Genome-Wide Identification of the MIKC-Type MADS-Box Gene Family in Gossypium hirsutum L. Unravels Their Roles in Flowering.
ABSTRACT: Cotton is one of the major world oil crops. Cottonseed oil meets the increasing demand of fried food, ruminant feed, and renewable bio-fuels. MADS intervening keratin-like and C-terminal (MIKC)-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in various plant developmental processes. Nevertheless, this gene family has not been characterized, nor its functions investigated, in cotton. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of MIKC-type MADS genes in the tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., which is the most widely cultivated cotton species. In total, 110 GhMIKC genes were identified and phylogenetically classified into 13 subfamilies. The Flowering locus C (FLC) subfamily was absent in the Gossypium hirsutum L. genome but is found in Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera L. Among the genes, 108 were distributed across the 13 A and 12 of the D genome's chromosomes, while two were located in scaffolds. GhMIKCs within subfamilies displayed similar exon/intron characteristics and conserved motif compositions. According to RNA-sequencing, most MIKC genes exhibited high flowering-associated expression profiles. A quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that some crucial MIKC genes determined the identities of the five flower organs. Furthermore, the overexpression of GhAGL17.9 in Arabidopsis caused an early flowering phenotype. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the flowering-related genes CONSTANS (CO), LEAFY (LFY) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) were significantly increased in these lines. These results provide useful information for future studies of GhMIKCs' regulation of cotton flowering.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MADS-box genes play crucial roles in plant floral organ formation and plant reproductive development. However, there is still no information on genome-wide identification and classification of MADS-box genes in some representative plant species. A comprehensive investigation of MIKC-type genes in the orchid Dendrobium officinale is still lacking. RESULTS:Here we conducted a genome-wide analysis of MADS-box proteins from 29 species. In total, 1689 MADS-box proteins were identified. Two types of MADS-box genes, termed type I and II, were found in land plants, but not in liverwort. The SQUA, DEF/GLO, AG and SEP subfamilies existed in all the tested flowering plants, while SQUA was absent in the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba, and no genes of the four subfamilies were found in a charophyte, liverwort, mosses, or lycophyte. This strongly corroborates the notion that clades of floral organ identity genes led to the evolution of flower development in flowering plants. Nine subfamilies of MIKCC genes were present in two orchids, D. officinale and Phalaenopsis equestris, while the TM8, FLC, AGL15 and AGL12 subfamilies may be lost. In addition, the four clades of floral organ identity genes in both orchids displayed a conservative and divergent expression pattern. Only three MIKC-type genes were induced by cold stress in D. officinale while 15 MIKC-type genes showed different levels of expression during seed germination. CONCLUSIONS:MIKC-type genes were identified from streptophyte lineages, revealing new insights into their evolution and development relationships. Our results show a novel role of MIKC-type genes in seed germination and provide a useful clue for future research on seed germination in orchids.
Project description:The protein kinase (PK, kinome) family is one of the largest families in plants and regulates almost all aspects of plant processes, including plant development and stress responses. Despite their important functions, comprehensive functional classification, evolutionary analysis and expression patterns of the cotton PK gene family has yet to be performed on PK genes. In this study, we identified the cotton kinomes in the Gossypium raimondii, Gossypium arboretum, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense genomes and classified them into 7 groups and 122-24 subfamilies using software HMMER v3.0 scanning and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis. Some conserved exon-intron structures were identified not only in cotton species but also in primitive plants, ferns and moss, suggesting the significant function and ancient origination of these PK genes. Collinearity analysis revealed that 16.6 million years ago (Mya) cotton-specific whole genome duplication (WGD) events may have played a partial role in the expansion of the cotton kinomes, whereas tandem duplication (TD) events mainly contributed to the expansion of the cotton RLK group. Synteny analysis revealed that tetraploidization of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense contributed to the expansion of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense PKs. Global expression analysis of cotton PKs revealed stress-specific and fiber development-related expression patterns, suggesting that many cotton PKs might be involved in the regulation of the stress response and fiber development processes. This study provides foundational information for further studies on the evolution and molecular function of cotton PKs.
Project description:The MADS family is an ancient and best-studied transcription factor and plays fundamental roles in almost every developmental process in plants. In the plant evolutionary history, the whole genome duplication (WGD) events are important not only to the plant species evolution, but to expansion of members of the gene families. Soybean as a model legume crop has experience three rounds of WGD events. Members of some MIKC(C) subfamilies, such as SOC, AGL6, SQUA, SVP, AGL17 and DEF/GLO, were expanded after soybean three rounds of WGD events. And some MIKC(C) subfamilies, MIKC* and type I MADS families had experienced faster birth-and-death evolution and their traces before the Glycine WGD event were not found. Transposed duplication played important roles in tandem arrangements among the members of different subfamilies. According to the expression profiles of type I and MIKC paralog pair genes, the fates of MIKC paralog gene pairs were subfunctionalization, and the fates of type I MADS paralog gene pairs were nonfunctionalization. 137 out of 163 MADS genes were close to 186 loci within 2 Mb genomic regions associated with seed-relative QTLs, among which 115 genes expressed during the seed development. Although MIKC(C) genes kept the important and conserved functions of the flower development, most MIKC(C) genes showed potentially essential roles in the seed development as well as the type I MADS.
Project description:The comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution will elucidate the origin and evolution of gene families. The K+ uptake (KUP) gene family plays important roles in K+ uptake and transport, plant growth and development, and abiotic stress responses. However, the current understanding of the KUP family in cotton is limited. In this study, 51 and 53 KUPs were identified in Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum, respectively. These KUPs were divided into five KUP subfamilies, with subfamily 2 containing three groups. Different subfamilies had different member numbers, conserved motifs, gene structures, regulatory elements, and gene expansion and loss rates. A paleohexaploidization event caused the expansion of GhKUP and GbKUP in cotton, and duplication events in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense have happened in a common ancestor of Gossypium. Meanwhile, the KUP members of the two allopolyploid subgenomes of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense exhibited unequal gene proportions, gene structural diversity, uneven chromosomal distributions, asymmetric expansion rates, and biased gene loss rates. In addition, the KUP families of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense displayed evolutionary conservation and divergence. Taken together, these results illustrated the molecular evolution and expansion of the KUP family in allopolyploid cotton species.
Project description:MADS-box genes are critical regulators of growth and development in flowering plants. Sequencing of the Musa balbisiana (B) genome has provided a platform for the systematic analysis of the MADS-box gene family in the important banana ancestor Musa balbisiana. Seventy-seven MADS-box genes, including 18 type I and 59 type II, were strictly identified from the banana (Pisang Klutuk Wulung, PKW, 2n?=?2x?=?22) B genome. These genes have been preferentially placed on the banana B genome. Evolutionary analysis suggested that M. balbisiana MCM1-AGAMOUS-DEFICIENS-SRF (MbMADS) might be organized into the MIKC<sup>c</sup>, MIKC*, M?, M?, and M? groups according to the phylogeny. MIKC<sup>c</sup> was then further categorized into 10 subfamilies according to conserved motif and gene structure analyses. The well-defined MADS-box genes highlight gene birth and death in banana. MbMADSes originated from the same ancestor as MaMADSes. Transcriptome analysis in cultivated banana (ABB) revealed that MbMADSes were conserved and differentially expressed in several organs, in various fruit developing and ripening stages, and in stress treatments, indicating the participation of these genes in fruit development, ripening, and stress responses. Of note, SEP/AGL2 and AG, as well as other several type II MADS-box genes, including the STMADS11 and TM3/SOC1 subfamilies, indicated elevated expression throughout banana fruit development, ripening, and stress treatments, indicating their new parts in controlling fruit development and ripening. According to the co-expression network analysis, MbMADS75 interacted with bZIP and seven other transcription factors to perform its function. This systematic analysis reveals fruit development, ripening, and stress candidate MbMADSes genes for additional functional studies in plants, improving our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of MbMADSes genes and providing a base for genetic modification of MADS-mediated fruit development, ripening, and stress.
Project description:The architecture of the cotton plant, including fruit branch formation and flowering pattern, is the most important characteristic that directly influences light exploitation, yield and cost of planting. Nulliplex branch is a useful phenotype to study cotton architecture. We used RNA sequencing to obtain mRNA and miRNA profiles from nulliplex- and normal-branch cotton at three developmental stages. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs were identified that preferentially/specifically expressed in the pre-squaring stage, which is a key stage controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. The DEGs identified were primarily enriched in RNA, protein, and signalling categories in Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum. Interestingly, during the pre-squaring stage, the DEGs were predominantly enriched in transcription factors in both G. barbadense and G. hirsutum, and these transcription factors were mainly involved in branching and flowering. Related miRNAs were also identified. The results showed that fruit branching in cotton is controlled by molecular pathways similar to those in Arabidopsis and that multiple regulated pathways may affect the development of floral buds. Our study showed that the development of fruit branches is closely related to flowering induction and provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of branch and flower development in cotton.
Project description:TIFY proteins are plant-specific proteins containing TIFY, JAZ, PPD and ZML subfamilies. A total of 50, 54 and 28 members of the TIFY gene family in three cultivated cotton species-Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium arboretum-were identified, respectively. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that these TIFY genes were divided into eight clusters. The different clusters of gene family members often have similar gene structures, including the number of exons. The results of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that different JAZ genes displayed distinct expression patterns in the leaves of upland cotton under treatment with Gibberellin (GA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Different groups of JAZ genes exhibited different expression patterns in cotton leaves infected with Verticillium dahliae. The results of the comparative analysis of TIFY genes in the three cultivated species will be useful for understanding the involvement of these genes in development and stress resistance in cotton.
Project description:Polyploidy in Gossypium hirsutum conferred different properties from its diploid ancestors under the regulation of transcription factors. The NAC transcription factor is a plant-specific family that can be related to plant growth and development. So far, little is known about the NAC family in cotton. This study identified 495 NAC genes in three cotton species and investigated the evolution and expansion of different genome-derived NAC genes in cotton. We revealed 15 distinct NAC subfamilies in cotton. Different subfamilies had different gene proportions, expansion rate, gene loss rate, and orthologous exchange rate. Paleohexaploidization (35%) and cotton-specific decaploidy (32%) might have primarily led to the expansion of the NAC family in cotton. Half of duplication events in G. hirsutum were inherited from its diploid ancestor, and others might have occurred after interspecific hybridization. In addition, NAC genes in the At and Dt subgenomes displayed asymmetric molecular evolution, as evidenced by their different gene loss rates, orthologous exchange, evolutionary rates, and expression levels. The dominant duplication event was different during the cotton evolutionary history. Different genome-derived NACs might have interacted with each other, which ultimately resulted in morphogenetic evolution. This study delineated the expansion and evolutionary history of the NAC family in cotton and illustrated the different fates of NAC genes during polyploidization.
Project description:In cotton, the formation of fruiting branches affects both plant architecture and fiber yield. Here, we report map-based cloning of the axillary flowering mutation gene (GbAF) that causes bolls to be borne directly on the main plant stem in Gossypium barbadense, and of the clustered boll mutation gene (cl1) in G. hirsutum. Both mutant alleles were found to represent point mutations at the Cl1 locus. Therefore, we propose that the GbAF mutation be referred to as cl1b. These Cl1 loci correspond to homologs of tomato SELF-PRUNING (SP), i.e. Gossypium spp. SP (GoSP) genes. In tetraploid cottons, single monogenic mutation of either duplicate GoSP gene (one in the A and one in the D subgenome) is associated with the axillary cluster flowering phenotype, although the shoot-indeterminate state of the inflorescence is maintained. By contrast, silencing of both GoSPs leads to the termination of flowering or determinate plants. The architecture of axillary flowering cotton allows higher planting density, contributing to increased fiber yield. Taken together the results provide new insights into the underlying mechanism of branching in cotton species, and characterization of GoSP genes may promote the development of compact cultivars to increase global cotton production.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is one of the world's most important economic crops. In the absence of the entire genomic sequence, a large number of expressed sequence tag (EST) resources of upland cotton have been generated and used in several studies. However, information about the flower development of this species is rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To clarify the molecular mechanism of flower development in upland cotton, 22,915 high-quality ESTs were generated and assembled into 14,373 unique sequences consisting of 4,563 contigs and 9,810 singletons from a normalized and full-length cDNA library constructed from pooled RNA isolated from shoot apexes, squares, and flowers. Comparative analysis indicated that 5,352 unique sequences had no high-degree matches to the cotton public database. Functional annotation showed that several upland cotton homologs with flowering-related genes were identified in our library. The majority of these genes were specifically expressed in flowering-related tissues. Three GhSEP (G. hirsutum L. SEPALLATA) genes determining floral organ development were cloned, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that these genes were expressed preferentially in squares or flowers. Furthermore, 670 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were identified from the 645 unigenes. Twenty-five EST-simple sequence repeats were randomly selected for validation and transferability testing in 17 Gossypium species. Of these, 23 were identified as true-to-type simple sequence repeat loci and were highly transferable among Gossypium species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A high-quality, normalized, full-length cDNA library with a total of 14,373 unique ESTs was generated to provide sequence information for gene discovery and marker development related to upland cotton flower development. These EST resources form a valuable foundation for gene expression profiling analysis, functional analysis of newly discovered genes, genetic linkage, and quantitative trait loci analysis.