Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families.
ABSTRACT: Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy.
Project description:We describe the clinical, hematologic and genetic characteristics of a retrospective series of 126 subjects from 64 families with hereditary xerocytosis. Twelve patients from six families carried a KCNN4 mutation, five had the recurrent p.Arg352His mutation and one had a new deletion at the exon 7-intron 7 junction. Forty-nine families carried a PIEZO1 mutation, which was a known recurrent mutation in only one-third of the cases and private sequence variation in others; 12 new probably pathogenic missense mutations were identified. The two dominant features leading to diagnosis were hemolysis that persisted after splenectomy and hyperferritinemia, with an inconstant correlation with liver iron content assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. PIEZO1-hereditary xerocytosis was characterized by compensated hemolysis in most cases, perinatal edema of heterogeneous severity in more than 20% of families and a major risk of post-splenectomy thrombotic events, including a high frequency of portal thrombosis. In KCNN4-related disease, the main symptoms were more severe anemia, hemolysis and iron overload, with no clear sign of red cell dehydration; therefore, this disorder would be better described as a 'Gardos channelopathy'. These data on the largest series to date indicate that PIEZO1-hereditary xerocytosis and Gardos channelopathy are not the same disease although they share hemolysis, a high rate of iron overload and inefficient splenectomy. They demonstrate the high variability in clinical expression as well as genetic bases of PIEZO1-hereditary xerocytosis. These results will help to improve the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis and to provide recommendations on the clinical management in terms of splenectomy, iron overload and pregnancy follow-up.
Project description:Gardos channelopathy (Gardos-HX) or type 2 stomatocytosis/xerocytosis is a hereditary hemolytic anemia due to mutations in the <i>KCNN4</i> gene. It is rarer than inherited type 1 xerocytosis due to <i>PIEZO1</i> mutations (Piezo1-HX) and its diagnosis is difficult given the absence of a specific clinical or biological phenotype. We report here that this diagnosis can be sped up using red blood cell (RBC) indices performed on an ADVIA 2120 (Siemens<sup>®</sup>) analyzer, which measures reticulocyte mean corpuscular volume (rMCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (rMCHC). We studied reticulocyte indices in 3 new and 12 described patients (8 families) with Gardos-HX, 11 subjects presented the recurrent p.Arg352His mutation, 4 cases (two families) carried a private <i>KCNN4</i> mutation. They were compared to 79 described patients (49 families) with Piezo1-HX. Surprisingly, in Gardos-HX cases, rMCV revealed to be smaller than MCV and rMCHC higher than MCHC, in contrast with normal or Piezo1-HX RBC. Consequently, ?MCV (rMCV-MCV) was -0.9 ± 5 fL vs. 19.8 ± 3 fL (<i>p</i> < 0.001) in Gardos compared with Piezo1-HX and ?MCHC (rMCHC-MCHC) was 18.7 ± 13 vs. -50 ± 8.7 g/L (<i>p</i> < 0.001). A threshold of 8.6 fL for ?MCV and -5.5 g/L for ?MCHC could discriminate between Gardos and Piezo1-HX with 100% sensitivity and specificity, regardless of age, mutation or splenectomy status. Consequently, we showed that reticulocytes indices are useful to suggest Gardos-HX on blood count results, allowing to rapidly target these patients for gene analysis. In addition, these parameters may prove useful as a 'functional tool' in interpreting new <i>KCNN4</i> variants.
Project description:Spherocytosis is one of the most common inherited disorders, yet presents with a wide range of clinical severity. While several genes have been found mutated in patients with spherocytosis, the molecular basis for the variability in severity of haemolytic anaemia is not entirely understood. To identify candidate proteins involved in haemolytic anaemia pathophysiology, we utilized a label-free comparative proteomic approach to detect differences in red blood cells (RBCs) from normal and ?-adducin (Add2) knock-out mice. We detected seven proteins that were decreased and 48 proteins that were increased in ?-adducin null RBC ghosts. Since haemolytic anaemias are characterized by reticulocytosis, we compared reticulocyte-enriched samples from phenylhydrazine-treated mice with mature RBCs from untreated mice. Among the 48 proteins increased in Add2 knockout RBCs, only 11 were also increased in reticulocytes. Of the proteins decreased in Add2 knockout RBCs, ?-adducin showed the greatest intensity difference, followed by SLC9A1, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger previously termed NHE1. We verified these mass spectrometry results by immunoblot. This is the first example of SLC9A1deficiency in haemolytic anaemia and suggests new insights into the mechanisms leading to fragile RBCs.
Project description:Most frequent red cell (RBC) donors and many first-time donors are iron deficient, but meet haemoglobin standards. However, the effects of donation-induced iron deficiency on RBC storage quality are unknown. Thus, we used a mouse model to determine if donor iron deficiency reduced post-transfusion RBC recovery.Weanling mice received a control diet or an iron-deficient diet. A third group receiving the iron-deficient diet was also phlebotomised weekly. This provided 3 groups of mice with different iron status: (1) iron replete, (2) mild iron deficiency with iron-deficient erythropoiesis, and (3) iron-deficiency anaemia. At ten weeks of age, blood was collected, leucoreduced, and stored at 4 ºC. After 12 days of storage, 24-hour (h) post-transfusion RBC recovery was quantified in recipients by flow cytometry.Before blood collection, mean haemoglobin concentrations in the iron-replete, iron-deficient, and iron-deficiency anaemia donor mice were 16.5±0.4, 11.5±0.4, and 7.0±1.4 [g/dL± 1 standard deviation (SD)], respectively (p<0.01 for all comparisons between groups). The 24-h post-transfusion RBC recoveries in recipients receiving transfusions from these three cohorts were 77.1±13.2, 66.5±10.9, and 46.7±15.9 (% ±1 SD), respectively (p<0.05 for all comparisons between groups).In summary, donor iron deficiency significantly reduced 24-h post-transfusion RBC recovery in recipient mice. RBCs from mice with mild iron deficiency and iron-deficient erythropoiesis, with haemoglobin levels similar to those used for human autologous blood donation, had intermediate post-transfusion RBC recovery, as compared to iron-replete donors and those with iron-deficiency anaemia. This suggests that, in addition to the effects of iron deficiency on donor health, frequent blood donation, leading to iron-deficient erythropoiesis, may also have adverse effects for transfusion recipients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is the most common haemolytic anaemia caused by congenital membrane defects of red blood cells. The name derives from the presence of spherical red blood cells in the peripheral blood. Clinical manifestations of HS are anaemia, haemolytic jaundice, and large spleen, and infection can worsen the condition, often with cholelithiasis. HS is mainly caused by abnormal functions of the products of six genes. Splenectomy is the main treatment for HS. CASE PRESENTATION:Half a day after birth, the proband exhibited HS-related symptoms, with progressive aggravation. Routine examination in the outpatient department showed an increase in white blood cells and a decrease in red blood cells. His mother had HS and a partial splenectomy. We suspected that the infant might also have HS. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from the three members of the HS trio pedigree, and genomic whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed. The three DNA samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by Sanger sequencing to identify mutation sites. A novel nonsense heterozygous mutation, c.790C?>?T (p. Gln264Ter), in the ANK1 gene, which causes premature termination of translation, was found in this Chinese family with autosomal dominant HS. CONCLUSIONS:This de novo nonsense mutation can cause the onset of HS in early childhood, with severe symptoms. Expanding the ANK1 genotype mutation spectrum will lay a foundation for the further application of mutation screening in genetic counselling.
Project description:Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder worldwide. The automated haematology analyser XN-30 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) was developed to detect malaria-infected red blood cells (RBCs) in human blood samples using flow cytometry. The optical system of the analyser detects autofluorescence (AF)-emitting RBCs containing iron-deficient haem groups and would aid in the diagnosis of anaemia resulting from iron deficiency. Here, an RBC-optical (RBO) channel was devised and implemented on the analyser. In vitro analyses showed that the analyser detected AF-emitting RBCs treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid. Furthermore, the analyser detected AF-emitting RBCs in mice fed a low iron diet and infected with a rodent malaria parasite; it could also be effectively used in humans. This study demonstrates that the analyser can quantitatively and reproducibly detect AF-emitting RBCs and measure other haematological parameters, suggesting its usefulness for the initial evaluation of latent iron deficiency anaemia in conjunction with the diagnosis of malaria.
Project description:beta-Thalassaemia major is a hereditary haemolytic anaemia that is treated with multiple blood transfusions. A major complication of this treatment is iron overload, which leads to cell death and organ dysfunction. Chelation therapy, used for iron elimination, requires effective monitoring of the body burden of iron, for which serum ferritin levels and liver iron content measured in liver biopsies are used as markers, but are not reliable. MRI based on iron-induced T2 relaxation enhancement can be used for the evaluation of tissue siderosis. Various MR protocols using signal intensity ratio and mainstream relaxometry methods have been used, sometimes with discrepant results. Relaxometry methods using multiple echoes achieve better sampling of the time domain in which relaxation mechanisms take place and lead to more precise results. In several studies the MRI parameters of liver siderosis have failed to correlate with those of other affected organs, underlining the necessity for MRI iron evaluation in individual organs. Most studies have included children in the evaluated population, but MRI data on very young children are lacking. Wider application of relaxometry methods is indicated, with the establishment of universally accepted MRI protocols, and further studies, including young children, are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thrombotic microangiopathy is an uncommon complication of snake envenoming associated with a subset of snakebite cases presenting with venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. It presents with microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Available studies are predominantly small retrospective observational studies only. Renal end organ injury appears common. It has variably been likened to either thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Many studies report acute kidney injury, with dialysis required in a subset of patients. Some studies suggest a role for treatment with plasmapheresis. Interpretation of the literature is complicated by variable nomenclature and historically poor case definitions of both venom-induced consumption coagulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy associated with snake envenoming. METHODS:The main objective of this systematic review is to synthesise the worldwide experience of snakebite-associated thrombotic microangiopathy with respect to its features and outcomes, and collate any evidence for the role of plasmapheresis as treatment. A predetermined case definition of confirmed or suspected snakebite with either blood film evidence of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia or histological evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy will be used. This case definition will determine the search terms and study inclusion criteria. Relevant studies will be identified by electronic database, published conference abstracts, and grey literature search. This systematic review will be performed and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The quality of included studies will be assessed by a proposed tool for evaluating the methodological quality of case reports and case series. Results will be reported by a descriptive synthesis with a focus on the presenting features; outcomes of acute kidney injury, dialysis-free survival, other end organ damage, and overall survival; and any evidence of a role for treatment with plasmapheresis. The quality of accumulated evidence will be assessed via the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations framework. DISCUSSION:It is anticipated that eligible studies will consist of small observational studies. Evidence gathered from this review will provide the first broader understanding of the clinical features, outcomes, prognosis, and management of snakebite-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42019121436.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Both anaemia and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion are common and associated with adverse outcomes in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to determine whether serum hepcidin concentration, measured early after ICU admission in patients with anaemia, could identify a group in whom intravenous (IV) iron therapy decreased the subsequent RBC transfusion requirement.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a prospective observational study nested within a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) of IV iron versus placebo. The study was conducted in the ICUs of four tertiary hospitals in Perth, Western Australia. Critically ill patients with haemoglobin (Hb) of <?100 g/L and within 48 h of admission to the ICU were eligible for participation after enrolment in the IRONMAN RCT. The response to IV iron therapy compared with placebo was assessed according to tertile of hepcidin concentration.<h4>Results</h4>Hepcidin concentration was measured within 48 h of ICU admission in 133 patients. For patients in the lower two tertiles of hepcidin concentration (<?53.0 ?g), IV iron therapy compared with placebo was associated with a significant decrease in RBC transfusion requirement [risk ratio 0.48 (95% CI 0.26-0.85), <i>p</i>?=?0.013].<h4>Conclusions</h4>In critically ill patients with anaemia admitted to an ICU, baseline hepcidin concentration predicts RBC transfusion requirement and is able to identify a group of patients in whom IV iron compared with placebo is associated with a significant decrease in RBC transfusion requirement.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ANZCTRN12612001249 Registered 26/11/2012.
Project description:We describe a novel missense mutation of ceruloplasmin in a patient with aceruloplasminaemia causing the replacement of a neutral amino acid (phenylalanine) with a polar one (serine) at position 198, probably leading to abnormal folding and secretion of the protein. The patient showed mild microcytic anaemia, mild hepatic iron overload, and marked brain iron overload. Six months of therapy with deferiprone was ineffective in removing iron from the tissues. Deferoxamine was more efficient in removing excess iron from the liver but aggravated the disease related anaemia. After more than one year of chelation treatment, the brain magnetic resonance imaging signal did not change. Overall, these findings indicate that treatment of iron overload in aceruloplasminaemia is a difficult challenge and that new iron chelators, more efficient in crossing the blood-brain barrier, are needed.