Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection suppresses autophagy and NF-?B antiviral responses via degradation of ATG5-ATG12 by 3Cpro.
ABSTRACT: Autophagy-related protein ATG5-ATG12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Previous reports show that ATG5-ATG12 positively or negatively regulates type I interferon (IFN-?/?) pathway during virus infection. In this study, we found that FMDV infection rapidly induced LC3 lipidation and GFP-LC3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in PK-15 cells. Along with infection time course to 2-5?h.p.i., the levels of LC3II and ATG5-ATG12 were gradually reduced. Further study showed that ATG5-ATG12 was degraded by viral protein 3Cpro, demonstrating that FMDV suppresses autophagy along with viral protein production. Depletion of ATG5-ATG12 by siRNA knock down significantly increased the FMDV yields, whereas overexpression of ATG5-ATG12 had the opposite effects, suggesting that degradation of ATG5-ATG12 benefits virus growth. Further experiment showed that overexpression of ATG5-ATG12 positively regulated NF-?B pathway during FMDV infection, marked with promotion of IKK?/? phosphorylation and I?B? degradation, inhibition of p65 degradation, and facilitation of p65 nuclear translocation. Meanwhile, ATG5-ATG12 also promoted the phosphorylation of TBK1 and activation of IRF3 via preventing TRAF3 degradation. The positive regulation of NF-?B and IRF3 pathway by ATG5-ATG12 resulted in enhanced expression of IFN-?, chemokines/cytokines, and IFN stimulated genes, including anti-viral protein PKR. Altogether, above findings suggest that ATG5-ATG12 positively regulate anti-viral NF-?B and IRF3 signaling during FMDV infection, thereby limiting FMDV proliferation. FMDV has evolved mechanisms to counteract the antiviral function of ATG5-ATG12, via degradation of them by viral protein 3Cpro.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC5386389 | BioStudies |