MiR-24 Inhibition Increases Menin Expression and Decreases Cholangiocarcinoma Proliferation.
ABSTRACT: Menin (MEN1) is a tumor-suppressor protein in neuroendocrine tissue. Therefore, we tested the novel hypothesis that menin regulates cholangiocarcinoma proliferation. Menin and miR-24 expression levels were measured in the following intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines, Mz-ChA-1, TFK-1, SG231, CCLP, HuCCT-1, and HuH-28, as well as the nonmalignant human intrahepatic biliary line, H69. miR-24 miRNA and menin protein levels were manipulated in vitro in Mz-ChA-1 cell lines. Markers of proliferation and angiogenesis (Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factors A/C, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2/3, angiopoietin 1/2, and angiopoietin receptors 1/2) were evaluated. Mz-ChA-1 cells were injected into the flanks of nude mice and treated with miR-24 inhibitor or inhibitor scramble. Menin expression was decreased in advanced CCA specimens, whereas miR-24 expression was increased in CCA. Menin overexpression decreased proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. Inhibition of miR-24 increased menin protein expression while decreasing proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. miR-24 was shown to negatively regulate menin expression by luciferase assay. Tumor burden and expression of proliferative and angiogenic markers was decreased in the miR-24 inhibited tumor group compared to controls. Interestingly, treated tumors were more fibrotic than the control group. miR-24-dependent expression of menin may be important in the regulation of nonmalignant and CCA proliferation and may be an additional therapeutic tool for managing CCA progression.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating biliary cancer. Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and peripheral organs from serotonin by two enzymes, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT). Cholangiocytes secrete neuroendocrine factors, including serotonin-regulating CCA growth by autocrine mechanisms. Melatonin exerts its effects by interaction with melatonin receptor type 1A/1B (MT1/MT2) receptors. We propose that 1) in CCA, there is decreased expression of AANAT and ASMT and secretion of melatonin, changes that stimulate CCA growth; and 2) in vitro overexpression of AANAT decreases CCA growth. We evaluated the 1) expression of AANAT, ASMT, melatonin, and MT1/MT2 in human nonmalignant and CCA lines and control and CCA biopsy samples; 2) melatonin levels in nonmalignant and CCA lines, and bile and serum from controls and patients with intrahepatic CCA; 3) effect of melatonin on the growth and expression of AANAT/ASMT and MT1/MT2 in CCA lines implanted into nude mice; and 4) effect of AANAT overexpression on the proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of MT1/MT2 in Mz-ChA-1 cells. The expression of AANAT, ASMT, and melatonin decreased, whereas MT1/MT2 expression increased in CCA lines and biopsy samples. Melatonin secretion decreased in the supernatant of CCA lines and bile of CCA patients. Melatonin decreased xenograft CCA tumor growth in nude mice by increased AANAT/ASMT and melatonin, along with reduced MT1/MT2 expression. Overexpression of AANAT in Mz-ChA-1 cells inhibited proliferation and MT1/MT2 expression and increased apoptosis. There is dysregulation of the AANAT/ASMT/melatonin → melatonin receptor axis in CCA, which inhibited melatonin secretion and subsequently enhanced CCA growth.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignancy of the biliary epithelium that is associated with low five-year survival. The apelin receptor (APLNR), which is activated by the apelin peptide, has not been studied in CCA. The purpose of this study is to determine if inhibition of the apelin/APLNR axis can inhibit CCA growth.Immunohistochemistry, rtPCR, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and ELISA was used to measure APLNR expression in human CCA cells and tissues. Mz-ChA-1 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of apelin and ML221, an APLNR antagonist. Expression of proliferative and angiogenic genes were measured via rtPCR. In vivo, Mz-ChA-1 cells were injected into the flanks of nu/nu mice, which were treated with ML221 (150 ?g/kg) via tail vein injection.Expression of the apelin/APLNR axis was increased in CCA. In vitro, CCA proliferation and angiogenesis was inhibited by ML221 treatment. ML221 treatment significantly decreased tumor growth in nu/nu mice.The apelin/APLNR axis regulates CCA proliferation and angiogenesis. Inhibition of the apelin/APLNR axis decreases tumor growth in our xenograft model. Targeting APLNR signaling has the potential to serve as a novel, tumor directed therapy for CCA.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive group of biliary tract cancers, characterized by late diagnosis, low effective chemotherapies, multidrug resistance, and poor outcomes. In the attempt to identify new therapeutic strategies for CCA, we studied the antiproliferative activity of a combination between doxorubicin and the natural sesquiterpene ?-caryophyllene in cholangiocarcinoma Mz-ChA-1 cells and nonmalignant H69 cholangiocytes, under both long-term and metronomic schedules. The modulation of STAT3 signaling, oxidative stress, DNA damage response, cell cycle progression and apoptosis was investigated as possible mechanisms of action. ?-caryophyllene was able to synergize the cytotoxicity of low dose doxorubicin in Mz-ChA-1 cells, while producing cytoprotective effects in H69 cholangiocytes, mainly after a long-term exposure of 24 h. The mechanistic analysis highlighted that the sesquiterpene induced a cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase along with the doxorubicin-induced accumulation in S phase, reduced the ?H2AX and GSH levels without affecting GSSG. ROS amount was partly lowered by the combination in Mz-ChA-1 cells, while increased in H69 cells. A lowered expression of doxorubicin-induced STAT3 activation was found in the presence of ?-caryophyllene in both cancer and normal cholangiocytes. These networking effects resulted in an increased apoptosis rate in Mz-ChA-1 cells, despite a lowering in H69 cholangiocytes. This evidence highlighted a possible role of STAT3 as a final effector of a complex network regulated by ?-caryophyllene, which leads to an enhanced doxorubicin-sensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma cells and a lowered chemotherapy toxicity in nonmalignant cholangiocytes, thus strengthening the interest for this natural sesquiterpene as a dual-acting chemosensitizing and chemopreventive agent.
Project description:Substance P (SP) promotes cholangiocyte growth during cholestasis by activating its receptor, NK1R. SP is a proteolytic product of tachykinin (Tac1) and is deactivated by membrane metalloendopeptidase (MME). This study aimed to evaluate the functional role of SP in the regulation of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) growth. NK1R, Tac1, and MME expression and SP secretion were assessed in human CCA cells and nonmalignant cholangiocytes. The proliferative effects of SP (in the absence/presence of the NK1R inhibitor, L-733,060) and of L-733,060 were evaluated. In vivo, the effect of L-733,060 treatment or MME overexpression on tumor growth was evaluated by using a xenograft model of CCA in nu/nu nude mice. The expression of Tac1, MME, NK1R, PCNA, CK-19, and VEGF-A was analyzed in the resulting tumors. Human CCA cell lines had increased expression of Tac1 and NK1R, along with reduced levels of MME compared with nonmalignant cholangiocytes, resulting in a subsequent increase in SP secretion. SP treatment increased CCA cell proliferation in vitro, which was blocked by L-733,060. Treatment with L-733,060 alone inhibited CCA proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Xenograft tumors derived from MME-overexpressed human Mz-ChA-1 CCA cells had a slower growth rate than those derived from control cells. Expression of PCNA, CK-19, and VEGF-A decreased, whereas MME expression increased in the xenograft tumors treated with L-733,060 or MME-overexpressed xenograft tumors compared with controls. The study suggests that SP secreted by CCA promotes CCA growth via autocrine pathway. Blockade of SP secretion and NK1R signaling may be important for the management of CCA.
Project description:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients are at risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). We have shown that (1) histamine increases biliary hyperplasia through H1/H2 histamine receptors (HRs) and (2) histamine levels increase and mast cells (MCs) infiltrate during PSC and CCA. We examined the effects of chronic treatment with H1/H2HR antagonists on PSC and CCA. Wild-type and multidrug-resistant knockout (Mdr2-/- ) mice were treated by osmotic minipumps with saline, mepyramine, or ranitidine (10 mg/kg body weight/day) or a combination of mepyramine/ranitidine for 4 weeks. Liver damage was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin. We evaluated (1) H1/H2HR expression, (2) MC presence, (3) L-histidine decarboxylase/histamine axis, (4) cholangiocyte proliferation/bile duct mass, and (5) fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation. Nu/nu mice were implanted with Mz-ChA-1 cells into the hind flanks and treated with saline, mepyramine, or ranitidine. Tumor growth was measured, and (1) H1/H2HR expression, (2) proliferation, (3) MC activation, (4) angiogenesis, and (5) epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were evaluated. In vitro, human hepatic stellate cells were evaluated for H1HR and H2HR expression. Cultured cholangiocytes and CCA lines were treated with saline, mepyramine, or ranitidine (25 ?M) before evaluating proliferation, angiogenesis, EMT, and potential signaling mechanisms. H1/H2HR and MC presence increased in human PSC and CCA. In H1/H2HR antagonist (alone or in combination)-treated Mdr2-/- mice, liver and biliary damage and fibrosis decreased compared to saline treatment. H1/H2HR antagonists decreased tumor growth, serum histamine, angiogenesis, and EMT. In vitro, H1/H2HR blockers reduced biliary proliferation, and CCA cells had decreased proliferation, angiogenesis, EMT, and migration. Conclusion: Inhibition of H1/H2HR reverses PSC-associated damage and decreases CCA growth, angiogenesis, and EMT; because PSC patients are at risk of developing CCA, using HR blockers may be therapeutic for these diseases. (Hepatology 2018).
Project description:MiR-24-3p, a broadly conserved, small, noncoding RNA, is abundantly expressed in mammary tissue. However, its regulatory role in this tissue remains poorly understood. It was predicted that miR-24-3p targets the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), an important regulatory factor in mammary tissue. The objective of this study was to investigate the function of miR-24-3p in mammary cells. Using a luciferase assay in mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), miR-24-3p was confirmed to target the 3'-UTR of MEN1. Furthermore, miR-24-3p negatively regulated the expression of the MEN1 gene and its encoded protein, menin. miR-24-3p enhanced proliferation of MAC-T by promoting G1/S phase progression. MiR-24-3p also regulated the expression of key factors involved in phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activators of transcription signaling pathways, therefore controlling milk protein synthesis in epithelial cells. Thus, miR-24-3p appears to act on MAC-T by targeting MEN1. The expression of miR-24-3p was controlled by MEN1/menin, indicating a negative feedback loop between miR-24-3p and MEN1/menin. The negatively inhibited expression pattern of miR-24-3p and MEN1 was active in mammary tissues at different lactation stages. The feedback mechanism is a new concept to further understand the lactation cycle of mammary glands and can possibly to be manipulated to improve milk yield and quality.
Project description:Akirin2 is a key regulator of embryonic development and the innate immunity response. However, this regulator's role in tumorigenesis especially in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) development has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In the current work, we used RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to explore the expression level of Akirin2, and the relationship between Akirin2 levels and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. The biological functions of Akirin2 were examined in vitro and in vivo by using a lentiviral vector system. Luciferase reporter assays were applied to detect the direct binding relationship between the 3'-UTR of Akirin2 mRNA and miR-490-3p. The results showed that Akirin2 was overexpressed in CCA and this upregulation was associated with a shorter overall survival. Silencing or overexpressing Akirin2 by lentiviral approaches significantly influenced CCA cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. An in vivo tumor model further validated the oncogenic effect of Akirin2 on CCA cell growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that Akirin2 induced angiogenesis by increasing the expression of VEGFA by activating the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Akirin2 promoted cell migratory and invasive potential by affecting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. In addition, Akirin2 expression was negatively controlled by miR-490-3p in CCA cells, and miR-490-3p attenuated cell migration and angiogenesis in CCA cells by silencing Akirin2. Taken together, the data indicated that Akirin2 could be regulated by miR-490-3p at the posttranscriptional level and facilitate CCA cell progression via the IL-6/STAT3/VEGFA signaling pathway. The present study may expedite the development of novel therapeutic strategies for CCA.
Project description:Our previous work has demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could induce metastatic growth of the inflammation-related cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the functional mechanism of MSCs on CCA progression in the early inflammatory microenvironment remained undetermined. Here, we showed that TNF-? and IFN-?-induced inflammatory microenvironment stimulated the expression of TNF-?, CCL5, IL-6, IDO, and activated the NF-?B signaling with p65 nuclear translocation in MSCs cells. CCA cell lines QBC939 and Mz-chA-1 exposed to the conditioned medium of MSCs after being stimulated by TNF-? and IFN-? (TI-CM) exhibited enhanced mobility. Moreover, MSCs pre-stimulated by both inflammatory cytokines (TI-MSCs) increased tumor metastasis in vivo. The conditioned medium of TI-MSCs stimulated the transcription of snail, slug, ZEB1 and ZEB2. Next, the expression of CCL5 of TI-MSCs was verified by ELISA, which indicated that MSCs contributed to CCA migration and metastasis in a paracrine fashion. CCA cells treated with TI-CM up-regulated CCA chemokine receptors, especially CCR5; CCL5 neutralizing antibody or CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc inhibited the effects of MSCs on CCA cells migration. We also found that Akt/NF-?B signaling was activated by CCL5/CCR5 axis, which increased the expression of MMP2, MMP9. Together, these findings suggest that MSCs in tumor inflammatory microenvironment are elicited of CCL5, which activate AKT/NF-?B signaling and lead to metastatic growth of CCA cells.
Project description:Activation of the PI3K/mTOR and Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathways occurs frequently in biliary tract cancer (BTC). Crosstalk between these pathways occurs in other gastrointestinal cancers. The respective signalling inhibitors rapamycin and vismodegib may inhibit BTC synergistically and suppress cancer stem cells (CSCs).Gene expression profiling for p70S6k and Gli1 was performed with BTC cell lines. Tumour and pathway inhibitory effects of rapamycin and vismodegib were investigated in BTC preclinical models and CSCs.Rapamycin and vismodegib synergistically reduced BTC cell viability and proliferation. This drug combination arrested BTC Mz-ChA-1 cells in the G1 phase but had no significant effect on the cell cycle of BTC Sk-ChA-1 cells. Combined treatment inhibited the proliferation of CSCs and ALDH-positive cells. Nanog and Oct-4 expression in CSCs was decreased by the combination treatment. Western blotting results showed the p-p70S6K, p-Gli1, p-mTOR, and p-AKT protein expression were inhibited by the combination treatment in BTC cells. In an Mz-ChA-1 xenograft model, combination treatment resulted in 80% inhibition of tumour growth and prolonged tumour doubling time. In 4 of 10 human BTC specimens, tumour p-p70S6K and Gli1 protein expression levels were decreased with the combination treatment.Targeted inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR and Hhpathways indicates a new avenue for BTC treatment with combination therapy.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells paradoxically express the death ligand tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and thus rely on potent survival signals to circumvent cell death by TRAIL. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is an important survival pathway in CCA. Herein, we further examine the mechanisms whereby Hh signaling mediates apoptosis resistance in CCA, revealing a pivotal role for the cell division regulating serine/threonine kinase polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2). We employed 50 human CCA samples (25 intrahepatic and 25 extrahepatic CCA) as well as human KMCH-1, Mz-CHA-1, and HUCCT-1 CCA cells for these studies. In vivo experiments were conducted using a syngeneic rat orthotopic CCA model. In human samples, polo-like kinase (PLK)1/2/3-immunoreactive cancer cells were present in the preponderance of intra- and extrahepatic CCA specimens. Inhibition of Hh signaling by cyclopamine reduced PLK2, but not PLK1 or PLK3, messenger RNA and protein expression in vehicle-treated and sonic Hh-treated CCA cells, confirming our previous microarray study. PLK2 regulation by Hh signaling appears to be direct, because the Hh transcription factors, glioma-associated oncogene 1 and 2, bind to the PLK2 promotor. Moreover, inhibition of PLK2 by the PLK inhibitor, BI 6727 (volasertib), or PLK2 knockdown was proapoptotic in CCA cells. BI 6727 administration or PLK2 knockdown decreased cellular protein levels of antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), an effect reversed by the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132. Finally, BI 6727 administration reduced Mcl-1 protein expression in CCA cells, resulting in CCA cell apoptosis and tumor suppression in vivo.PLK2 appears to be an important mediator of Hh survival signaling. These results suggest PLK inhibitors to be of therapeutic value for treatment of human CCA.