Cloning, expression and antioxidant activity of a thioredoxin peroxidase from Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese.
ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the thioredoxin- dependent reduction of hydroperoxides. In this study, a novel thioredoxin peroxidase (Bbt-TPx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was found by EST sequence analysis of a cDNA library of Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese ovary. The sequence of a full-length cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 198 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 22,150 Da. The expression patterns of the protein at different developmental stages and adult amphioxus tissues indicate that this enzyme may play important roles in anti-oxidation and innate immunity. The recombinant Bbt-TPx1 protein was expressed with a polyhistidine-tag in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni chromatography followed by SP cation exchange chromatography. The rBbt-TPx1 protein existed as a dimer under non-reducing conditions, and was dissociated into monomers by dithiothreitol (DTT); it might predominantly exist in oligomeric form. The rBbt-TPx1 protein showed a significant thiol-dependent peroxidase activity, removing hydrogen peroxide in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), but not glutathione (GSH). Protection of plasmid DNA and the thiol-protein from damage by metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) in vitro was also revealed.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in the regulation of mammalian signal transduction. During some cell signaling processes, the generation of endogenous hydrogen peroxide inactivates selected PTPs via oxidation of the enzyme's catalytic cysteine thiolate group. Importantly, low-molecular weight and protein thiols in the cell have the potential to regenerate the catalytically active PTPs. Here we examined the recovery of catalytic activity from two oxidatively inactivated PTPs (PTP1B and SHP-2) by various low-molecular weight thiols and the enzyme thioredoxin. All monothiols examined regenerated the catalytic activity of oxidized PTP1B, with apparent rate constants that varied by a factor of approximately 8. In general, molecules bearing low-pKa thiol groups were particularly effective. The biological thiol glutathione repaired oxidized PTP1B with an apparent second-order rate constant of 0.023 ± 0.004 M(-1) s(-1), while the dithiol dithiothreitol (DTT) displayed an apparent second-order rate constant of 0.325 ± 0.007 M(-1) s(-1). The enzyme thioredoxin regenerated the catalytic activity of oxidized PTP1B at a substantially faster rate than DTT. Thioredoxin (2 ?M) converted oxidized PTP1B to the active form with an observed rate constant of 1.4 × 10(-3) s(-1). The rates at which these agents regenerated oxidized PTP1B followed the order Trx > DTT > GSHand comparable values observed at 2 ?M Trx, 4 mM DTT, and 60 mM GSH. Various disulfides that are byproducts of the reactivation process did not inactivate native PTP1B at concentrations of 1-20 mM. The common biochemical reducing agent tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine regenerates enzymatic activity from oxidized PTP1B somewhat faster than the thiol-based reagents, with a rate constant of 1.5 ± 0.5 M(-1) s(-1). We observed profound kinetic differences between the thiol-dependent regeneration of activity from oxidized PTP1B and SHP-2, highlighting the potential for structural differences in various oxidized PTPs to play a significant role in the rates at which low-molecular weight thiols and thiol-containing enzymes such as thioredoxin and glutaredoxin return catalytic activity to these enzymes during cell signaling events.
Project description:Thioredoxin peroxidase (Tpx), also named peroxiredoxin (Prx), is an important peroxidase that can protect organisms against stressful environments. AccTpx4, a 1-Cys thioredoxin peroxidase gene from the Chinese honey bee Apis cerana cerana, was cloned and characterized. The AccTpx4 gene encodes a protein that is predicted to contain the conserved PVCTTE motif from 1-Cys peroxiredoxin. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) and Western blotting revealed that AccTpx4 was induced by various oxidative stresses, such as cold, heat, insecticides, H(2)O(2), and HgCl(2). The in vivo peroxidase activity assay showed that recombinant AccTpx4 protein could efficiently degrade H(2)O(2) in the presence of DL-dithiothreitol (DTT). In addition, disc fusion assays revealed that AccTpx4 could function to protect cells against oxidative stresses. These results indicate that AccTpx4 plays an important role in oxidative stress responses and may contribute to the conservation of honeybees.
Project description:The 29 kDa protein of Entamoeba histolytica (Eh29), as well as a truncated variant of this protein, which lacks a cysteine-rich N-terminal region of 40 amino acid residues (Eh29mut), were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Both recombinant proteins (recEh29, recEh29mut) were found to have hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-removing activity, but recEh29 was twice as active as recEh29mut. For the consumption of exogenous H2O2, activity was dependent on the presence of reducing equivalents, such as dithiothreitol (DTT), indicating that Eh29 constitutes a thiol-dependent peroxidase. DTT was not required to remove H2O2 by recEh29 or recEh29mut when H2O2 was generated enzymically by the E. histolytica NADPH:flavin oxidoreductase. This enzyme produces H2O2 under aerobic conditions and simultaneously serves as a hydrogen donor for Eh29. Peroxidase activity of the recombinant proteins was further supported by complementation of an E. coli strain that lacks the entire alkyl hydroperoxide reductase locus. The high sensitivity of these bacteria against cumene hydroperoxide was significantly reduced by the introduction of the genes encoding recEh29 or recEh29mut. Using antisera raised against the recombinant proteins, native Eh29 was localized within the cytoplasm of the amoebae. In addition, the antisera reacted with proteins of E. histolytica lysates with apparent molecular masses of 35 kDa and 160-300 kDa. All of them exhibited thiol-peroxidase activity.
Project description:The katG gene coding for the only catalase-peroxidase in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was deleted in this organism. Although the rate of H2O2 decomposition was about 30 times lower in the DeltakatG mutant than in the wild type, the strain had a normal phenotype and its doubling time as well as its resistance to H2O2 and methyl viologen were indistinguishable from those of the wild type. The residual H2O2-scavenging capacity was more than sufficient to deal with the rate of H2O2 production by the cell, estimated to be less than 1% of the maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport in vivo. We propose that catalase-peroxidase has a protective role against environmental H2O2 generated by algae or bacteria in the ecosystem (for example, in mats). This protective role is most apparent at a high cell density of the cyanobacterium. The residual H2O2-scavenging activity in the DeltakatG mutant was a light-dependent peroxidase activity. However, neither glutathione peroxidase nor ascorbate peroxidase accounted for a significant part of this H2O2-scavenging activity. When a small thiol such as dithiothreitol was added to the medium, the rate of H2O2 decomposition in the DeltakatG mutant increased more than 10-fold, indicating that a thiol-specific peroxidase, for which thioredoxin may be the physiological electron donor, is present. Oxidized thioredoxin is likely to be reduced again by photosynthetic electron transport. Therefore, under laboratory conditions, there are only two enzymatic mechanisms for H2O2 decomposition present in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. One is catalyzed by a catalase-peroxidase, and the other is catalyzed by thiol-specific peroxidase.
Project description:H2O2 can cause oxidative damage associated with age-related diseases such as diabetes and cancer but is also used to initiate diverse responses, including increased antioxidant gene expression. Despite significant interest, H2O2-signaling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we present a mechanism for the propagation of an H2O2 signal that is vital for the adaptation of the model yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxins are abundant peroxidases with conserved antiaging and anticancer activities. Remarkably, we find that the only essential function for the thioredoxin peroxidase activity of the Prx Tpx1(hPrx1/2) in resistance to H2O2 is to inhibit a conserved thioredoxin family protein Txl1(hTxnl1/TRP32). Thioredoxins regulate many enzymes and signaling proteins. Thus, our discovery that a Prx amplifies an H2O2 signal by driving the oxidation of a thioredoxin-like protein has important implications, both for Prx function in oxidative stress resistance and for responses to H2O2.
Project description:Dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard reagent for reducing disulfide bonds between and within biological molecules. At neutral pH, however, >99% of DTT thiol groups are protonated and thus unreactive. Herein, we report on (2S)-2-amino-1,4-dimercaptobutane (dithiobutylamine or DTBA), a dithiol that can be synthesized from l-aspartic acid in a few high-yielding steps that are amenable to a large-scale process. DTBA has thiol pK(a) values that are ~1 unit lower than those of DTT and forms a disulfide with a similar E°' value. DTBA reduces disulfide bonds in both small molecules and proteins faster than does DTT. The amino group of DTBA enables its isolation by cation-exchange and facilitates its conjugation. These attributes indicate that DTBA is a superior reagent for reducing disulfide bonds in aqueous solution.
Project description:Francisella genus comprises Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria that are among the most infectious human pathogens. A protein of 14.7 KDa named as FTN_1133 was previously described as a novel hydroperoxide resistance protein in F. tularensis subsp. novicida, implicated in organic peroxide detoxification and virulence. Here, we describe a structural and biochemical characterization of FTN_1133. Contrary to previous assumptions, multiple amino acid sequence alignment analyses revealed that FTN_1133 does not share significant similarity with proteins of the Ohr/OsmC family or any other Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase, including conserved motifs around reactive cysteine residues. Circular dichroism analyses were consistent with the in silico prediction of an all-?-helix secondary structure. The pKa of its single cysteine residue, determined by a monobromobimane alkylation method, was shown to be 8.0±0.1, value that is elevated when compared with other Cys-based peroxidases, such as peroxiredoxins and Ohr/OsmC proteins. Attempts to determine a thiol peroxidase activity for FTN_1133 failed, using both dithiols (DTT, thioredoxin and lipoamide) and monothiols (glutathione or 2-mercaptoethanol) as reducing agents. Heterologous expression of FTN_1133 gene in ahpC and oxyR mutants of E. coli showed no complementation. Furthermore, analysis of FTN_1133 protein by non-reducing SDS-PAGE showed that an inter-molecular disulfide bond (not detected in Ohr proteins) can be generated under hydroperoxide treatment, but the observed rates were not comparable to those observed for other thiol-dependent peroxidases. All the biochemical and structural data taken together indicated that FTN_1133 displayed distinct characteristics from other thiol dependent peroxidases and, therefore, suggested that FTN_1133 is not directly involved in hydroperoxide detoxification.
Project description:Graphical abstract Highlights • Contact to Dithiothreitol (DTT), a widely used antioxidant, is lethal to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.• At low concentrations, DTT contact induces the expression of some apoptosis genes.• In parallel, DTT triggers the expression of a cuticle barrier gene.• Expression of some genes involved in detoxification is intensified with increasing DTT concentrations.• Toxicity of DTT to the exnvironment should be tested. The thiol-containing compound Dithiothreitol (DTT) has been shown to be toxic to cultured cells by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species that ultimately cause cell death. However, its effects on multicellular organisms and the environment have not been investigated yet in detail. In this work, we tested the toxicity of DTT to the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. We show that DTT is lethal to D. melanogaster by topical application but not through feeding. DTT treatment triggers the transcription of the canonical apoptosis regulators grim, hid and rpr at low amounts. The amplitude of this induction declines with elevating DTT amounts. By live microscopy, we observe apoptotic cells especially in the gut of DTT treated flies. In parallel, low DTT amounts also activate the expression of the cuticle barrier component gene snsl. This indicates that a physical defence response is launched upon DTT contact. This combined measure is seemingly successful in preventing fly death. The expression of a number of known detoxification genes including cyp6a2, cyp6a8, cyp12d1 and GstD2 is also enhanced through DTT contact. The degree of upregulation of these genes is proportional to the applied DTT amounts. Despite this effort, flies exposed to high amounts of DTT eventually die. Together, D. melanogaster is able to sense DTT toxicity and adjust the defence response successfully at least at low concentrations. This is the first time to analyse the molecular consequences of DTT exposure in a multicellular organism. Our work provides a new model to discuss the physiological response of animals against thiol toxins and to resurvey the effect of redox agents on the environment.
Project description:Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the formation of 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. Each polypeptide of the large subunit of eukaryotic RNRs contains two redox-active cysteine pairs, one in the active site and the other at the C-terminus. In each catalytic cycle, the active-site disulfide is reduced by the C-terminal cysteine pair, which in turn is reduced by thioredoxins or glutaredoxins. Dithiols such as DTT are used in RNR studies instead of the thioredoxin or glutaredoxin systems. DTT can directly reduce the disulfide in the active site and does not require the C-terminal cysteines for RNR activity. Here we demonstrate that the phosphines tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine (THP) are efficient non-thiol RNR reductants, but in contrast to the dithiols DTT, bis(2-mercaptoethyl)sulfone (BMS), and (S)-(1,4-dithiobutyl)-2-amine (DTBA) they act specifically via the C-terminal disulfide in a manner similar to thioredoxin and glutaredoxin. The simultaneous use of phosphines and dithiols results in ~3-fold higher activity compared to what is achieved when either type of reductant is used alone. This surprising effect can be explained by the concerted action of dithiols on the active-site cysteines and phosphines on the C-terminal cysteines. As non-thiol and non-protein reductants, phosphines can be used to differentiate between the redox-active cysteine pairs in RNRs.
Project description:It has been shown previously that the thioredoxin system (thioredoxin + thioredoxin reductase + NADPH) may replace dithiothreitol (DTT) as a cofactor for vitamin KO and K reductase in salt-washed detergent-solubilized bovine liver microsomes. Here we demonstrate that the system can be improved further by adding protein disulphide-isomerase (PDI) to the components mentioned above. Moreover, NADPH may be replaced by reduced RNAase as a hydrogen donor. In our in vitro system the various protein cofactors were required at concentrations 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than that of DDT, whereas the maximal reaction rate was about 3-fold higher. PDI stimulated the thioredoxin-driven reaction about 10-fold, with an apparent Km value of 8 microM. These data suggest that in the vitro system the formation of disulphide bonds is somehow linked to the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of glutamate residues. In vivo, both disulphide formation and vitamin K-dependent carboxylation are post-translational modifications taking place at the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian secretory cells. The possibility that the reactions are also coupled in vivo is discussed.