FACT is a sensor of DNA torsional stress in eukaryotic cells.
ABSTRACT: Transitions of B-DNA to alternative DNA structures (ADS) can be triggered by negative torsional strain, which occurs during replication and transcription, and may lead to genomic instability. However, how ADS are recognized in cells is unclear. We found that the binding of candidate anticancer drug, curaxin, to cellular DNA results in uncoiling of nucleosomal DNA, accumulation of negative supercoiling and conversion of multiple regions of genomic DNA into left-handed Z-form. Histone chaperone FACT binds rapidly to the same regions via the SSRP1 subunit in curaxin-treated cells. In vitro binding of purified SSRP1 or its isolated CID domain to a methylated DNA fragment containing alternating purine/pyrimidines, which is prone to Z-DNA transition, is much stronger than to other types of DNA. We propose that FACT can recognize and bind Z-DNA or DNA in transition from a B to Z form. Binding of FACT to these genomic regions triggers a p53 response. Furthermore, FACT has been shown to bind to other types of ADS through a different structural domain, which also leads to p53 activation. Thus, we propose that FACT acts as a sensor of ADS formation in cells. Recognition of ADS by FACT followed by a p53 response may explain the role of FACT in DNA damage prevention.
Project description:Genome-wide binding analysis of Zscan4 showed sequence-specific occupancy at (CA)n microsatellite repeats in 2C-like cells. Genome-wide occupancy profiling of FACT subunit SSRP1 in curaxin-treated mouse ESC demonstrated re-localization from transcription start sites to Zscan4 binding sites. Overall design: We profiled SSRP1 binding sites by performing ChIP-seq using an SSRP1 antibody in control or curaxin-treated mouse ESC. There are twelve samples analyzed and two replicates for each treatment. We also identified direct targets of Zscan4 in 2C-like cells by performing ChIP-seq using a GFP antibody in 2C-like cells (GFP positive population) from the Zprom::GFP-Zscan4 reporter line and control Zprom::GFP line, and profiled genomic occupancy of endogenous Zscan4 using a Zscan4 antibody in the Zprom::GFP line (GFP positive population and control GFP negative population). There are eight samples analyzed.
Project description:Cellular responses to the loss of genomic stability are well-established, while how mammalian cells respond to chromatin destabilization is largely unknown. We previously found that DNA demethylation on p53-deficient background leads to transcription of repetitive heterochromatin elements, followed by an interferon response, a phenomenon we named TRAIN (Transcription of Repeats Activates INterferon). Here, we report that curaxin, an anticancer small molecule, destabilizing nucleosomes via disruption of histone/DNA interactions, also induces TRAIN. Furthermore, curaxin inhibits oncogene-induced transformation and tumor growth in mice in an interferon-dependent manner, suggesting that anticancer activity of curaxin, previously attributed to p53-activation and NF-kappaB-inhibition, may also involve induction of interferon response to epigenetic derepression of the cellular 'repeatome'. Moreover, we observed that another type of drugs decondensing chromatin, HDAC inhibitor, also induces TRAIN. Thus, we proposed that TRAIN may be one of the mechanisms ensuring epigenetic integrity of mammalian cells via elimination of cells with desilenced chromatin.
Project description:FACT is a heterodimer of SPT16 and SSRP1, which each contain several conserved regions in the primary structure. The interaction of FACT with nucleosomes induces chromatin remodeling through the combinatorial action of its distinct functional protein regions. However, there is little mechanistic insight into how these regions cooperatively contribute to FACT functions, particularly regarding the recognition of nucleosomal DNA. Here, we report the identification of novel phosphorylation sites of Drosophila melanogaster FACT (dFACT) expressed in Sf9 cells. These sites are densely concentrated in the acidic intrinsically disordered (ID) region of the SSRP1 subunit and control nucleosomal DNA binding by dFACT. This region and the adjacent segment of the HMG domain form weak electrostatic intramolecular interactions, which is reinforced by the phosphorylation, thereby blocking DNA binding competitively. Importantly, this control mechanism appears to support rapid chromatin transactions during early embryogenesis through the dephosphorylation of some sites in the maternally transmitted dSSRP1.
Project description:DNA accessibility to regulatory proteins is substantially influenced by nucleosome structure and dynamics. The facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex increases the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA, but the mechanism and extent of its nucleosome reorganization activity are unknown. Here we determined the effects of FACT from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on single nucleosomes by using single-particle Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) microscopy. FACT binding results in dramatic ATP-independent, symmetrical and reversible DNA uncoiling that affects at least 70% of the DNA within a nucleosome, occurs without apparent loss of histones and proceeds via an 'all-or-none' mechanism. A mutated version of FACT is defective in uncoiling, and a histone mutation that suppresses phenotypes caused by this FACT mutation in vivo restores the uncoiling activity in vitro. Thus, FACT-dependent nucleosome unfolding modulates the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA, and this activity is an important function of FACT in vivo.
Project description:Ordered nucleosome disassembly and reassembly are required for eukaryotic DNA replication. The facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex, a histone chaperone comprising Spt16 and SSRP1, is involved in DNA replication as well as transcription. FACT associates with the MCM helicase, which is involved in DNA replication initiation and elongation. Although the FACT-MCM complex is reported to regulate DNA replication initiation, its functional role in DNA replication elongation remains elusive. To elucidate the functional role of FACT in replication fork progression during DNA elongation in the cells, we generated and analyzed conditional SSRP1 gene knock-out chicken (Gallus gallus) DT40 cells. SSRP1-depleted cells ceased to grow and exhibited a delay in S-phase cell cycle progression, although SSRP1 depletion did not affect the level of chromatin-bound DNA polymerase ? or nucleosome reassembly on daughter strands. The tracking length of newly synthesized DNA, but not origin firing, was reduced in SSRP1-depleted cells, suggesting that the S-phase cell cycle delay is mainly due to the inhibition of replication fork progression rather than to defects in the initiation of DNA replication in these cells. We discuss the mechanisms of how FACT promotes replication fork progression in the cells.
Project description:The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase catalyzes genome-wide DNA demethylation and is required for endosperm genomic imprinting and embryo viability. Targets of DME-mediated DNA demethylation reside in small, euchromatic, AT-rich transposons and at the boundaries of large transposons, but how DME interacts with these diverse chromatin states is unknown. The STRUCTURE SPECIFIC RECOGNITION PROTEIN 1 (SSRP1) subunit of the chromatin remodeler FACT (facilitates chromatin transactions), was previously shown to be involved in the DME-dependent regulation of genomic imprinting in Arabidopsis endosperm. Therefore, to investigate the interaction between DME and chromatin, we focused on the activity of the two FACT subunits, SSRP1 and SUPPRESSOR of TY16 (SPT16), during reproduction in Arabidopsis We found that FACT colocalizes with nuclear DME in vivo, and that DME has two classes of target sites, the first being euchromatic and accessible to DME, but the second, representing over half of DME targets, requiring the action of FACT for DME-mediated DNA demethylation genome-wide. Our results show that the FACT-dependent DME targets are GC-rich heterochromatin domains with high nucleosome occupancy enriched with H3K9me2 and H3K27me1. Further, we demonstrate that heterochromatin-associated linker histone H1 specifically mediates the requirement for FACT at a subset of DME-target loci. Overall, our results demonstrate that FACT is required for DME targeting by facilitating its access to heterochromatin.
Project description:FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) is a histone chaperone complex important in genomic processes including transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. FACT is composed of two proteins, SSRP1 and SPT16, which are highly conserved across eukaryotes. While the mechanisms for FACT in nucleosome reorganization and its relationship to DNA processes is well established, how these roles impact coordination in multicellular animal development are less well understood. Here we characterize the genes encoding FACT complex proteins in the nematode C. elegans. We show that whereas C. elegans includes one SPT16 gene (spt-16), two genes (hmg-3 and hmg-4) encode SSRP1 proteins. Depletion of FACT complex genes interferes with embryonic cell division and cell cycle timing generally, with anterior pharynx development especially sensitive to these defects. hmg-3 and hmg-4 exhibit redundancy for these maternally-provided embryonic functions, but are each uniquely required zygotically for normal germline development. This work provides a framework to study FACT gene function in developmental processes, and identifies that distinct functional requirements for gene duplicates can be manifest within a single tissue.
Project description:SSRP1 is a subunit of the FACT complex, an important histone chaperone required for transcriptional regulation, DNA replication and damage repair. SSRP1 also plays important roles in transcriptional regulation independent of Spt16 and interacts with other proteins. Here, we report the crystal structure of the middle domain of SSRP1. It consists of tandem pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. These domains differ from the typical PH domain in that PH1 domain has an extra conserved βαβ topology. SSRP1 contains the well-characterized DNA-binding HMG-1 domain. Our studies revealed that SSRP1-M can also participate in DNA binding, and that this binding involves one positively charged patch on the surface of the structure. In addition, SSRP1-M did not bind to histones, which was assessed through pull-down assays. This aspect makes the protein different from other related proteins adopting the double PH domain structure. Our studies facilitate the understanding of SSRP1 and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of interaction with DNA and histones of the FACT complex.
Project description:The histone chaperone complex facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) plays important roles in DNA repair, replication, and transcription. In the formation of this complex, structure-specific recognition protein-1 (SSRP1) heterodimerizes with suppressor of Ty 16 (SPT16). SSRP1 also has SPT16-independent functions, but how SSRP1 functions alone remains elusive. Here, using analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques, we characterized human SSRP1 and that from the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and show that both orthologs form an elongated homodimer in solution. We found that substitutions in the SSRP1 pleckstrin homology domain known to bind SPT16 also disrupt SSRP1 homodimerization. Moreover, AUC and SAXS analyses revealed that SSRP1 homodimerization and heterodimerization with SPT16 (resulting in FACT) involve the same SSRP1 surface, namely the PH2 region, and that the FACT complex contains only one molecule of SSRP1. These observations suggest that SSRP1 homo- and heterodimerization might be mutually exclusive. Moreover, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses disclosed that SSRP1 binds both histones H2A-H2B and H3-H4 and that disruption of SSRP1 homodimerization decreases its histone-binding affinity. Together, our results provide evidence for regulation of SSRP1 by homodimerization and suggest a potential role for homodimerization in facilitating SPT16-independent functions of SSRP1.
Project description:The essential histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) promotes both nucleosome assembly and disassembly. FACT is a heterodimer of Spt16 with either SSRP1 or Pob3, differing primarily by the presence of a high-mobility group B (HMGB) DNA-binding domain furnished only by SSRP1. Yeast FACT lacks the intrinsic HMGB domain found in SSRP1-based homologs such as human FACT, but yeast FACT activity is supported by Nhp6, which is a freestanding, single HMGB-domain protein. The importance of histone binding by FACT domains has been established, but the roles of DNA-binding activity remain poorly understood. Here, we examined these roles by fusing single or multiple HMGB modules to Pob3 to mimic SSRP1 or to test the effects of extended DNA-binding capacity. Human FACT and a yeast mimic both required Nhp6 to support nucleosome reorganization in vitro, indicating that a single intrinsic DNA-binding HMGB module is insufficient for full FACT activity. Three fused HMGB modules supported activity without Nhp6 assistance, but this FACT variant did not efficiently release from nucleosomes and was toxic in vivo Notably, intrinsic DNA-binding HMGB modules reduced the DNA accessibility and histone H2A-H2B dimer loss normally associated with nucleosome reorganization. We propose that DNA bending by HMGB domains promotes nucleosome destabilization and reorganization by exposing FACT's histone-binding sites, but DNA bending also produces DNA curvature needed to accommodate nucleosome assembly. Intrinsic DNA-bending activity therefore favors nucleosome assembly by FACT over nucleosome reorganization, but excessive activity impairs FACT release, suggesting a quality control checkpoint during nucleosome assembly.