Layered microporous polymers by solvent knitting method.
ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, especially 2D organic nanomaterials with unprecedentedly diverse and controlled structure, have attracted decent scientific interest. Among the preparation strategies, the top-down approach is one of the considered low-cost and scalable strategies to obtain 2D organic nanomaterials. However, some factors of their layered counterparts limited the development and potential applications of 2D organic nanomaterials, such as type, stability, and strict synthetic conditions of layered counterparts. We report a class of layered solvent knitting hyper-cross-linked microporous polymers (SHCPs) prepared by improving Friedel-Crafts reaction and using dichloroalkane as an economical solvent, stable electrophilic reagent, and external cross-linker at low temperature, which could be used as layered counterparts to obtain previously unknown 2D SHCP nanosheets by method of ultrasonic-assisted solvent exfoliation. This efficient and low-cost strategy can produce previously unreported microporous organic polymers with layered structure and high surface area and gas storage capacity. The pore structure and surface area of these polymers can be controlled by tuning the chain length of the solvent, the molar ratio of AlCl3, and the size of monomers. Furthermore, we successfully obtain an unprecedentedly high-surface area HCP material (3002 m2 g-1), which shows decent gas storage capacity (4.82 mmol g-1 at 273 K and 1.00 bar for CO2; 12.40 mmol g-1 at 77.3 K and 1.13 bar for H2). This finding provides an opportunity for breaking the constraint of former knitting methods and opening up avenues for the design and synthesis of previously unknown layered HCP materials.
Project description:The incorporation of supramolecular macrocycles into porous organic polymers may endow the material with enhanced uptake of specific guests through host-guest interactions. Here we report a solvent and catalyst-free mechanochemical synthesis of pillarquinone (P5Q) derived multi-microporous organic polymers with hydrophenazine linkages (MHP-P5Q), which show a unique 3-step N2 adsorption isotherm. In comparison with analogous microporous hydrophenazine-linked organic polymers (MHPs) obtained using simple twofold benzoquinones, MHP-P5Q is demonstrated to have a superior performance in radioactive iodomethane (CH3I) capture and storage. Mechanistic studies show that the rigid pillararene cavity has additional binding sites though host-guest interactions as well as the halogen bond (-I?N?=?C-) and chemical adsorption in the multi-microporous MHP-P5Q mainly account for the rapid and high-capacity adsorption and long-term storage of CH3I.
Project description:Hybrid nanostructures integrating electroactive materials with functional species, such as metal-organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks, graphdiyne etc., are of significance for both fundamental research and energy conversion/storage applications. Here, hierarchical triple-layered nanotube arrays, which consist of hydrogen-substituted graphdiyne frameworks seamlessly sandwiched between an outer layer of nickel-cobalt co-doped molybdenum disulfide nanosheets and an inner layer of mixed cobalt sulfide and nickel sulfide (Co9S8/Ni3S2), are directly fabricated on conductive carbon paper. The elaborate triple-layered structure emerges as a useful hybrid electrode for energy conversion and storage, in which the organic hydrogen-substituted graphdiyne middle layer, with an extended ?-conjugated system between the electroactive nanomaterials, provides built-in electron and ion channels that are crucial for performance enhancement. This dual-template synthetic method, which makes use of microporous organic networks to confine a self-template, is shown to be versatile and thus provides a promising platform for advanced nanostructure-engineering of hierarchical multi-layered nanostructures towards a wide range of electrochemical applications.
Project description:The layered 2D MOFs, owing to their enhanced flexibility and tunability, have recently emerged as a promising alternative to the 3D microporous MOFs in the quest for novel responsive functional materials. However, maintaining the simultaneous control over self-assembly of molecular building blocks as well as ordered stacking of MOF layers poses a significant synthetic challenge. We report on the controlled 2D MOF formation based on a case study of solvent-templated growth of a series of 2D Cu(II)-carboxylate MOFs varying in stacking modes and distances using a diffusion-controlled MOF deposition approach in various solvent mixtures. Moreover, we demonstrate the structural dynamics of the developed 2D MOFs involving both in-plane and out-of-plane movements of the individual 2D layers triggered by solvent exchange, which allowed for selective postsynthetic transformations between the developed 2D MOFs. We also investigated the gas adsorption properties of the developed MOFs, which demonstrates a remarkable crystal size effect on the N2 adsorption capacity using a model 2D MOF system.
Project description:Conjugated microporous polymers are a new class of porous materials with an extended ?-conjugation in an amorphous organic framework. Owing to the wide-ranging flexibility in the choice and design of components and the available control of pore parameters, these polymers can be tailored for use in various applications, such as gas storage, electronics and catalysis. Here we report a class of cobalt/aluminium-coordinated conjugated microporous polymers that exhibit outstanding CO2 capture and conversion performance at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. These polymers can store CO2 with adsorption capacities comparable to metal-organic frameworks. The cobalt-coordinated conjugated microporous polymers can also simultaneously function as heterogeneous catalysts for the reaction of CO2 and propylene oxide at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, wherein the polymers demonstrate better efficiency than a homogeneous salen-cobalt catalyst. By combining the functions of gas storage and catalysts, this strategy provides a direction for cost-effective CO2 reduction processes.
Project description:Clay nanomaterials are an emerging class of 2D biomaterials of interest due to their atomically thin layered structure, charged characteristics, and well-defined composition. Synthetic nanoclays are plate-like polyions composed of simple or complex salts of silicic acids with a heterogeneous charge distribution and patchy interactions. Due to their biocompatible characteristics, unique shape, high surface-to-volume ratio, and charge, nanoclays are investigated for various biomedical applications. Here, a critical overview of the physical, chemical, and physiological interactions of nanoclay with biological moieties, including cells, proteins, and polymers, is provided. The state-of-the-art biomedical applications of 2D nanoclay in regenerative medicine, therapeutic delivery, and additive manufacturing are reviewed. In addition, recent developments that are shaping this emerging field are discussed and promising new research directions for 2D nanoclay-based biomaterials are identified.
Project description:Although 2D layered nanomaterials have been intensively investigated towards their application in energy conversion and storage devices, their disadvantages have rarely been explored so far especially compared to their 3D counterparts. Herein, WO3·nH2O (n = 0, 1, 2), as the most common and important electrochemical and electrochromic active nanomaterial, is synthesized in 3D and 2D structures through a facile hydrothermal method, and the disadvantages of the corresponding 2D structures are examined. The weakness of 2D WO3·nH2O originates from its layered structure. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses of as-grown WO3·nH2O samples suggest a structural transition from 2D to 3D upon temperature increase. 2D WO3·nH2O easily generates structural instabilities by 2D intercalation, resulting in a faster performance degradation, due to its weak interlayer van der Waals forces, even though it outranks the 3D network structure in terms of improved electronic properties. The structural transformation of 2D layered WO3·nH2O into 3D nanostructures is observed via ex situ Raman measurements under electrochemical cycling experiments. The proposed degradation mechanism is confirmed by the morphology changes. The work provides strong evidence for and in-depth understanding of the weakness of 2D layered nanomaterials and paves the way for further interlayer reinforcement, especially for 2D layered transition metal oxides.
Project description:Thermotropic smectic liquid crystalline polymers were used as a scaffold to create organic/inorganic hybrid layered nanomaterials. Different polymers were prepared by photopolymerizing blends of a hydrogen bonded carboxylic acid derivative and a 10?% cross-linker of variable length in their liquid crystalline phase. Nanopores with dimensions close to 1?nm were generated by breaking the hydrogen bonded dimers in a high pH solution. The pores were filled with positively charged silver (Ag) ions, resulting in a layered silver(I)-polymeric hybrid material. Subsequent exposure to a NaBH4 reducing solution allowed for the formation of supported hybrid metal/organic films. In the bulk of the film the dimension of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) was regulated with subnanometer precision by the cross-linker length. Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 0.9, 1.3, and 1.8?nm were produced inside the nanopores thanks to the combined effect of spatially confined reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles by the polymer carboxylic groups. At the same time, strong Ag migration occurred in the surface region, resulting in the formation of a nanostructured metallic top layer composed of large (10-20?nm) NPs.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductors are a novel class of functional materials that are an ideal platform for electronic applications, where the whole electronic states are directly modified by external stimuli adjacent to their electronic channels. Scale-up of the areal coverage while maintaining homogeneous single crystals has been the relevant challenge. We demonstrate that wafer-size single crystals composed of an organic semiconductor bimolecular layer with an excellent mobility of 10 cm2 V-1 s-1 can be successfully formed via a simple one-shot solution process. The well-controlled process to achieve organic single crystals composed of minimum molecular units realizes unprecedented low contact resistance and results in high-speed transistor operation of 20 MHz, which is twice as high as the common frequency used in near-field wireless communication. The capability of the solution process for scale-up coverage of high-mobility organic semiconductors opens up the way for novel 2D nanomaterials to realize products with large-scale integrated circuits on film-based devices.
Project description:2D materials such as graphene, LAPONITE® clays or molybdenum disulfide nanosheets are of extremely high interest to the materials community as a result of their high surface area and controllable surface properties. While several methods to access 2D inorganic materials are known, the investigation of 2D organic nanomaterials is less well developed on account of the lack of ready synthetic accessibility. Crystallization-driven self-assembly (CDSA) has become a powerful method to access a wide range of complex but precisely-defined nanostructures. The preparation of 2D structures, however, particularly those aimed towards biomedical applications, is limited, with few offering biocompatible and biodegradable characteristics as well as control over self-assembly in two dimensions. Herein, in contrast to conventional self-assembly rules, we show that the solubility of polylactide (PLLA)-based amphiphiles in alcohols results in unprecedented shape selectivity based on unimer solubility. We use log?Poct analysis to drive solvent selection for the formation of large uniform 2D diamond-shaped platelets, up to several microns in size, using long, soluble coronal blocks. By contrast, less soluble PLLA-containing block copolymers yield cylindrical micelles and mixed morphologies. The methods developed in this work provide a simple and consistently reproducible protocol for the preparation of well-defined 2D organic nanomaterials, whose size and morphology are expected to facilitate potential applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering and in nanocomposites.
Project description:Microporous polymer frameworks have attracted considerable attention to make novel separation layers owing to their highly porous structure, high permeability, and excellent molecular separation. This study concerns the fabrication and properties of thin melamine-based microporous polymer networks with a layer thickness of around 400?nm, supported on an ?-alumina support and their potential use in organic solvent nanofiltration. The modified membranes show excellent solvent purification performances, such as n-heptane permeability as high as 9.2?L?m-2 ?h-1 ?bar -1 in combination with a very high rejection of approximately 99?% for organic dyes with molecular weight of ?457?Da. These values are higher than for the majority of the state-of-the-art membranes. The membranes further exhibit outstanding long-term operation stability. This work significantly expands the possibilities of using ceramic membranes in organic solvent nanofiltration.