ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF EUCALYPTUS SPP. AND PISTASCIA LENTISCUS LEAF EXTRACTS.
ABSTRACT: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus extracts on Lipopolysacaride (LPS)-induced Interlukin-6 (Il-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) by polymorphonuclear Cells (PMNCs).Polymorphonuclear cells were isolated from the whole blood using Histopaque (Ficol-1077) method and then cultured in an enriched Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RBMI) medium. Supernatants' Interlukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) levels were determined 24 hour after LPS stimulation. HPLC was employed to determine the concentration of phenolic compounds in the extracts. The concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were compared using paired-samples t test.Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus leaves extracts have shown significant reduction in the levels of both Il-6 and TNF-α Gallic acid; a strong anti-inflammatory agent was found to be the major phenolic compound in both leaf extracts. However, other anti-inflammatory phenolic compounds were detected in Pitascia lentiscus extract including syringic acid and p-coumaric acid, while chlorogenic acid was detected in Eucalyptus spp. leaf extract.Reduction in the levels of Il-6 and TNF-α upon the effect of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus extract is an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Our results may also indicate that the observed anti-inflammatory effect of the above extracts may be due to the presence of gallic acid and other phenolic compounds. List of Abbreviations and Nomenclature: LPS: Lipopolysacaride, Il-6: Interlukin-6, TNF-α: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, PMNCs: Polymorphonuclear Cells, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay, EDTA: Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid, PBS: phosphate buffered saline, RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum.
Project description:Pistacia lentiscus shows a long range of biological activities, and it has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Moreover, related essential oil keeps important health-promoting properties. However, less is known about P. lentiscus hydrosol, a main by-product of essential oil production, usually used for steam distillation itself or discarded. In this work, by using ultra-high-resolution ESI(+)-FT-ICR mass spectrometry, a direct identification of four main classes of metabolites of P. lentiscus hydrosol (i.e., terpenes, amino acids, peptides, and condensed heterocycles) was obtained. Remarkably, P. lentiscus hydrosol exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the secretion of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated primary human monocytes. In LPS-triggered U937 cells, it inhibited NF-?B, a key transcription factor in inflammatory cascade, regulating the expression of both the mitochondrial citrate carrier and the ATP citrate lyase genes. These two main components of the citrate pathway were downregulated by P. lentiscus hydrosol. Therefore, the levels of ROS, NO, and PGE2, the inflammatory mediators downstream the citrate pathway, were reduced. Results shed light on metabolic profile and anti-inflammatory properties of P. lentiscus hydrosol, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic agent.
Project description:Red-osier dogwood extracts (RDE) contain high levels of phenolic compounds which have been recognized as natural antioxidants. In this study, the potential of RDE to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) was evaluated using Caco-2 cells and a co-culture model of Caco-2 BBe1/EA.hy926 cells in Transwell® plates. The results showed that RDE supplementation significantly prevented interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and suppressed the gene expression of IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the TNF-? inflamed Caco-2 cells. Meanwhile, the polyphenols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-glucuronide, rutin, quercetin-3-O-malonylglucoside, and kaempferol-glucoside) in the RDE were validated to be absorbed by Caco-2 BBe1 cells and transported to the basal chamber where EA.hy926 cells were located during 12 h incubation. The transported polyphenols were able to prevent IL-8 production and suppress the gene expression of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-?, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and COX-2) in the TNF-? or oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) treated EA.hy926 cells. These novel findings demonstrated that phenolic compounds in RDE can be transported to the cardiovascular system by intestinal absorption and mitigate the inflammatory responses of vascular endothelial cells, indicating that RDE could be a natural resource of polyphenols to prevent inflammation cytokine or oxidized lipid-induced CVDs.
Project description:Abundant evidence has suggested that neuroinflammation participates in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The emerging evidence has supported that microglia may play key roles in the progressive neurodegeneration in PD and might be a promising therapeutic target. Ganoderma lucidum (GL), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been shown potential neuroprotective effects in our clinical trials that make us to speculate that it might possess potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of GL and possible underlying mechanism of action through protecting microglial activation using co-cultures of dopaminergic neurons and microglia. The microglia is activated by LPS and MPP(+)-treated MES 23.5 cell membranes. Meanwhile, GL extracts significantly prevent the production of microglia-derived proinflammatory and cytotoxic factors [nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interlukin 1? (IL-1?)] in a dose-dependent manner and down-regulate the TNF-? and IL-1? expressions on mRNA level as well. In conclusion, our results support that GL may be a promising agent for the treatment of PD through anti-inflammation.
Project description:Background:Tea tree oil (TTO) plays an important role in antibacterial activity and alleviating the inflammatory responses. Bovine mammary epithelium and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) can actively respond to bovine mastitis infection. However, regulatory effects of TTO extracts on the innate immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) and PMNL remain not reported. Therefore, aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of TTO extracts on the mRNA levels of the genes involved in the innate immune response of BMECs and PMNL. Results:Our results demonstrated that addition of 0.025% and 0.05% TTO increased the proliferation of BMECs, and significantly enhanced (P <?0.05) the viability of BMECs exposed to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). An inhibitory effect was observed against the growth of S. aureus by TTO incubation. The 0.05% TTO reduced S. aureus biofilm formation, association and invasion of S. aureus to BMECs, and changed the morphological and structural features of S. aureus. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? were decreased (P <?0.001) by the incubation of TTO. Interestingly, the expression of IL-8 known for PMNL chemotactic function was elevated (P <?0.05) by 0.05% TTO treatment. Consistently, 0.05% TTO increased the migration of PMNL in S. aureus-exposed BMECs when compared with S. aureus treatment alone (P <?0.05). In addition, PMNL incubated with 0.05% TTO decreased the levels of NFKB inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA) and TNF-?. Conclusions:Our results indicate that use of TTO can relieve the BMECs pro-inflammatory response caused by S. aureus and promote the migration of PMNL to mount the innate immune responses, and it may be novel strategy for the treatment of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus.
Project description:The present study consisted in evaluating the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties of ethanolic extracts from three mint species (Mentha spicata L. (MS), Mentha pulegium L. (MP) and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds (MR)) with biochemical methods on murine RAW 264.7 macrophages (a transformed macrophage cell line isolated from ascites of BALB/c mice infected by the Abelson leukemia virus). The total phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid contents were determined with spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant activities were quantified with the Kit Radicaux Libres (KRLTM), the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The MS extract showed the highest total phenolic content, and the highest antioxidant capacity, while the MR extract showed the lowest total phenolic content and the lowest antioxidant capacity. The cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were quantified on murine RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with 7-ketocholesterol (7KC; 20 µg/mL: 50 µM) associated or not for 24 h and 48 h with ethanolic mint extracts used at different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 µg/mL). Under treatment with 7KC, an important inhibition of cell growth was revealed with the crystal violet test. This side effect was strongly attenuated in a dose dependent manner with the different ethanolic mint extracts, mainly at 48 h. The most important cytoprotective effect was observed with the MS extract. In addition, the effects of ethanolic mint extracts on cytokine secretion (Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein (MCP)-1, Interferon (IFN)-?, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?) were determined at 24 h on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.2 µg/mL)-, 7KC (20 µg/mL)- and (7KC + LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Complex effects of mint extracts were observed on cytokine secretion. However, comparatively to LPS-treated cells, all the extracts strongly reduce IL-6 secretion and two of them (MP and MR) also decrease MCP-1 and TNF-? secretion. However, no anti-inflammatory effects were observed on 7KC- and (7KC + LPS)-treated cells. Altogether, these data bring new evidences on the potential benefits (especially antioxidant and cytoprotective properties) of Algerian mint on human health.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The phenolic compounds isoprenylhydroquinone glucoside (IHG), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCA), and its methyl ester (DCE) have previously been shown to inhibit both contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and peroxynitrite reactivity. The present work seeks to establish a relationship between the anti-inflammatory effect and the release of cytokines and tyrosine nitration in skin. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Murine CHS was developed by means of sensitization and challenge with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) or oxazolone. Ear swelling was measured 24 and 96 h after challenge. Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were measured by ELISA; and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was detected by Western blotting. Histological samples were analysed for 3-nitrotyrosine. KEY RESULTS: In the oxazolone model, DCE reduced the 24 h swelling by 54% whereas the effect of DCA was lower (40% inhibition). All the test compounds reduced IL-1beta values 24 h after challenge with DNFB or oxazolone, DCE particularly inhibited IL-4 production (74% and 78%, respectively; P<0.01). Tyrosine nitration was also markedly reduced by DCE. In general, the test compounds limited the presence of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes in the skin. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that the effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic esters on CHS is associated with a decrease in the production of interleukins, but not with the inhibition of iNOS expression. Moreover, esterification of the carboxyl group at C-1 enhanced protection against tyrosine nitration in the skin.
Project description:Infection of the gastric antrum by Helicobacter pylori is characterised by a cellular inflammatory infiltrate. Whether cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of this gastritis has been investigated by studying the effect of eradicating H pylori on the expression of genes encoding the cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the antral mucosa. Gastric antral biopsy specimens were taken from nine patients with duodenal ulcers and cytokine transcripts were identified and quantified by northern blotting. After H pylori had been eradicated the chronic inflammatory infiltrate decreased in all the patients and the polymorphonuclear infiltrate virtually disappeared. Expression of genes also decreased. After eradication, the median TNF-alpha mRNA/rRNA fell to 48% (p = 0.02) and the median IL-8 mRNA/rRNA fell to 5% (p = 0.004) of initial values. These results support the role of increased synthesis of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of the gastritis.
Project description:Scorzonera species are used in different folk medicines to combat many diseases, including the illnesses connected with inflammation. Previous experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of Scorzonera extracts in vivo. S. latifolia, S. cana var. jacquiniana, S. tomentosa, S. mollis ssp. szowitsii, S. eriophora, S. incisa, S. cinerea, and S. parviflora extracts were, therefore, evaluated for their inhibitory activities of TNF-? and IL-1? production, and NF-?B nuclear translocation in THP-1 macrophages. The HPLC analysis was carried out to elucidate and to compare the composition of these extracts. Major compounds of the tested extracts have been isolated using different chromatographic techniques and further tested for their inhibitory activities on TNF-? and IL-1? production. Several extracts showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in these in vitro tests. Results of HPLC analysis revealed chlorogenic acid as a compound present in all tested extracts. Hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucoside and rutin were also present in varying amount in some Scorzonera species analyzed. Furthermore, eight phenolics which were identified as quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucoside (1), hyperoside (2), hydrangenol-8-O-glucoside (3), swertisin (4), 7-methylisoorientin (5), 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid (7), and chlorogenic acid (8) have been isolated as major phenolic compounds of the tested extracts and, together with eight terpenoids (9-16) previously obtained from different Scorzonera species, have been tested for the inhibition of TNF-? production, unfortunately with no activity comparable with standard.
Project description:Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the most important defense mechanisms against bacterial infections in insects, plants, non-mammalian vertebrates, and mammals. In the present study, a class of synthetic AMPs was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. One cationic AMP, GW-A2, demonstrated the ability to inhibit the expression levels of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. GW-A2 reduced LPS-induced increases in the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C-α/δ and the activation of NF-κB. GW-A2 also inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by LPS and ATP. Furthermore, in the mice injected with LPS, GW-A2 reduced (1) the concentration of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the serum; (2) the concentration of TNF-α in the peritoneal lavage; (3) the expression levels of iNOS, COX-2 and NLRP3 in the liver and lung; (4) the infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the liver and lung. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity of GW-A2 were found to be partially due to LPS and ATP neutralization. These results provide insights into how GW-A2 inhibits inflammation and the NLRP3 inflammasome and provide a foundation for the design of rational therapeutics for inflammation-related diseases.
Project description:To further investigate the pathogenesis of late-onset capsular block syndrome (CBS) and to evaluate the safety of surgical treatment.Seven patients diagnosed with late-onset CBS were retrospectively analyzed. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive diopter, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before and after surgery were recorded. The opaque substance was tested with Western blot, and a flow cytometer multiple array assay system was utilized to evaluate the levels of inflammatory cytokines from opaque substance and aqueous humor, respectively.Patients who had undergone surgical treatment showed a significant BCVA and spherical equivalent refractive error improvement (P = 0.002, P = 0.021, resp.). Nevertheless, ACD and IOP before and after surgery were in normal range with no difference (P = 0.165, P = 0.749, resp.). αB-crystallin and βB-crystallin were detected in all opaque substances. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interlukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in opaque substance were significantly higher than those in aqueous humor (P = 0.038, P = 0.007, resp.), while IL-2 and IL-6 were not detected in any samples.Opaque substance is derived from human lens epithelial cells. Inflammatory cytokines may be involved in the pathogenesis of late-onset CBS. In addition, surgical treatment is an effective approach. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-17011287.