Ectopic Expression of Aeluropus littoralis Plasma Membrane Protein Gene AlTMP1 Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco by Improving Water Status and Cation Homeostasis.
ABSTRACT: We report here the isolation and functional analysis of AlTMP1 gene encoding a member of the PMP3 protein family. In Aeluropus littoralis, AlTMP1 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. Transgenic tobacco expressing AlTMP1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, osmotic, H?O?, heat and freezing stresses at the seedling stage. Under greenhouse conditions, the transgenic plants showed a higher level of tolerance to drought than to salinity. Noteworthy, AlTMP1 plants yielded two- and five-fold more seeds than non-transgenic plants (NT) under salt and drought stresses, respectively. The leaves of AlTMP1 plants accumulated lower Na? but higher K? and Ca2+ than those of NT plants. Tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses was associated with higher membrane stability, low electrolyte leakage, and improved water status. Finally, accumulation of AlTMP1 in tobacco altered the regulation of some stress-related genes in either a positive (NHX1, CAT1, APX1, and DREB1A) or negative (HKT1 and KT1) manner that could be related to the observed tolerance. These results suggest that AlTMP1 confers stress tolerance in tobacco through maintenance of ion homeostasis, increased membrane integrity, and water status. The observed tolerance may be due to a direct or indirect effect of AlTMP1 on the expression of stress-related genes which could stimulate an adaptive potential not present in NT plants.
Project description:An obligate halophyte, Salicornia brachiata grows in salt marshes and is considered to be a potential resource of salt- and drought-responsive genes. It is important to develop an understanding of the mechanisms behind enhanced salt tolerance. To increase this understanding, a novel SbSRP gene was cloned, characterized, over-expressed, and functionally validated in the model plant Nicotiana tabacum. The genome of the halophyte S. brachiata contains two homologs of an intronless SbSRP gene of 1,262 bp in length that encodes for a stress-related protein. An in vivo localization study confirmed that SbSRP is localized on the plasma membrane. Transgenic tobacco plants (T1) that constitutively over-express the SbSRP gene showed improved salinity and osmotic stress tolerance. In comparison to Wild Type (WT) and Vector Control (VC) plants, transgenic lines showed elevated relative water and chlorophyll content, lower malondialdehyde content, lower electrolyte leakage and higher accumulation of proline, free amino acids, sugars, polyphenols, and starch under abiotic stress treatments. Furthermore, a lower build-up of H2O2 content and superoxide-radicals was found in transgenic lines compared to WT and VC plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of Nt-APX (ascorbate peroxidase), Nt-CAT (catalase), Nt-SOD (superoxide dismutase), Nt-DREB (dehydration responsive element binding factor), and Nt-AP2 (apetala2) genes was higher in transgenic lines under stress compared to WT and VC plants. The results suggested that overexpression of membrane-localized SbSRP mitigates salt and osmotic stress in the transgenic tobacco plant. It was hypothesized that SbSRP can be a transporter protein to transmit the environmental stimuli downward through the plasma membrane. However, a detailed study is required to ascertain its exact role in the abiotic stress tolerance mechanism. Overall, SbSRP is a potential candidate to be used for engineering salt and osmotic tolerance in crops.
Project description:MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, TaODORANT1, a R2R3-MYB gene, was cloned from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TaODORANT1 was localized in the nucleus and functioned as a transcriptional activator. TaODORANT1 was up-regulated in wheat under PEG6000, NaCl, ABA, and H2O2 treatments. TaODORANT1-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited higher relative water content and lower water loss rate under drought stress, as well as lower Na+ accumulation in leaves under salt stress. The transgenic plants showed higher CAT activity but lower ion leakage, H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents under drought and salt stresses. Besides, the transgenic plants also exhibited higher SOD activity under drought stress. Our results also revealed that TaODORANT1 overexpression up-regulated the expression of several ROS- and stress-related genes in response to both drought and salt stresses, thus enhancing transgenic tobacco plants tolerance. Our studies demonstrate that TaODORANT1 positively regulates plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses.
Project description:Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members play crucial roles in plant abiotic stress response. However, the precise mechanism underlying the function of SnRKs has not been thoroughly elucidated in plants. In this research, a novel SnRK2 gene, TaSnRK2.9 was cloned and characterized from common wheat. The expression of TaSnRK2.9 was upregulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), NaCl, H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ethrel treatments. TaSnRK2.9 was mainly expressed in wheat young root, stamen, pistil, and lemma. Overexpressing TaSnRK2.9 in transgenic tobacco enhanced plants' tolerance to drought and salt stresses both in young seedlings and mature plants with improved survival rate, seed germination rate, and root length. Physiological analyses suggest that TaSnRK2.9 improved antioxidant system such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and glutathione (GSH) to reduce the H2O2 content under drought or salt stress. Additionally, TaSnRK2.9 overexpression plants had elevated ABA content, implying that the function of TaSnRK2.9 may be ABA-dependent. Moreover, TaSnRK2.9 increased the expression of some ROS-related, ABA-related, and stress-response genes under osmotic or salt treatment. TaSnRK2.9 could interact with NtABF2 in yeast two-hybrid assay, and increased the expression of NtABF2 under mannitol or NaCl treatment in transgenic tobacco plants. In conclusion, overexpression of TaSnRK2.9 in tobacco conferred plants tolerance to drought and salt stresses through enhanced ROS scavenging ability, ABA-dependent signal transduction, and specific SnRK-ABF interaction.
Project description:Both the gene expression and activity of water channel protein can control transmembrane water movement. We have reported the overexpression of CaTIP1-1, which caused a decrease in chilling tolerance in transgenic plants by increasing the size of the stomatal pore. CaTIP1-1 expression was strongly induced by salt and mannitol stresses in pepper (Capsicum annuum). However, its biochemical and physiological functions are still unknown in transgenic tobacco. In this study, transient expression of CaTIP1-1-GFP in tobacco suspension cells revealed that the protein was localized in the tonoplast. CaTIP1-1 overexpressed in radicle exhibited vigorous growth under high salt and mannitol treatments more than wild-type plants. The overexpression of CaTIP1-1 pepper gene in tobacco enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities and increased transcription levels of reactive oxygen species-related gene expression under osmotic stresses. Moreover, the viability of transgenic tobacco cells was higher than the wild-type after exposure to stress. The pepper plants with silenced CaTIP1-1 in P70 decreased tolerance to salt and osmotic stresses using the detached leaf method. We concluded that the CaTIP1-1 gene plays an important role in response to osmotic stresses in tobacco.
Project description:Osmotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major environmental factors that limit agricultural productivity worldwide. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation are major signalling events induced by osmotic stress in higher plants. Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase2 family members play essential roles in response to hyperosmotic stresses in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. In this study, the function of TaSnRK2.4 in drought, salt, and freezing stresses in Arabidopsis was characterized. A translational fusion protein of TaSnRK2.4 with green fluorescent protein showed subcellular localization in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. To examine the role of TaSnRK2.4 under various environmental stresses, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing wheat TaSnRK2.4 under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. Overexpression of TaSnRK2.4 resulted in delayed seedling establishment, longer primary roots, and higher yield under normal growing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaSnRK2.4 had enhanced tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses, which were simultaneously supported by physiological results, including decreased rate of water loss, enhanced higher relative water content, strengthened cell membrane stability, improved photosynthesis potential, and significantly increased osmotic potential. The results show that TaSnRK2.4 is involved in the regulation of enhanced osmotic potential, growth, and development under both normal and stress conditions, and imply that TaSnRK2.4 is a multifunctional regulatory factor in Arabidopsis. Since the overexpression of TaSnRK2.4 can significantly strengthen tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses and does not retard the growth of transgenic Arabidopsis plants under well-watered conditions, TaSnRK2.4 could be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stresses in crops.
Project description:Dehydrin (DHN) genes can be rapidly induced to offset water deficit stresses in plants. Here, we reported on a dehydrin gene (IpDHN) related to salt tolerance isolated from Ipomoea pes-caprae L. (Convolvulaceae). The IpDHN protein shares a relatively high homology with Arabidopsis dehydrin ERD14 (At1g76180). IpDHN was shown to have a cytoplasmic localization pattern. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that IpDHN was differentially expressed in most organs of I. pes-caprae plants, and its expression level increased after salt, osmotic stress, oxidative stress, cold stress and ABA treatments. Analysis of the 974-bp promoter of IpDHN identified distinct cis-acting regulatory elements, including an MYB binding site (MBS), ABRE (ABA responding)-elements, Skn-1 motif, and TC-rich repeats. The induced expression of IpDHN in Escherichia coli indicated that IpDHN might be involved in salt, drought, osmotic, and oxidative stresses. We also generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines that over-expressed IpDHN. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a significant enhancement in tolerance to salt/drought stresses, as well as less accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the superoxide radical (O2 -), accompanied by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzyme system in vivo. Under osmotic stresses, the overexpression of IpDHN in Arabidopsis can elevate the expression of ROS-related and stress-responsive genes and can improve the ROS-scavenging ability. Our results indicated that IpDHN is involved in cellular responses to salt and drought through a series of pleiotropic effects that are likely involved in ROS scavenging and therefore influence the physiological processes of microorganisms and plants exposed to many abiotic stresses.
Project description:Dehydrins (DHNs) play critical roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to characterize DHNs in bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.). CdDHN4 gene was cloned from bermudagrass 'Tifway'. Two CdDHN4 transcripts were detected due to alternative splicing (the nonspliced CdDHN4-L and the spliced CdDHN4-S) and both the CdDHN4-S and CdDHN4-L proteins are YSK2-type DHNs, the ?-segment is present in CdDHN4-L and absent in CdDHN4-S. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing CdDHN4-L or CdDHN4-S exhibited improved tolerance to salt, osmotic, low temperature and drought stress compared to the wild type (WT). The two transgenic lines did not differ in salt or drought tolerance, while plants expressing CdDHN4-S grew better under osmotic stress than those expressing CdDHN4-L. Both transgenic lines exhibited reduced content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS); and higher antioxidant enzymatic activities than the wild type plants under salt or drought stress. CdDHN4-S exhibited a higher ROS-scavenging capacity than CdDHN4-L.
Project description:As major environment factors, drought or high salinity affect crop growth, development and yield. Transgenic approach is an effective way to improve abiotic stress tolerance of crops. In this study, we comparatively analyzed gene structures, genome location, and the evolution of syntaxin proteins containing late embryogenesis abundant (LEA2) domain. GmSYP24 was identified as a dehydration-responsive gene. Our study showed that the GmSYP24 protein was located on the cell membrane. The overexpression of GmSYP24 (GmSYP24ox) in soybean and heteroexpression of GmSYP24 (GmSYP24hx) in Arabidopsis exhibited insensitivity to osmotic/drought and high salinity. However, wild type soybean, Arabidopsis, and the mutant of GmSYP24 homologous gene of Arabidopsis were sensitive to the stresses. Under the abiotic stresses, transgenic soybean plants had greater water content and higher activities of POD, SOD compared with non-transgenic controls. And the leaf stomatal density and opening were reduced in transgenic Arabidopsis. The sensitivity to ABA was decreased during seed germination of GmSYP24ox and GmSYP24hx. GmSYP24hx induced up-regulation of ABA-responsive genes. GmSYP24ox alters the expression of some aquaporins under osmotic/drought, salt, or ABA treatment. These results demonstrated that GmSYP24 played an important role in osmotic/drought or salt tolerance in ABA signal pathway.
Project description:Crop yield reduction due to salinity is a growing agronomical concern in many regions. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells accompanies many abiotic stresses including salinity, acting as toxic and signaling molecules during plant stress responses. While ROS are generated in various cellular compartments, chloroplasts represent a main source in the light, and plastid ROS synthesis and/or elimination have been manipulated to improve stress tolerance. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a plastid-targeted cyanobacterial flavodoxin, a flavoprotein that prevents ROS accumulation specifically in chloroplasts, displayed increased tolerance to many environmental stresses, including drought, excess irradiation, extreme temperatures and iron starvation. Surprisingly, flavodoxin expression failed to protect transgenic plants against NaCl toxicity. However, when high salt was directly applied to leaf discs, flavodoxin did increase tolerance, as reflected by preservation of chlorophylls, carotenoids and photosynthetic activities. Flavodoxin decreased salt-dependent ROS accumulation in leaf tissue from discs and whole plants, but this decline did not improve tolerance at the whole plant level. NaCl accumulation in roots, as well as increased osmotic pressure and salt-induced root damage, were not prevented by flavodoxin expression. The results indicate that ROS formed in chloroplasts have a marginal effect on plant responses during salt stress, and that sensitive targets are present in roots which are not protected by flavodoxin.
Project description:WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polyethylene glycol, NaCl, cold and H2O2. Result of Southern blot indicates that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaWRKY10. The TaWRKY10 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of TaWRKY10 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic plants exhibiting of increased germination rate, root length, survival rate, and relative water content under these stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also retained higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and lower reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde contents. Moreover, overexpression of the TaWRKY10 regulated the expression of a series of stress related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that TaWRKY10 functions as a positive factor under drought and salt stresses by regulating the osmotic balance, ROS scavenging and transcription of stress related genes.