Polyamines regulate their synthesis by inducing expression and blocking degradation of ODC antizyme.
ABSTRACT: Polyamines are essential organic cations with multiple cellular functions. Their synthesis is controlled by a feedback regulation whose main target is ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. In mammals, ODC has been shown to be inhibited and targeted for ubiquitin-independent degradation by ODC antizyme (AZ). The synthesis of mammalian AZ was reported to involve a polyamine-induced ribosomal frameshifting mechanism. High levels of polyamine therefore inhibit new synthesis of polyamines by inducing ODC degradation. We identified a previously unrecognized sequence in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding an orthologue of mammalian AZ. We show that synthesis of yeast AZ (Oaz1) involves polyamine-regulated frameshifting as well. Degradation of yeast ODC by the proteasome depends on Oaz1. Using this novel model system for polyamine regulation, we discovered another level of its control. Oaz1 itself is subject to ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the proteasome. Degradation of Oaz1, however, is inhibited by polyamines. We propose a model, in which polyamines inhibit their ODC-mediated biosynthesis by two mechanisms, the control of Oaz1 synthesis and inhibition of its degradation.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis in humans. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis. Excessive accumulation of polyamines has a cytotoxic effect on cells and elevated level of ODC activity is associated with cancer development. To maintain normal cellular proliferation, regulation of polyamine synthesis is imposed by Antizyme1 (AZ1). The expression of AZ1 is induced by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism in response to increased intracellular polyamines. AZ1 regulates polyamine homeostasis by inactivating ODC activity and enhancing its degradation. Here, we report the structure of human ODC in complex with N-terminally truncated AZ1 (cAZ1). The structure shows cAZ1 binding to ODC, which occludes the binding of a second molecule of ODC to form the active homodimer. Consequently, the substrate binding site is disrupted and ODC is inactivated. Structural comparison shows that the binding of cAZ1 to ODC causes a global conformational change of ODC and renders its C-terminal region flexible, therefore exposing this region for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Our structure provides the molecular basis for the inactivation of ODC by AZ1 and sheds light on how AZ1 promotes its degradation.
Project description:Cellular polyamines are regulated by a unique feedback mechanism involving ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antizyme. The synthesis of mammalian antizyme requires a programmed translational frameshift event induced by polyamines. Antizyme represses ODC, a key enzyme for polyamine synthesis, through accelerating enzyme degradation by the 26 S proteasome. Antizyme also inhibits the cellular uptake of polyamines. In the present study we isolated two distinct zebrafish (Danio rerio) antizyme cDNA clones (AZS and AZL) from an embryonic library. Their sequences revealed that both clones required translational frameshifting for expression. Taking account of +1 frameshifting, AZS and AZL products were 214 and 218 residues long respectively and shared 51.8% amino acid identity. In rabbit reticulocyte lysates, both mRNA species were translated through spermidine-induced frameshifting. The presence of the two antizyme mRNA species in embryos, adult fish and a cultured cell line was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. The ratio of AZS mRNA to AZL mRNA in the adult fish was 1.8-fold higher than in the embryos. Whole-mount hybridization in situ demonstrated that both mRNA species are expressed in every tissue in embryo, but predominantly in the central nervous system and the eyes. Bacterial expression products of both cDNA species inhibited ODC activity, but only the AZS product accelerated ODC degradation in vitro. These results show that both zebrafish antizymes are induced by polyamines but their mRNA species are expressed differently during development. The difference in activities on ODC degradation suggests their functional divergence.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a ubiquitin-independent substrate of the proteasome, is a homodimeric protein with a rate-limiting function in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines regulate ODC levels by a feedback mechanism mediated by ODC antizyme (OAZ). Higher cellular polyamine levels trigger the synthesis of OAZ and also inhibit its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. OAZ binds ODC monomers and targets them to the proteasome. Here, we report that polyamines, aside from their role in the control of OAZ synthesis and stability, directly enhance OAZ-mediated ODC degradation by the proteasome. Using a stable mutant of OAZ, we show that polyamines promote ODC degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells even when OAZ levels are not changed. Furthermore, polyamines stimulated the in vitro degradation of ODC by the proteasome in a reconstituted system using purified components. In these assays, spermine shows a greater effect than spermidine. By contrast, polyamines do not have any stimulatory effect on the degradation of ubiquitin-dependent substrates.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine. The polyamines are essential for cell growth, but at elevated levels they may be tumorigenic, toxic, or may induce apoptosis. Therefore, ODC activity is highly regulated. It is induced when cells are stimulated to grow, and it is subjected to feedback inhibition by the polyamines. By causing ribosomal frameshifting, polyamines induce the synthesis of antizyme, a 23-kDa protein, which binds to ODC, inhibits its activity and promotes its degradation by the 26 S proteasome. Antizyme, in turn, is inhibited by antizyme inhibitor (AZI). We describe the cloning of a mouse AZI cDNA, encoding a protein with high homology to mouse ODC. Using purified recombinant proteins, we show that AZI (which has no ODC activity) can release enzymically active ODC from antizyme suppression in vitro. We also show that ODC reactivation takes place in mouse fibroblasts upon transient transfection with an AZI-expressing plasmid construct. Finally we demonstrate that the AZI mRNA content of mouse fibroblasts increases significantly within an hour of growth stimulation, i.e. much earlier than ODC transcripts. Our results indicate that induction of AZI synthesis may represent a means of rescuing ODC molecules that have been inactivated and tagged for degradation by antizyme, when culture conditions improve and polyamine production is needed for cell growth and proliferation.
Project description:Polyamines are organic polycations essential for cell growth and differentiation; their aberrant accumulation is often associated with diseases, including many types of cancer. To maintain polyamine homeostasis, the catalytic activity and protein abundance of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the committed enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis, are reciprocally controlled by the regulatory proteins antizyme isoform 1 (Az1) and antizyme inhibitor (AzIN). Az1 suppresses polyamine production by inhibiting the assembly of the functional ODC homodimer and, most uniquely, by targeting ODC for ubiquitin-independent proteolytic destruction by the 26S proteasome. In contrast, AzIN positively regulates polyamine levels by competing with ODC for Az1 binding. The structural basis of the Az1-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis has remained elusive. Here we report crystal structures of human Az1 complexed with either ODC or AzIN. Structural analysis revealed that Az1 sterically blocks ODC homodimerization. Moreover, Az1 binding triggers ODC degradation by inducing the exposure of a cryptic proteasome-interacting surface of ODC, which illustrates how a substrate protein may be primed upon association with Az1 for ubiquitin-independent proteasome recognition. Dynamic and functional analyses further indicated that the Az1-induced binding and degradation of ODC by proteasome can be decoupled, with the intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail fragment of ODC being required only for degradation but not binding. Finally, the AzIN-Az1 structure suggests how AzIN may effectively compete with ODC for Az1 to restore polyamine production. Taken together, our findings offer structural insights into the Az-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis and proteasomal degradation.
Project description:Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. ODC levels are controlled by polyamines through the induction of antizymes (AZs), small proteins that inhibit ODC and target it to proteasomal degradation without ubiquitination. Antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2) are proteins homologous to ODC that bind to AZs and counteract their negative effect on ODC. Whereas ODC and AZIN1 are well-characterized proteins, little is known on the structure and stability of AZIN2, the lastly discovered member of this regulatory circuit. In this work we first analyzed structural aspects of AZIN2 by combining biochemical and computational approaches. We demonstrated that AZIN2, in contrast to ODC, does not form homodimers, although the predicted tertiary structure of the AZIN2 monomer was similar to that of ODC. Furthermore, we identified conserved residues in the antizyme-binding element, whose substitution drastically affected the capacity of AZIN2 to bind AZ1. On the other hand, we also found that AZIN2 is much more labile than ODC, but it is highly stabilized by its binding to AZs. Interestingly, the administration of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 caused differential effects on the three AZ-binding proteins, having no effect on ODC, preventing the degradation of AZIN1, but unexpectedly increasing the degradation of AZIN2. Inhibitors of the lysosomal function partially prevented the effect of MG132 on AZIN2. These results suggest that the degradation of AZIN2 could be also mediated by an alternative route to that of proteasome. These findings provide new relevant information on this unique regulatory mechanism of polyamine metabolism.
Project description:The antizyme protein, Oaz1, regulates synthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine by controlling stability of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase. Antizyme mRNA translation depends upon a polyamine-stimulated +1 ribosomal frameshift, forming a complex negative feedback system in which the translational frameshifting event may be viewed in engineering terms as a feedback controller for intracellular polyamine concentrations. In this article, we present the first systems level study of the characteristics of this feedback controller, using an integrated experimental and modeling approach. Quantitative analysis of mutant yeast strains in which polyamine synthesis and interconversion were blocked revealed marked variations in frameshift responses to the different polyamines. Putrescine and spermine, but not spermidine, showed evidence of co-operative stimulation of frameshifting and the existence of multiple ribosome binding sites. Combinatorial polyamine treatments showed polyamines compete for binding to common ribosome sites. Using concepts from enzyme kinetics and control engineering, a mathematical model of the translational controller was developed to describe these complex ribosomal responses to combinatorial polyamine effects. Each one of a range of model predictions was successfully validated against experimental frameshift frequencies measured in S-adenosylmethionine-decarboxylase and antizyme mutants, as well as in the wild-type genetic background.
Project description:The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.
Project description:The biogenic polyamines, spermine (Spm) and spermidine, are organic polycations present in millimolar concentrations in all eukaryotic cells participating in the regulation of vital cellular functions including proliferation and differentiation. The design and biochemical evaluation of polyamine analogues are cornerstones of polyamine research. Here we synthesized and studied novel C-methylated Spm analogues: 2,11-dimethylspermine (2,11-Me<sub>2</sub>Spm), 3,10-dimethylspermine (3,10-Me<sub>2</sub>Spm), 2-methylspermine, and 2,2-dimethylspermine. The tested analogues overcame growth arrest induced by a 72 h treatment with ?-difluoromethylornithine, an ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor, and entered into DU145 cells via the polyamine transporter. 3,10-Me<sub>2</sub>Spm was a poor substrate of spermine oxidase and spermidine/spermine-<i>N</i><sup>1</sup>-acetyltransferase (SSAT) when compared with 2,11-Me<sub>2</sub>Spm, thus resembling 1,12-dimethylspermine, which lacks the substrate properties required for the SSAT reaction. The antizyme (OAZ1)-mediated downregulation of ODC and inhibition of polyamine transport are crucial in the maintenance of polyamine homeostasis. Interestingly, 3,10-Me<sub>2</sub>Spm was found to be the first Spm analogue that did not induce OAZ1 and, consequently, was a weak downregulator of ODC activity in DU145 cells.
Project description:The polyamines, and especially putrescine, play an integral role in the physiological response of cells to varying extracellular osmotic conditions. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) synthesis and stability, as well as the activity of the polyamine transporter, had all been reported to be very sensitive to media osmolarity in different cells and tissues, yet the mechanism of this complex, co-ordinated response was not known. In this study we have determined that all these aspects of osmotic-shock response may be mediated by the common regulatory protein, ODC-antizyme. HTC cells were induced for antizyme and then exposed to media of reduced osmotic strength. Both antizyme activity and protein decreased rapidly, under these conditions, to new steady-state levels that depended upon the degree of reduction in media tonicity. This antizyme reduction was found to be due to a rapid increase in antizyme degradation, with a half-life decrease from 75 min down to 45 min occurring immediately upon exchanging media. In complementary experiments, increased media tonicity induced elevated antizyme levels and stability. The sensitivity of antizyme turnover to osmotic conditions was also observed in DH23b cells, which contain elevated levels of more stable antizyme. Interestingly, the two main antizyme proteins, AZ-1 and AZ-2 (presumably products from the first and second translational start sites), differed in their responses to these changing osmotic conditions. Just as feedback regulation of antizyme synthesis provides an effective mechanism for maintaining stable polyamine levels, these studies suggest that alteration in the rate of antizyme degradation may be the mechanism whereby cells adjust steady-state polyamine levels in response to stimulation or stress.