ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common clinical arrhythmia that appears to be highly heritable, despite representing a complex interplay of several disease processes that generally do not manifest until later in life. In this manuscript, we will review the genetic basis of this complex trait established through studies of familial AF, linkage and candidate gene studies of common AF, genome wide association studies (GWAS) of common AF, and transcriptomic studies of AF. Since AF is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of stroke, we also review the intersection of common genetic factors associated with both of these conditions. Similarly, we highlight the intersection of common genetic markers associated with some risk factors for AF, such as hypertension and obesity, and AF. Lastly, we describe a paradigm where genetic factors predispose to the risk of AF, but which may require additional stress and trigger factors in older age to allow for the clinical manifestation of AF.
Project description:Background Atrial fibrillation ( AF ) is a common arrhythmia seen in clinical practice. Occasionally, no common risk factors are present in patients with this arrhythmia. This suggests the potential underlying role of genetic factors associated with predisposition to developing AF . Methods and Results We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature through large online libraries, including PubMed. Many different potassium and sodium channel mutations have been discussed in their relation to AF . There have also been non-ion channel mutations that have been linked to AF . Genome-wide association studies have helped in identifying potential links between single-nucleotide polymorphisms and AF . Ancestry studies have also highlighted a role of genetics in AF . Blacks with a higher percentage of European ancestry are at higher risk of developing AF . The emerging field of ablatogenomics involves the use of genetic profiles in their relation to recurrence of AF after catheter ablation. Conclusions The evidence for the underlying role of genetics in AF continues to expand. Ultimately, the role of genetics in risk stratification of AF and its recurrence is of significant interest. No established risk scores that are useful in clinical practice are present to date.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia with increased risk of stroke and congestive heart failure. AF is a highly genetic heterogeneous disease, but a large proportion of AF cannot be explained by genetic variants only. Some risk factors of AF, tendentious heritable phenomenon, potentially reversible conditions and some subtypes without DNA sequence variation all indicate the participation of DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of AF. Bisulphite converted DNA from the 11 left atrium samples were hybridised to the Illumina Infinium 450k Human Methylation Beadchip GPL13534
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and is associated with increased morbidity. As the population ages and the prevalence of AF continues to rise, the socioeconomic consequences of AF will become increasingly burdensome. Although there are well-defined clinical risk factors for AF, a significant heritable component is also recognized. To identify the molecular basis for the heritability of AF, investigators have used a combination of classical Mendelian genetics, candidate gene screening, and genome-wide association studies. However, these avenues have, as yet, failed to define the majority of the heritability of AF. The goal of this review is to describe the results from both candidate gene and genome-wide studies, as well as to outline potential future avenues for creating a more complete understanding of AF genetics. Ultimately, a more comprehensive view of the genetic underpinnings for AF will lead to the identification of novel molecular pathways and improved risk prediction of this complex arrhythmia.
Project description:In recent years, growing evidence suggests an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common sleep breathing disorder which is increasing in prevalence as the obesity epidemic surges, and atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia. AF is a costly public health problem increasing a patient's risk of stroke, heart failure, and all-cause mortality. It remains unclear whether the association is based on mutual risk factors, such as obesity and hypertension, or whether OSA is an independent risk factor and causative in nature. This paper explores the pathophysiology of OSA which may predispose to AF, clinical implications of stroke risk in this cohort who display overlapping disease processes, and targeted treatment strategies such as continuous positive airway pressure and AF ablation.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia of substantial public health importance. Recent evidence demonstrates a heritable component underlying AF, and genetic discoveries have identified common variants associated with the arrhythmia. Ultimately one hopes that the consideration of genetic variation in clinical practice may enhance care and improve health outcomes. In this review we explore areas of potential clinical utility in AF management including those relating to pharmacogenetics and risk prediction.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in women and men worldwide. During the past century, a range of risk factors has been associated with AF, severe complications from the arrhythmia have been identified, and its prevalence has been increasing steadily. Whereas evidence has accumulated regarding sex-specific differences in coronary heart disease and stroke, the differences between women and men with AF has received less attention. We review the current literature on sex-specific differences in the epidemiology of AF, including incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and genetics, and in the pathophysiology and the clinical presentation and prognosis of patients with this arrhythmia. We highlight current knowledge gaps and areas that warrant future research, which might advance understanding of variation in the risk factors and complications of AF, and ultimately aid more-tailored management of the arrhythmia.
Project description:Despite some common risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) being more prevalent among blacks, African Americans are increasingly being reported with lower prevalence and incidence of AF compared with whites. Contemporary studies have not provided a complete explanation for this apparent AF paradox in African Americans. Although many traditional and novel risk factors for AF have been identified, the role of ethnic-specific risk factors has not been examined. Whereas hypertension has been the most common risk factor associated with AF, coronary artery disease also plays an important role in AF pathophysiology in whites. Thereby, elucidating the role of ethnic-specific risk factors for AF may provide important insight into why African Americans are protected from AF or why whites are more prone to develop the arrhythmia. The link between AF susceptibility and genetic processes has only been recently uncovered. Polymorphisms in renin-angiotensin system genes have been characterized as predisposing to AF under certain environmental conditions. Several ion channel genes, signaling molecules, and several genetic loci have been linked with AF. Thereby, studies investigating genetic variants contributing to the differential AF risk in individuals of African American versus European ancestry may also provide important insight into the etiology of the AF paradox in blacks.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia with well-established clinical and genetic risk components. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 17 independent susceptibility signals for AF at 14 genomic regions, but the mechanisms through which these loci confer risk to AF remain largely undefined. This problem is not unique to AF, as the field of functional genomics, which attempts to bridge this gap from genotype to phenotype, has only uncovered the mechanisms for a handful of GWAS loci. Recent functional genomic studies have made great strides towards translating genetic discoveries to an underlying mechanism, but the large-scale application of these techniques to AF has remain limited. These advances, as well as the continued unresolved challenges for both common variation in AF and the functional genomics field in general, will be the subject of the following review.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common and refractory arrhythmia. Prevalence of AF increases with age. Asymptomatic AF is a state of asymptomatic episodes of arrhythmia and its exact prevalence remains unknown. Ablation and therapy with antiarrhythmic agents may predispose to asymptomatic AF. Detection of silent AF is crucial for prevention of ischaemic stroke. Progress in continuous ECG monitoring by Holter ECG, telemetry methods or implantable devices can provide a useful tools for identifying silent AF. Simple screening procedures like pulse examination and ambulatory ECG may be helpful in arrhythmia detection and logically - ischemic stroke prevention.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis, increasing the risk of stroke and death. Although traditionally associated with cardiovascular diseases, there is increasing evidence of high incidence of AF in patients with highly prevalent noncardiovascular diseases, such as cancer, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, considerable number of patients has been affected by these comorbidities, leading to an increased risk of adverse outcomes.The authors performed a systematic review of the literature aiming to better elucidate the interaction between these conditions.Several mechanisms seem to contribute to the concomitant presence of AF and noncardiovascular diseases. Comorbidities, advanced age, autonomic dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and inflammation are common to these conditions and may predispose to AF.The treatment of AF in these patients represents a clinical challenge, especially in terms of antithrombotic therapy, since the scores for stratification of thromboembolic risk, such as the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores, and the scores for hemorrhagic risk, like the HAS-BLED score have limitations when applied in these conditions.The evidence in this area is still scarce and further investigations to elucidate aspects like epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of AF in noncardiovascular diseases are still needed.