Exercise attenuates neurological deficits by stimulating a critical HSP70/NF-κB/IL-6/synapsin I axis in traumatic brain injury rats.
ABSTRACT: Despite previous evidence for a potent inflammatory response after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unknown whether exercise preconditioning (EP) improves outcomes after a TBI by modulating inflammatory responses.We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to quantify the genes encoding 84 cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood and used ELISA to determine both the cerebral and blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also performed the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to evaluate the extent of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) binding to the DNA elements in the IL-6 promoter regions. Also, we adopted the Western blotting assay to measure the cerebral levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70, synapsin I, and β-actin. Finally, we performed both histoimmunological and behavioral assessment to measure brain injury and neurological deficits, respectively.We first demonstrated that TBI upregulated nine pro-inflammatory and/or neurodegenerative messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the peripheral blood such as CXCL10, IL-18, IL-16, Cd-70, Mif, Ppbp, Ltd, Tnfrsf 11b, and Faslg. In addition to causing neurological injuries, TBI also upregulated the following 14 anti-inflammatory and/or neuroregenerative mRNAs in the peripheral blood such as Ccl19, Ccl3, Cxcl19, IL-10, IL-22, IL-6, Bmp6, Ccl22, IL-7, Bmp7, Ccl2, Ccl17, IL-1rn, and Gpi. Second, we observed that EP inhibited both neurological injuries and six pro-inflammatory and/or neurodegenerative genes (Cxcl10, IL-18, IL-16, Cd70, Mif, and Faslg) but potentiated four anti-inflammatory and/or neuroregenerative genes (Bmp6, IL-10, IL-22, and IL-6). Prior depletion of cerebral HSP70 with gene silence significantly reversed the beneficial effects of EP in reducing neurological injuries and altered gene profiles after a TBI. A positive Pearson correlation exists between IL-6 and HSP70 in the peripheral blood or in the cerebral levels. In addition, gene silence of cerebral HSP70 significantly reduced the overexpression of NF-κB, IL-6, and synapsin I in the ipsilateral brain regions after an EP in rats.TBI causes neurological deficits associated with stimulating several pro-inflammatory gene profiles but inhibiting several anti-inflammatory gene profiles of cytokines and chemokines. Exercise protects against neurological injuries via stimulating an anti-inflammatory HSP70/NF-κB/IL-6/synapsin I axis in the injured brains.
Project description:AIMS:Preconditioning is promising for treating cerebral ischemic stroke. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a homeostatic antiinflammatory mediator that participates in countering against ischemic injuries. We investigated whether chloral hydrate preconditioning (CH) exerts neuroprotection via regulation of ANXA1 in stroke. METHODS:Adult male C57BL/6J mice or ANXA1 knockout (ANXA1(-/-) ) mice were randomly allocated to control (NCH) and CH groups [2%, 6%, and 10% chloral hydrate (i.p.) 1 h before the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)]. Neurological performances were evaluated by modified 7-point neurological scales and rotarod test. Cerebral infarction was analyzed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and MRI. The expression of ANXA1, pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6), and antiinflammatory (IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β) cytokines was investigated by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence. RESULTS:Chloral hydrate preconditioning significantly improved the neurological outcomes and reduced the infarction and brain edema after ischemia. In addition, CH increased the expression of ANXA1 in the microglia, decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, while elevated the levels of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β in the MCAO mice. Furthermore, both ANXA1 blocker Boc1 (5 mg/kg, i.c.v.) or ANXA1 gene deficiency restrained the protective effects of CH against stroke. CONCLUSIONS:Chloral hydrate preconditioning protects against ischemic injuries through upregulating the expression of ANXA1, and the followed antiinflammatory mechanisms.
Project description:Inflammatory responses are associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and neurological deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of progesterone on the expression of the inflammatory mediators prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the brain, BBB permeability, cerebral edema and neurological outcome, as well as to explore the mechanism of its neuroprotective effect. In this study, male rats were randomly divided into three groups: a sham-operated group (SHAM), a TBI group (TBI) and a progesterone treatment group (TBI-PROG). The TBI model was established using a modified Feeney's weight-dropping method. Brain samples were extracted 24 h following injury. The expression levels of COX-2 and NF-?B were examined using immunohistochemistry, whilst the expression levels of PGE2 and TNF-? were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BBB permeability was analyzed using Evans blue and cerebral edema was determined using the dry-wet method. The neurological outcome was evaluated using the modified neurological severity score test. The results revealed that progesterone treatment significantly reduced post-injury inflammatory response, brain edema and Evans blue dye extravasation, and improved neurological scores compared with those in the TBI group. In conclusion, the inhibition of inflammation may be an important mechanism by which progesterone protects the BBB and improves neurological outcome.
Project description:Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury during adolescence can induce neurological dysfunction through undefined mechanisms. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) contributes to experimental adult diffuse and contusion TBI models, and IL-1 antagonists have entered clinical trials for severe TBI in adults; however, no such data exist for adolescent TBI. We developed an adolescent mouse repetitive closed head injury (rCHI) model to test the role of IL-1 family members in post-injury neurological outcome. Compared to one CHI, three daily injuries (3HD) produced acute and chronic learning deficits and emergence of hyperactivity, without detectable gliosis, neurodegeneration, brain atrophy, and white matter loss at one year. Mature IL-1? and IL-18 were induced in brain endothelium in 3HD but not 1HD, three hit weekly, or sham animals. IL-1? processing was induced cell-autonomously in three-dimensional human endothelial cell cultures subjected to in vitro concussive trauma. Mice deficient in IL-1 receptor-1 or caspase-1 had improved post-injury Morris water maze performance. Repetitive mild CHI in adolescent mice may induce behavioral deficits in the absence of significant histopathology. The endothelium is a potential source of IL-1? and IL-18 in rCHI, and IL-1 family members may be therapeutic targets to reduce or prevent neurological dysfunction after repetitive mild TBI in adolescents.
Project description:Direct or indirect exposure to an explosion can induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) of various severity levels. Primary TBI from blast exposure is commonly characterized by internal injuries, such as vascular damage, neuronal injury, and contusion, without external injuries. Current animal models of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) have helped to understand the deleterious effects of moderate to severe blast forces. However, the neurological effects of mild blast forces remain poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effects caused by mild blast forces combining neuropathological, histological, biochemical and neurophysiological analysis. For this purpose, we employed a rodent blast TBI model with blast forces below the level that causes macroscopic neuropathological changes. We found that mild blast forces induced neuroinflammation in cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Moreover, mild blast triggered microvascular damage and axonal injury. Furthermore, mild blast caused deficits in hippocampal short-term plasticity and synaptic excitability, but no impairments in long-term potentiation. Finally, mild blast exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of spectrin and the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator, p35 in hippocampus. Together, these findings show that mild blast forces can cause aberrant neurological changes that critically impact neuronal functions. These results are consistent with the idea that mild blast forces may induce subclinical pathophysiological changes that may contribute to neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Project description:Brain and spinal cord are implicated in incidences of two of the most severe injuries of central nervous system (CNS). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating neurological deficit involving primary and secondary injury cascades. The primary and secondary mechanisms include complex consequences of activation of proinflammatory cytokines, cerebral edema, upregulation of NF-κ β, disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), and oxidative stress. Spinal cord injury (SCI) includes primary and secondary injury cascades. Primary injury leads to secondary injury in which generation of free radicals and oxidative or nitrative damage play an important pathophysiological role. The indoleamine melatonin is a hormone secreted or synthesized by pineal gland in the brain which helps to regulate sleep and wake cycle. Melatonin has been shown to be a versatile hormone having antioxidative, antiapoptotic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties. It has a special characteristic of crossing BBB. Melatonin has neuroprotective role in the injured part of the CNS after TBI and SCI. A number of studies have successfully shown its therapeutic value as a neuroprotective agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Here in this review we have compiled the literature supporting consequences of CNS injuries, TBI and SCI, and the protective role of melatonin in it.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stroke-induced immunodeficiency syndrome (SIDS) is regarded as a protective mechanism for secondary inflammatory injury as well as a contributor to infection complications. Although stroke-induced hyperactivation of the sympathetic system is proved to facilitate SIDS, the involved endogenous factors and pathways are largely elusive. In this study, we aim to investigate the function of beta-arrestin-2 (ARRB2) in the sympathetic-mediated SIDS. METHODS:Splenic ARRB2 expression and the sympathetic system activity were detected after establishing transient models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In addition, a correlation between ARRB2 expression and the sympathetic system activity was analyzed using a linear correlation analysis. Any SIDS reflected in monocyte dysfunction was investigated by measuring inflammatory cytokine secretion and neurological deficit scores and infarct volume were tested to assess neurological outcome. Further, ARRB2 expression in the monocytes was knocked down in vitro by siRNAs. Following the stimulation of noradrenaline and lipopolysaccharide, cytokine secretion and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway were evaluated to gain insight into the mechanisms related to the contribution of ARRB2 to adrenergic-induced monocyte dysfunction. RESULTS:Splenic ARRB2 expression was significantly increased after stroke and also showed a significant positive correlation with the sympathetic system activity. Stroke-induced monocyte dysfunction resulted in an increase of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) level as well as a decrease of the interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels. Also, blockade of adrenergic-activity significantly reversed these cytokine levels, and blockade of adrenergic-activity improved stroke-induced neurological results. However, the improved neurological results had no significant correlation with ARRB2 expression. Furthermore, the in vitro results showed that the deficiency of ARRB2 dramatically repealed adrenergic-induced monocyte dysfunction and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling phosphorylation activity. CONCLUSIONS:ARRB2 is implicated in the sympathetic-triggered SIDS, in particular, monocyte dysfunction after stroke. Accordingly, ARRB2 may be a promising therapeutic target for the immunological management of stroke in a clinic.
Project description:Brain damage following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a complicated pathophysiological course, in which inflammation and oxidative stress have been suggested to serve an important role. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been suggested to be involved in secondary inflammatory process in cerebral ischemia. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an important regulator of the antioxidant host defense, maintains the cellular redox homeostasis. Tissue kallikrein (TK) has been proven to elicit a variety of biological effects in ischemic stroke through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. However, the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain poorly defined. The present study examined the hypothesis that TK attenuates ischemic cerebral injury via the TLR4/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and Nrf2 signaling pathways. Using a transient rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, the effects of immediate and delayed TK treatment subsequent to reperfusion were investigated. The neurological deficits, infarct size, and the expression of TLR4/NF-κB and Nrf2 pathway in ischemic brain tissues were measured at 24 following MCAO. The results indicated that TK immediate treatment significantly improved neurological deficits and reduced the infarct size, accompanied by the inhibition of TLR4 and NF-κB levels, and the activation of Nrf2 pathway. Furthermore, TK delayed treatment also exerted neuroprotection against I/R injury. However, the neuroprotective effect of TK immediate treatment was better compared with that of TK delayed treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that TK protected the brain against ischemic injury in rats after MCAO through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Suppression of TLR4/NF-κB and activation of the Nrf2 pathway contributed to the neuroprotective effects induced by TK in cerebral ischemia. Therefore, TK may provide an effective intervention with a wider therapeutic window for ischemic stroke.
Project description:Hemozoin produced by Plasmodium falciparum during malaria infection has been linked to the neurological dysfunction in cerebral malaria. In this study, we determined whether a synthetic form of hemozoin (sHZ) produces neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in cellular models. Incubation of BV-2 microglia with sHZ (200 and 400 µg/ml) induced significant elevation in the levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β, NO/iNOS, phospho-p65, accompanied by an increase in DNA binding of NF-κB. Treatment of BV-2 microglia with sHZ increased protein levels of NLRP3 with accompanying increase in caspase-1 activity. In the presence of NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 (10 µM), there was attenuation of sHZ-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO/iNOS. In addition, increase in caspase-1/NLRP3 inflammasome activation was blocked by BAY11-7082. Pre-treatment with BAY11-7082 also reduced both phosphorylation and DNA binding of the p65 sub-unit. The NLRP3 inhibitor CRID3 (100 µM) did not prevent sHZ-induced release of TNFα and IL-6. However, production of IL-1β, NO/iNOS as well as caspase-1/NLRP3 activity was significantly reduced in the presence of CRID3. Incubation of differentiated neural progenitor (ReNcell VM) cells with sHZ resulted in a reduction in cell viability, accompanied by significant generation of cellular ROS and increased activity of caspase-6, while sHZ-induced neurotoxicity was prevented by N-acetylcysteine and Z-VEID-FMK. Taken together, this study shows that the synthetic form of hemozoin induces neuroinflammation through the activation of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome. It is also proposed that sHZ induces ROS- and caspase-6-mediated neurotoxicity. These results have thrown more light on the actions of malarial hemozoin in the neurobiology of cerebral malaria.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces severe harm and disability in many accident victims and combat-related activities. The heat-shock proteins Hsp70/Hsp110 protect cells against death and ischemic damage. In this study, we used mice deficient in Hsp110 or Hsp70 to examine their potential requirement following TBI. Data indicate that loss of Hsp110 or Hsp70 increases brain injury and death of neurons. One of the mechanisms underlying the increased cell death observed in the absence of Hsp110 and Hsp70 following TBI is the increased expression of reactive oxygen species-induced p53 target genes Pig1, Pig8, and Pig12. To examine whether drugs that increase the levels of Hsp70/Hsp110 can protect cells against TBI, we subjected mice to TBI and administered Celastrol or BGP-15. In contrast to Hsp110- or Hsp70i-deficient mice that were not protected following TBI and Celastrol treatment, there was a significant improvement of wild-type mice following administration of these drugs during the first week following TBI. In addition, assessment of neurological injury shows significant improvement in contextual and cued fear conditioning tests and beam balance in wild-type mice that were treated with Celastrol or BGP-15 following TBI compared to TBI-treated mice. These studies indicate a significant role of Hsp70/Hsp110 in neuronal survival following TBI and the beneficial effects of Hsp70/Hsp110 inducers toward reducing the pathological consequences of TBI. Our data indicate that loss of Hsp110 or Hsp70 in mice increases brain injury following TBI. (a) One of the mechanisms underlying the increased cell death observed in the absence of these Hsps following TBI is the increased expression of ROS-induced p53 target genes known as Pigs. In addition, (b) using drugs (Celastrol or BGP-15) to increase Hsp70/Hsp110 levels protect cells against TBI, suggesting the beneficial effects of Hsp70/Hsp110 inducers to reduce the pathological consequences of TBI.
Project description:Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases and disorders, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroinflammation results in the activation of glial cells which exacerbates the neuroinflammatory process by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and results in disruption of glial transmission networks. The glial cells, including astrocytes, play a critical role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the brain. Activated astrocytes release several factors as part of the inflammatory process including cytokines, proteins, and microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are noncoding RNA molecules involved in normal physiological processes and disease pathogenesis. MiRNAs have been implicated as important cell signaling molecules, and they are potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases, including neurological disorders. Exosomal miRNAs released by astrocytic response to neuroinflammation is not yet studied. In this study, primary human astrocytes were activated by IL-1? stimulation and we examined astrocytic exosomal miRNA cargo released in a neuroinflammatory stress model. Results indicate that acute neuroinflammation and oxidative stress induced by IL-1? generates the release of a specific subset of miRNAs via exosomes, which may have a potential role in regulating the inflammatory response. Additionally, these miRNAs may serve as potential biomarkers of neuroinflammation associated with neurological disorders and injuries.