Genetic characterization of the non-structural protein-3 gene of bluetongue virus serotype-2 isolate from India.
ABSTRACT: AIM:Sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies based on non-structural protein-3 (NS3) gene are important in understanding the evolution and epidemiology of bluetongue virus (BTV). This study was aimed at characterizing the NS3 gene sequence of Indian BTV serotype-2 (BTV2) to elucidate its genetic relationship to global BTV isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The NS3 gene of BTV2 was amplified from infected BHK-21 cell cultures, cloned and subjected to sequence analysis. The generated NS3 gene sequence was compared with the corresponding sequences of different BTV serotypes across the world, and a phylogenetic relationship was established. RESULTS:The NS3 gene of BTV2 showed moderate levels of variability in comparison to different BTV serotypes, with nucleotide sequence identities ranging from 81% to 98%. The region showed high sequence homology of 93-99% at amino acid level with various BTV serotypes. The PPXY/PTAP late domain motifs, glycosylation sites, hydrophobic domains, and the amino acid residues critical for virus-host interactions were conserved in NS3 protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BTV isolates segregate into four topotypes and that the Indian BTV2 in subclade IA is closely related to Asian and Australian origin strains. CONCLUSION:Analysis of the NS3 gene indicated that Indian BTV2 isolate is closely related to strains from Asia and Australia, suggesting a common origin of infection. Although the pattern of evolution of BTV2 isolate is different from other global isolates, the deduced amino acid sequence of NS3 protein demonstrated high molecular stability.
Project description:Aim:The aim of the study was to characterize bluetongue virus serotype 16 (BTV-16), recently isolated from different states of India. The evolutionary relationship of newly isolated BTV-16 and previously reported Indian and global BTV-16 isolates were compared using molecular analysis. Materials and Methods:In the present study, five (n=5) BTV-16 isolates were used to amplify gene segment-2 and segment-6 encoding the outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5, respectively. The amplified products were purified and sequenced by the Sanger sequencing method. The phylogenetic relationship and nucleotide identity of all five BTV-16 isolates were compared with previously reported Indian and global BTV-16 isolates. Nucleotide sequence data were aligned using the CLUSTAL W algorithm implemented in the MegAlign of DNASTAR program package (MegAlign 5.00, DNASTAR Inc., Madison, USA). Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using MEGA version 6.0 software with the best nucleotide substitution model. Results:Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP2 and VP5 encoding genes, segregates Indian BTV-16 isolates in a distinct cluster with proximity to the Eastern topotype. Indian isolates make a monophyletic cluster with Eastern topotypes with Western topotype BTV-16 (BTV-16/NIG/AJ586694) occupying a separate cluster. Indian isolates were found to share 91.5%-97.5% and 96.5%-98.9% identity at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid (aa) level, respectively, to the global BTV-16 isolates. There is a high degree of variation with the Nigerian isolate with 27.0-27.7% and 26.0-26.9% at the nucleotide and aa sequence level, respectively. These data suggest that Indian BTV-16 isolates might have evolved separately within the Eastern BTV topotype. Conclusion:Phylogenetic analyses and nucleotide identity of BTV-16 isolates at the VP2 and VP5 gene encoded level indicate that isolates used in the present study might have evolved from a common Eastern topotype ancestor. The data presented in this study will be helpful for future selection of reference strains in a serological and molecular epidemiology study.
Project description:Since 1998 there have been significant changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV). Ten previously exotic BTV serotypes have been detected in Europe, causing severe disease outbreaks in naïve ruminant populations. Previously exotic BTV serotypes were also identified in the USA, Israel, Australia and India. BTV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and changes in the distribution of vector species, climate change, increased international travel and trade are thought to have contributed to these events. Thirteen BTV serotypes have been isolated in India since first reports of the disease in the country during 1964. Efficient methods for preparation of viral dsRNA and cDNA synthesis, have facilitated full-genome sequencing of BTV strains from the region. These studies introduce a new approach for BTV characterization, based on full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, facilitating the identification of BTV serotype, topotype and reassortant strains. Phylogenetic analyses show that most of the equivalent genome-segments of Indian BTV strains are closely related, clustering within a major eastern BTV 'topotype'. However, genome-segment 5 (Seg-5) encoding NS1, from multiple post 1982 Indian isolates, originated from a western BTV topotype. All ten genome-segments of BTV-2 isolates (IND2003/01, IND2003/02 and IND2003/03) are closely related (>99% identity) to a South African BTV-2 vaccine-strain (western topotype). Similarly BTV-10 isolates (IND2003/06; IND2005/04) show >99% identity in all genome segments, to the prototype BTV-10 (CA-8) strain from the USA. These data suggest repeated introductions of western BTV field and/or vaccine-strains into India, potentially linked to animal or vector-insect movements, or unauthorised use of 'live' South African or American BTV-vaccines in the country. The data presented will help improve nucleic acid based diagnostics for Indian serotypes/topotypes, as part of control strategies.
Project description:Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). It causes disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and other species. BTV has spread into northern Europe, causing disease in sheep and cattle. The introduction of new serotypes, changes in vector species, and climate change have contributed to these changes. Ten BTV serotypes have been isolated in Australia without apparent associated disease. Simplified methods for preferential isolation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and template preparation enabled high-throughput sequencing of the 10 genome segments of all Australian BTV prototype serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis reinforced the Western and Eastern topotypes previously characterized but revealed unique features of several Australian BTVs. Many of the Australian BTV genome segments (Seg-) were closely related, clustering together within the Eastern topotypes. A novel Australian topotype for Seg-5 (NS1) was identified, with taxa spread across several serotypes and over time. Seg-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -9, and -10 of BTV_2_AUS_2008 were most closely related to the cognate segments of viruses from Taiwan and Asia and not other Australian viruses, supporting the conclusion that BTV_2 entered Australia recently. The Australian BTV_15_AUS_1982 prototype was revealed to be unusual among the Australian BTV isolates, with Seg-3 and -8 distantly related to other BTV sequences from all serotypes.
Project description:The entire genome of the reference strain of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 16 (strain RSArrrr/16) was sequenced (a total of 23,518 base pairs). The virus was obtained from the Orbivirus Reference Collection (ORC) at IAH, Pirbright, United Kingdom. The virus strain, which was previously provided by the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute in South Africa, was originally isolated from the Indian subcontinent (Hazara, West Pakistan) in 1960. Previous phylogenetic comparisons show that BTV RNA sequences cluster according to the geographic origins of the virus isolate/lineage, identifying distinct BTV topotypes. Sequence comparisons of segments Seg-1 to Seg-10 show that RSArrrr/16 belongs to the major eastern topotype of BTV (BTV-16e) and can be regarded as a reference strain of BTV-16e for phylogenetic and molecular epidemiology studies. All 10 genome segments of RSArrrr/16 group closely with the vaccine strain of BTV-16 (RSAvvvv/16) that was derived from it, as well as those recently published for a Chinese isolate of BTV-16 (>99% nucleotide identity), suggesting a very recent common ancestry for all three viruses.
Project description:The non-structural protein 3 (NS3) of bluetongue virus (BTV) is the second smaller non-structural protein produced in host cells, playing an important role in BTV trafficking and release.In this study, we generated five BTV NS3-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), named 3D8, 2G9, 1B5, 4H8, and 2B12. A panel of overlapping NS3-derived peptides representing the entirety of the BTV15 NS3 protein was screened to identify linear peptide epitopes recognized by each mAb. Based on the initial screen, a series of progressively truncated peptides were produced to identify the minimal linear peptide sequence required to maintain mAb binding. We found that mAb 3D8 reacted with the motif (36)PPRYA(40), 2G9 reacted with the motif (82)AEAFRDDVRLRQIK(95), 1B5 reacted with the motif (205)YNDAVRMSF(213), 2B12 and 4H8 reacted with the motif (204)SYNDAVRMSF(213). Sequence alignments demonstrated that these linear epitopes are highly conserved among all BTV serotypes, consistent with the observation that each mAb was able to recognize cells infected with BTV1-24 serotypes tested and each identified B cell epitope was able to be recognized by BTV-infect sheep serum.This collection of mAbs along with defined linear epitopes may provide useful reagents for investigations of NS3 protein function and the development of BTV group-specific diagnostics.
Project description:Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the 'type' species of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The BTV genome is composed of ten linear segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), each of which codes for one of ten distinct viral proteins. Previous phylogenetic comparisons have evaluated variations in genome segment 3 (Seg-3) nucleotide sequence as way to identify the geographical origin (different topotypes) of BTV isolates. The full-length nucleotide sequence of genome Seg-3 was determined for thirty BTV isolates recovered in the eastern Mediterranean region, the Balkans and other geographic areas (Spain, India, Malaysia and Africa). These data were compared, based on molecular variability, positive-selection-analysis and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic reconstructions (using appropriate substitution models) to 24 previously published sequences, revealing their evolutionary relationships. These analyses indicate that negative selection is a major force in the evolution of BTV, restricting nucleotide variability, reducing the evolutionary rate of Seg-3 and potentially of other regions of the BTV genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the BTV-4 strains isolated over a relatively long time interval (1979-2000), in a single geographic area (Greece), showed a low level of nucleotide diversity, indicating that the virus can circulate almost unchanged for many years. These analyses also show that the recent incursions into south-eastern Europe were caused by BTV strains belonging to two different major-lineages: representing an 'eastern' (BTV-9, -16 and -1) and a 'western' (BTV-4) group/topotype. Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses indicate that these viruses originated from a geographic area to the east and southeast of Greece (including Cyprus and the Middle East), which appears to represent an important ecological niche for the virus that is likely to represent a continuing source of future BTV incursions into Europe.
Project description:To better define the molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection, the genetic characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of the S3 genes of the five U.S. prototype strains of BTV, the commercially available serotype 10 modified live virus vaccine, and 18 field isolates of BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 obtained in California during 1980, 1981, 1989, and 1990 were determined. With the exception of the S3 gene of the U.S. prototype strain of BTV serotype 2 (BTV 2), these viruses had an overall sequence homology of between 95 and 100%. Phylogenetic analyses segregated the prototype U.S. BTV 2 strain to a unique branch (100% bootstrap value), whereas the rest of the viruses clustered in two main monophyletic groups that were not correlated with their serotype, year of isolation, or geographical origin. The lack of consistent association between S3 gene sequence and virus serotype likely is a consequence of reassortment of BTV gene segments during natural mixed infections of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The prototype strain of BTV 13, which is considered an introduction to the U.S. like BTV 2, presents an S3 gene which is highly homologous to those of some isolates of BTV 10 and especially to that of the vaccine strain. This finding strongly suggests that the U.S. prototype strain of BTV 13 is a natural reassortant. The different topologies of the phylogenetic trees of the L2 and S3 genes of the various viruses indicate that these two genome segments evolve independently. We conclude that the S3 gene segment of populations of BTV in California is formed by different consensus sequences which cocirculate and which cannot be grouped by serotype.
Project description:Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne viral disease, which primarily affects ruminants in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Twenty six bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been recognised worldwide, including nine from Europe and fifteen in the United States. Identification of BTV serotype is important for vaccination programmes and for BTV epidemiology studies. Traditional typing methods (virus isolation and serum or virus neutralisation tests (SNT or VNT)) are slow (taking weeks, depend on availability of reference virus-strains or antisera) and can be inconclusive. Nucleotide sequence analyses and phylogenetic comparisons of genome segment 2 (Seg-2) encoding BTV outer-capsid protein VP2 (the primary determinant of virus serotype) were completed for reference strains of BTV-1 to 26, as well as multiple additional isolates from different geographic and temporal origins. The resulting Seg-2 database has been used to develop rapid (within 24 h) and reliable RT-PCR-based typing assays for each BTV type. Multiple primer-pairs (at least three designed for each serotype) were widely tested, providing an initial identification of serotype by amplification of a cDNA product of the expected size. Serotype was confirmed by sequencing of the cDNA amplicons and phylogenetic comparisons to previously characterised reference strains. The results from RT-PCR and sequencing were in perfect agreement with VNT for reference strains of all 26 BTV serotypes, as well as the field isolates tested. The serotype-specific primers showed no cross-amplification with reference strains of the remaining 25 serotypes, or multiple other isolates of the more closely related heterologous BTV types. The primers and RT-PCR assays developed in this study provide a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for the identification and differentiation of the twenty-six BTV serotypes, and will be updated periodically to maintain their relevance to current BTV distribution and epidemiology (http://www.reoviridae.org/dsRNA_virus_proteins/ReoID/rt-pcr-primers.htm).
Project description:Bluetongue virus is the "type" species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Twenty four distinct bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been recognized for decades, any of which is thought to be capable of causing "bluetongue" (BT), an insect-borne disease of ruminants. However, two further BTV serotypes, BTV-25 (Toggenburg orbivirus, from Switzerland) and BTV-26 (from Kuwait) have recently been identified in goats and sheep, respectively. The BTV genome is composed of ten segments of linear dsRNA, encoding 7 virus-structural proteins (VP1 to VP7) and four distinct non-structural (NS) proteins (NS1 to NS4). We report the entire BTV-26 genome sequence (isolate KUW2010/02) and comparisons to other orbiviruses. Highest identity levels were consistently detected with other BTV strains, identifying KUW2010/02 as BTV. The outer-core protein and major BTV serogroup-specific antigen "VP7" showed 98% aa sequence identity with BTV-25, indicating a common ancestry. However, higher level of variation in the nucleotide sequence of Seg-7 (81.2% identity) suggests strong conservation pressures on the protein of these two strains, and that they diverged a long time ago. Comparisons of Seg-2, encoding major outer-capsid component and cell-attachment protein "VP2" identified KUW2010/02 as 26th BTV, within a 12th Seg-2 nucleotype [nucleotype L]. Comparisons of Seg-6, encoding the smaller outer capsid protein VP5, also showed levels of nt/aa variation consistent with identification of KUW2010/02 as BTV-26 (within a 9th Seg-6 nucleotype - nucleotype I). Sequence data for Seg-2 of KUW2010/02 were used to design four sets of oligonucleotide primers for use in BTV-26, type-specific RT-PCR assays. Analyses of other more conserved genome segments placed KUW2010/02 and BTV-25/SWI2008/01 closer to each other than to other "eastern" or "western" BTV strains, but as representatives of two novel and distinct geographic groups (topotypes). Our analyses indicate that all of the BTV genome segments have evolved under strong purifying selection.
Project description:Since 1999, 11 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) similar to Central American or Caribbean strains have been isolated in the southeastern United States, predominantly in Florida. The majority of the incursive serotypes have remained restricted to the southeastern US. In recent years, BTV serotype 3 (BTV-3) has been isolated in areas increasingly distant from Florida. The current study uses whole genome sequencing of recent and historical BTV-3 isolates from the US, Central America and the Caribbean with additional sequences from GenBank to conduct phylogenetic analyses. The individual segments of the BTV genome were analysed to determine if recent BTV-3 isolates are reassortants containing genomic segments from endemic US serotypes or if they retain a majority of Central American/Caribbean genotypes. The analyses indicate that BTV-3 isolates Mississippi 2006, Arkansas 2008 and Mississippi 2009 are closely related reassortants that contain five to six genomic segments that are of US origin and two to three segments of Central American/Caribbean origin. In contrast, the BTV-3 South Dakota 2012 isolate contains seven genomic segments that are more similar to isolates from Central American and the Caribbean. These different evolutionary histories of the BTV-3 isolates suggest that there are at least two different lineages of BTV-3 that are currently circulating in the US.