A link between central kynurenine metabolism and bone strength in rats with chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism represent one of the most complex complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serotonin, a monoamine synthesized from tryptophan, may play a potential role in bone metabolism. Brain-derived serotonin exerts a positive effect on the bone structure by limiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Tryptophan is the precursor not only to the serotonin but also and primarily to kynurenine metabolites. The ultimate aim of the present study was to determine the association between central kynurenine metabolism and biomechanical as well as geometrical properties of bone in the experimental model of the early stage of CKD.Thirty-three Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (sham-operated and subtotal nephrectomized animals). Three months after surgery, serum samples were obtained for the determination of biochemical parameters, bone turnover biomarkers, and kynurenine pathway metabolites; tibias were collected for bone biomechanical, bone geometrical, and bone mass density analysis; brains were removed and divided into five regions for the determination of kynurenine pathway metabolites.Subtotal nephrectomized rats presented higher serum concentrations of creatinine, urea nitrogen, and parathyroid hormone, and developed hypocalcemia. Several biomechanical and geometrical parameters were significantly elevated in rats with experimentally induced CKD. Subtotal nephrectomized rats presented significantly higher kynurenine concentrations and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and significantly lower tryptophan levels in all studied parts of the brain. Kynurenine in the frontal cortex and tryptophan in the hypothalamus and striatum correlated positively with the main parameters of bone biomechanics and bone geometry.In addition to the complex mineral, hormone, and metabolite changes, intensified central kynurenine turnover may play an important role in the development of bone changes in the course of CKD.
Project description:An increase in the peripheral synthesis of serotonin and kynurenine, observed during the chronic kidney disease (CKD) course, is negatively associated with bone health. Serotonin and kynurenine are connected by the common precursor, tryptophan. LP533401 is an inhibitor of peripheral serotonin synthesis. This study aimed to establish if the inhibition of serotonin synthesis by LP533401 may affect the kynurenine pathway activity in bone tissue and its potential consequence with regard to osteogenesis and bone mineral status. Nephrectomized rats were treated with LP533401 at a dose of 30 and 100 mg/kg daily for eight weeks. Tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations were determined, and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression was assessed. We discovered the presence of a TDO-dependent, paracrine kynurenic system in the bone of rats with CKD. Its modulation during LP533401 treatment was associated with impaired bone mineral status. Changes in TDO expression affecting the kynurenine pathway activity were related to the imbalance between peripheral serotonin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. There were also close associations between the expression of genes participating in osteoblastogenesis and activation of the kynurenine pathway in the bones of LP53301-treated rats. Our results represent the next step in studying the role of tryptophan metabolites in renal osteodystrophy.
Project description:Anemia is a severe complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) can correct anemia in many with CKD. We produced 5/6-nephrectomized rats that became uremic and anemic at 25 days post surgery. Injection of the anemic 5/6-nephrectomized rats with 2.8 mg zinc/kg body weight raised their red blood cell (RBC) levels from approximately 85% of the control to 95% in one day and continued for 4 days. We compared the effect of ZnSO4 and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) injections on relieving anemia in 5/6-nephrectomized rats. After three consecutive injections, both the ZnSO4 and rHuEPO groups had significantly higher RBC levels (98 ± 6% and 102 ± 6% of the control) than the saline group (90 ± 3% of the control). In vivo, zinc relieved anemia in 5/6-nephrectomized rats similar to rHuEPO. In vitro, we cultured rat bone marrow cells supplemented with ZnCl2, rHuEPO, or saline. In a 4-day suspension culture, we found that zinc induced erythropoiesis similar to rHuEPO. When rat bone marrow cells were supplement-cultured with zinc, we found that zinc stimulated the production of EPO in the culture medium and that the level of EPO produced was dependent on the concentration of zinc supplemented. The production of EPO via zinc supplementation was involved in the process of erythropoiesis.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been regarded as a risk for bone health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CKD on bone defect repair in rats. Uremia was induced by subtotal renal ablation, and serum levels of BUN and PTH were significantly elevated four weeks after the second renal surgery. Calvarial defects of 5-mm diameter were created and implanted with or without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM). Micro-CT and histological analyses consistently revealed a decreased newly regenerated bone volume for CKD rats after 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, 1.4-mm-diameter cortical bone defects were established in the distal end of femora and filled with gelatin sponge. CKD rats exhibited significantly lower values of regenerated bone and bone mineral density (BMD) within the cortical gap after 2 and 4 weeks. Moreover, histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in both osteoblast number (N.Ob/B.Pm) and osteoclast number (N.Oc/B.Pm) in CKD groups due to hyperparathyroidism. Notably, collagen maturation was delayed in CKD rats as verified by Masson's Trichrome staining. These data indicate that declined renal function negatively affects bone regeneration in both calvarial and femoral defects.
Project description:Enhanced degradation of tryptophan (Trp) and thus decreased plasma Trp levels are common in several types of cancers. Although it is well known that Trp catabolism is induced in the tumor microenvironment by the enzymes expressed in cancer cells, immune cells, or both, few studies have examined systemic Trp catabolism in cancer pathophysiology. The present study aimed to evaluate Trp catabolism in both tumor and peripheral tissues using tumor-engrafted Copenhagen rats that were s.c. inoculated with AT-2 rat prostate cancer cells negative for expression of Trp catabolic enzymes. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) metabolomics showed significantly decreased plasma Trp levels in AT-2 engrafted rats, accompanied by increased kynurenine/Trp ratios in spleen and thymus and serotonin levels in liver and thymus. Quantitative PCR and enzymatic activity assays showed indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase, an inducible enzyme that catalyzes Trp to kynurenine, was increased in tumor tissues, whereas tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase, a major Trp catabolic enzyme that regulates systemic level of Trp, tended to be increased in the liver of AT-2 engrafted rats. Furthermore, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1), an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of Trp to serotonin, was significantly increased in liver and spleen of AT-2 engrafted rats. Further histochemical analysis revealed that the induction of TPH1 in the liver could be attributed to infiltration of mast cells. A similar phenomenon was observed with nonneoplastic liver samples from colorectal cancer patients. These results suggested that Trp catabolism toward serotonin synthesis might be induced in peripheral remote tissues in cancer, which could have a pathophysiological effect on cancer.
Project description:Renal disease leads to perturbations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism. Dietary fructose aggravates chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether it also worsens CKD-induced derangements in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is unknown. Here, we fed rats diets containing 60% glucose or fructose for 1 mo beginning 6 wk after 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats had markedly greater kidney weight, blood urea nitrogen, and serum levels of creatinine, phosphate, and calcium-phosphate product; dietary fructose significantly exacerbated all of these outcomes. Expression and activity of intestinal phosphate transporter, which did not change after nephrectomy or dietary fructose, did not correlate with hyperphosphatemia in 5/6-nephrectomized rats. Intestinal transport of calcium, however, decreased with dietary fructose, probably because of fructose-mediated downregulation of calbindin 9k. Serum calcium levels, however, were unaffected by nephrectomy and diet. Finally, only 5/6-nephrectomized rats that received dietary fructose demonstrated marked reductions in 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) levels, despite upregulation of 1alpha-hydroxylase. In summary, excess dietary fructose inhibits intestinal calcium absorption, induces marked vitamin D insufficiency in CKD, and exacerbates other classical symptoms of the disease. Future studies should evaluate the relevance of monitoring fructose consumption in patients with CKD.
Project description:Activation of the kynurenine pathway is one of the described mechanisms by which inflammation can induce depression. It involves multiple pathways including interference with the bioavailability of tryptophan central to the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. In this systematic review, we examine the relationship between kynurenine metabolites (kynurenine, kynurenic acid, tryptophan, quinolinic acid, the ratio of kynurenine and tryptophan) and mood disorders by conducting a meta-analysis. Fifty-six studies were identified, 21 met inclusion criteria and 14 were deemed suitable (9 investigating unipolar depression and 5 bipolar disorder). We found decreased levels of kynurenine in unipolar major depression vs. healthy controls but studies were significantly heterogeneous in nature. No significant differences were found in tryptophan levels or kynurenine/tryptophan ratios. Kynurenine metabolites are likely to play a role in major depression but an exact etiological role in mood disorder seem complex and requires further research.
Project description:Background:The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify important biopsychosocial correlates of major depression. Biological mechanisms, including the inflammatory and the tryptophan-serotonin deficiency hypotheses of major depression, were investigated alongside health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, and social support. Methods:The concentrations of plasma tryptophan, plasma kynurenine, plasma kynurenic acid, serum quinolinic acid, and the tryptophan breakdown to kynurenine were determined alongside health-related quality of life (Medical Outcome Study Form, SF-36), life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, FLZ), and social support (Social Support Survey, SSS) in 71 depressive patients at the time of their in-patient admittance and 48 healthy controls. Results:Corresponding with the inflammatory hypothesis of major depression, our study results suggest a tryptophan breakdown to kynurenine in patients with major depression, and depressive patients had a lower concentration of neuroprotective kynurenic acid in comparison to the healthy controls (Mann-Whitney-U: 1315.0; p = 0.046). Contradicting the inflammatory theory, the concentrations of kynurenine (t: -0.945; df = 116; p = 0.347) and quinolinic acid (Mann-Whitney-U: 1376.5; p = 0.076) in depressive patients were not significantly different between depressed and healthy controls. Our findings tend to support the tryptophan-serotonin deficiency hypothesis of major depression, as the deficiency of the serotonin precursor tryptophan in depressive patients (t: -3.931; df = 116; p < 0.001) suggests dysfunction of serotonin neurotransmission. A two-step hierarchical linear regression model showed that low tryptophan concentrations, low social support (SSS), occupational requirements (FLZ), personality traits (FLZ), impaired physical role (SF-36), and impaired vitality (SF-36) predict higher Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores. Discussion:Our study results argue for the validity of a biopsychosocial model of major depression with multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involved.
Project description:Septic shock is associated with a strong inflammatory response that induces vasodilation and vascular hyporeactivity. We investigated the role for tryptophan-pathway catabolites of proinflammatory cytokines in septic shock.We prospectively included 30 patients with very recent-onset septic shock and 30 healthy volunteers. The following were assayed once in the controls and on days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 in each patient: plasma free and total tryptophan, platelet and plasma serotonin, total blood serotonin, urinary serotonin, plasma and urinary 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, plasma kynurenine, monoamine oxidase activity, and total indole amine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. Organ-system failure and mortality were recorded.Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with septic shock had 2-fold to 3-fold lower total tryptophan levels throughout the 14-day study period. Platelet serotonin was substantially lower, while monoamine oxidase activity and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid were markedly higher in the patients than in the controls, consistent with the known conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, which is then promptly and largely degraded to 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid. Plasma kynurenine was moderately increased and indole amine 2,3-dioxygenase activity markedly increased in the patients versus the volunteers, reflecting conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Changes over time in tryptophan metabolites were not associated with survival in the patients but were associated with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and hemodynamic variables including hypotension and norepinephrine requirements.Our results demonstrate major tryptophan pathway alterations in septic shock. Marked alterations were found compared with healthy volunteers, and tryptophan metabolite levels were associated with organ failure and hemodynamic alterations. Tryptophan metabolite levels were not associated with surviving septic shock, although this result might be ascribable to the small sample size.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; No: NCT00684736; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:Increased activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) have been reported in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We therefore investigated the effect of gender stratification upon the observed levels of tryptophan metabolites in COPD. Tryptophan, serotonin, kynurenine, and kynurenic acid were quantified in serum of never-smokers (n = 39), smokers (n = 40), COPD smokers (n = 27), and COPD ex-smokers (n = 11) by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The individual metabolite associations with lung function, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) immune-cell composition, as well as chemokine and cytokine levels, were investigated. Stratification by gender and smoking status revealed that the observed alterations in kynurenine and kynurenic acid, and to a lesser extent serotonin, were prominent in males, irrespective of COPD status (kynurenine p = 0.005, kynurenic acid p = 0.009, and serotonin p = 0.02). Inferred serum IDO activity and kynurenine levels decreased in smokers relative to never-smokers (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). In contrast, inferred tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activity and serotonin levels showed an increase with smoking that reached significance with COPD (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). Serum IDO activity correlated with blood CXC chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9, p = 0.0009, r = 0.93) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4.(p = 0.04, r = 0.73) in female COPD smokers. Conversely, serum serotonin levels correlated with BAL CD4+ T-cells (%) (p = 0.001, r = 0.92) and CD8+ T-cells (%) (p = 0.002, r = -0.90) in female COPD smokers, but not in male COPD smokers (p = 0.1, r = 0.46 and p = 0.1, r = -0.50, respectively). IDO- and TPH-mediated tryptophan metabolites showed gender-based associations in COPD, which were primarily driven by smoking status.
Project description:Placental homeostasis of tryptophan is essential for fetal development and programming. The two main metabolic pathways (serotonin and kynurenine) produce bioactive metabolites with immunosuppressive, neurotoxic, or neuroprotective properties and their concentrations in the fetoplacental unit must be tightly regulated throughout gestation. Here, we investigated the expression/function of key enzymes/transporters involved in tryptophan pathways during mid-to-late gestation in rat placenta and fetal organs. Quantitative PCR and heatmap analysis revealed the differential expression of several genes involved in serotonin and kynurenine pathways. To identify the flux of substrates through these pathways, Droplet Digital PCR, western blot, and functional analyses were carried out for the rate-limiting enzymes and transporters. Our findings show that placental tryptophan metabolism to serotonin is crucial in mid-gestation, with a subsequent switch to fetal serotonin synthesis. Concurrently, at term, the close interplay between transporters and metabolizing enzymes of both placenta and fetal organs orchestrates serotonin homeostasis and prevents hyper/hypo-serotonemia. On the other hand, the placental production of kynurenine increases during pregnancy, with a low contribution of fetal organs throughout gestation. Any external insult to this tightly regulated harmony of transporters and enzymes within the fetoplacental unit may affect optimal in utero conditions and have a negative impact on fetal programming.