1 gene revealed R102W (c.304C>T) mutations in the affected male, and his mother was proved to be a carrier with the causative mutation and another synonymous polymorphism (c.576C>CT). CONCLUSION:We identified the genetic variations of a Chinese family with typical phenotype of XLRS and glaucoma. The severe XLRS phenotypes associated with R102W mutations reveal that the mutation determines a notable alteration in the function of the retinoschisin protein. Identification of the disease-causing mutation is beneficial for future clinical references.
Project description:Gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases has been shown to ameliorate functional and structural defects in both animal models and in human clinical trials. X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is an early-age onset macular dystrophy resulting from loss of an extracellular matrix protein (RS1). In preparation for a human clinical gene therapy trial, we conducted a dose-range efficacy study of the clinical vector, a self-complementary AAV delivering a human retinoschisin (RS1) gene under control of the RS1 promoter and an interphotoreceptor binding protein enhancer (AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS), in the retinoschisin knockout (Rs1-KO) mouse. The therapeutic vector at 1?×?10(6) to 2.5?×?10(9) (1E6-2.5E9) vector genomes (vg)/eye or vehicle was administered to one eye of 229 male Rs1-KO mice by intravitreal injection at 22?±?3 days postnatal age (PN). Analysis of retinal function (dark-adapted electroretinogram, ERG), structure (cavities and outer nuclear layer thickness) by in vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography, and retinal immunohistochemistry (IHC) for RS1 was done 3-4 months and/or 6-9 months postinjection (PI). RS1 IHC staining was dose dependent across doses ?1E7 vg/eye, and the threshold for significant improvement in all measures of retinal structure and function was 1E8 vg/eye. Higher doses, however, did not produce additional improvement. At all doses showing efficacy, RS1 staining in Rs1-KO mouse was less than that in wild-type mice. Improvement in the ERG and RS1 staining was unchanged or greater at 6-9 months than at 3-4 months PI. This study demonstrates that vitreal administration of AAV8 scRS/IRBPhRS produces significant improvement in retinal structure and function in the mouse model of XLRS over a vector dose range that can be extended to a human trial. It indicates that a fully normal level of RS1 expression is not necessary for a therapeutic effect.
Project description:X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS), linked to mutations in the RS1 gene, is a degenerative retinopathy with a retinal splitting phenotype. We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from patients to study XLRS in a 3D retinal organoid in vitro differentiation system. This model recapitulates key features of XLRS including retinal splitting, defective retinoschisin production, outer-segment defects, abnormal paxillin turnover, and impaired ER-Golgi transportation. RS1 mutation also affects the development of photoreceptor sensory cilia and results in altered expression of other retinopathy-associated genes. CRISPR/Cas9 correction of the disease-associated C625T mutation normalizes the splitting phenotype, outer-segment defects, paxillin dynamics, ciliary marker expression, and transcriptome profiles. Likewise, mutating RS1 in control hiPSCs produces the disease-associated phenotypes. Finally, we show that the C625T mutation can be repaired precisely and efficiently using a base-editing approach. Taken together, our data establish 3D organoids as a valid disease model.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to report a novel mutation in the retinoschisin 1 (RS1) gene in a Caucasian family affected by X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) and to describe the long-term modification of retinal structure. Two brothers with an early onset maculopathy were diagnosed with XLRS. Fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and electroretinogram analyses were performed. Their sister was also examined. All subjects were screened for mutations in the RS1 gene. XLRS patients demonstrated a marked reduction of best-corrected visual acuity. SD-OCT scans reported a cystic degeneration primarily involving the inner nuclear layer, though some cysts were detected in the outer plexiform layer and in the ganglion cell layer. During the ten-year follow-up, a progressive retinal thickening and coalescence of the cysts was observed. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation (p.Ile212Asn) in the RS1 gene in both XLRS patients, whereas their sister was not a genetic carrier. Several mutations of the RS1 gene were recognized to be responsible for XLRS. Although the correspondence between genotype and phenotype is still under debate, is reasonable that siblings affected by XLRS could share other genetic and/or epigenetic factors capable to influence clinical course of the disease.
Project description:X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a hereditary retinal dystrophy, caused by mutations in the RS1 gene which encodes the secreted protein retinoschisin. In recent years, several molecules have been proposed to interact with retinoschisin, including the retinal Na/K-ATPase, L-voltage gated Ca2+ channels, and specific sugars. We recently showed that the retinal Na/K-ATPase consisting of subunits ATP1A3 and ATP1B2 is essential for anchoring retinoschisin to plasma membranes and identified the glycosylated ATP1B2 subunit as the direct interaction partner for retinoschisin. We now aimed to precisely map the retinoschisin binding domain(s) in ATP1B2. In general, retinoschisin binding was not affected after selective elimination of individual glycosylation sites via site-directed mutagenesis as well as after full enzymatic deglycosylation of ATP1B2. Applying the interface prediction tool PresCont, two putative protein-protein interaction patches ("patch I" and "patch II") consisting each of four hydrophobic amino acid stretches on the ATP1B2 surface were identified. These were consecutively altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Functional assays with the ATP1B2 patch mutants identified patch II and, specifically, the associated amino acid at position 240 (harboring a threonine in ATP1B2) as crucial for retinoschisin binding to ATP1B2. These and previous results led us to suggest an induced-fit binding mechanism for the interaction between retinoschisin and the Na/K-ATPase, which is dependent on threonine 240 in ATP1B2 allowing the accommodation of hyperflexible retinoschisin spikes by the associated protein-protein interaction patch on ATP1B2.
Project description:X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal degenerative disorder caused by mutations in RS1 gene leading to splitting of retinal layers (schisis) which impairs visual signal processing. Retinoschisin (RS1) is an adhesive protein which is secreted predominantly by the photoreceptors and bipolar cells as a double-octameric complex. In general, XLRS patients show wide clinical heterogeneity, presenting practical challenges in disease management. Though researchers have attempted various approaches to offer an explanation for clinical heterogeneity, the molecular basis has not been understood yet. Therefore, this study aims at establishing a link between the phenotype and genotype based on the molecular mechanism exerted by the mutations. Twenty seven XLRS patients were enrolled, of which seven harboured novel mutations. The mutant constructs were genetically engineered and their secretion profiles were studied by in vitro cell culture experiments. Based on the secretory profile, the patients were categorized as either secreted or non-secreted group. Various clinical parameters such as visual acuity, location of schisis, foveal thickness and ERG parameters were compared between the two groups and control. Although the two groups showed severe disease phenotype in comparison with control, there was no significant difference between the two XLRS groups. However, the secreted group exhibited relatively severe disease indications. On the other hand molecular analysis suggests that most of the RS1 mutations result in intracellular retention of retinoschisin. Hence, clinical parameters of patients with non-secreted profile were analyzed which in turn revealed wide variability even within the group. Altogether, our results indicate that disease severity is not merely dependent on secretory profile of the mutations. Thus, we hypothesize that intricate molecular detail such as the precise localization of mutant protein in the cell as well as its ability to assemble into a functionally active oligomer might largely influence disease severity among XLRS patients.