OXIDATIVE STRESS IN A RAT MODEL OF COTTON SMOKE INHALATION-INDUCED PULMONARY INJURY.
ABSTRACT: Smoke inhalation injury refers to airway and lung parenchyma injury and general chemical damage caused by inhaling toxic gases and substances. The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress mechanism of cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury in a rat model.Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, 6 h group, and 24 h group (six rats in each group), which duplicated previous rat cotton smoke-inhalation injury models. Rats in 6 h and 24 h groups were euthanised at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation, respectively. ELISA method was used to detect indicators in the rats' lung tissue. Quantitative iNOS mRNA and γ-GCS mRNA measurements were performed using a fluorescence PCR method.The concentrations of MDA, NO, iNOS, γ-GCS, iNOS mRNA, and the relative expression of γ-GCS mRNA in the rats' lung tissues in 6 h and 24 h groups were higher than control group (P < 0.05), and the concentration of NO and relative expressions of iNOS mRNA and γ-GCS mRNA in 24 h group were significantly higher than 6 h group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of GSH in 24 h and 6 h groups were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05), and that in 24 h group was even significantly lower than 6 h group (P < 0.05).In rats with cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury, the increased iNOS mRNA transcription can cause increase of iNOS synthesis and promotion of NO synthesis. The increased γ-GCS mRNA transcription can cause increase of γ-GCS synthesis and but decrease of GSH concentration. The activation of the antioxidant system is insufficient to combat oxidative stress damage. So the oxidant/antioxidant system is imbalanced, leading to gradual aggravation of lung injury.
Project description:T helper (Th) 17 cells and CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are supposed to be critically involved in regulating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the Th17/Treg pattern in rats with gunpowder smog-induced acute lung injury. Wistar rats were equally randomized to three groups: normal control group, ALI 6 h group (smoke inhalation for 6 h) and ALI 24 h group (smoke inhalation for 24 h). We observed changes in cell counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lung tissue pathology. Moreover, rats in ALI 6 h and ALI 24 h group showed increased expression of Th17 cell and related cytokines (IL-17 A, IL-6, TGF-? and IL-23). Meanwhile, Treg prevalence and related cytokines (IL-10, IL-2 and IL-35) were decreased. Consequently, the ratio of Th17/Treg was higher after smoke inhalation. Additionally, Th1 cell decreased while Th2 cell increased at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation. In conclusion, Th17/Treg imbalance exists in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of this disease.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes hepatic injury that is mediated, in part, by upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Ketamine has been shown to prevent these effects. Because upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has hepatoprotective effects, as does carbon monoxide (CO), an end product of the HO-1 catalytic reaction, we examined the effects of HO-1 inhibition on ketamine-induced hepatoprotection and assessed whether CO could attenuate LPS-induced hepatic injury. One group of rats received ketamine (70 mg/kg ip) or saline concurrently with either the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX (50 micromol/kg ip) or saline. Another group of rats received inhalational CO (250 ppm over 1 h) or room air. All rats were given LPS (20 mg/kg ip) or saline 1 h later and euthanized 5 h after LPS or saline. Liver was collected for iNOS, COX-2, and HO-1 (Western blot), NF-kappaB and PPAR-gamma analysis (EMSA), and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA analysis (RT-PCR). Serum was collected to measure alanine aminotransferase as an index of hepatocellular injury. HO-1 inhibition attenuated ketamine-induced hepatoprotection and downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 protein. CO prevented LPS-induced hepatic injury and upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Although CO abolished the ability of LPS to diminish PPAR-gamma activity, it enhanced NF-kappaB activity. These data suggest that the hepatoprotective effects of ketamine are mediated primarily by HO-1 and its end product CO.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Increased mucus secretion is one of the important characteristics of the response to smoke inhalation injuries. We hypothesized that gel-forming mucins may contribute to the increased mucus production in a smoke inhalation injury. We investigated the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in modulating smoke-induced mucus secretion. METHODS: We intubated mice and exposed them to smoke from burning cotton for 15 min. Their lungs were then isolated 4 and 24 h after inhalation injury. Three groups of mice were subjected to the smoke inhalation injury: (1) wild-type (WT) mice, (2) mice lacking JNK1 (JNK1-/- mice), and (3) WT mice administered a JNK inhibitor. The JNK inhibitor (SP-600125) was injected into the mice 1 h after injury. RESULTS: Smoke exposure caused an increase in the production of mucus in the airway epithelium of the mice along with an increase in MUC5AC gene and protein expression, while the expression of MUC5B was not increased compared with control. We found increased MUC5AC protein expression in the airway epithelium of the WT mice groups both 4 and 24 h after smoke inhalation injury. However, overproduction of mucus and increased MUC5AC protein expression induced by smoke inhalation was suppressed in the JNK inhibitor-treated mice and the JNK1 knockout mice. Smoke exposure did not alter the expression of MUC1 and MUC4 proteins in all 3 groups compared with control. CONCLUSION: An increase in epithelial MUC5AC protein expression is associated with the overproduction of mucus in smoke inhalation injury, and that its expression is related on JNK1 signaling.
Project description:To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on mRNA and protein expression of agrin, acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-ε and AChR-γ in a rat model of tibialis anterior muscle atrophy induced by sciatic nerve injection injury, and to examine the underlying mechanism of action.Fifty-four adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: healthy control group (CON, n=6); sciatic nerve injury group (SNI, n=24), comprising rats euthanased at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively, after penicillin injection-induced SNI (n=6 each); CON+EA group (n=12), comprising healthy rats euthanased at 4 and 6 weeks (after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of EA at GB30 and ST36); and SNI+EA group, comprising rats euthanased at 4 and 6 weeks (after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of EA). The sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), tibialis anterior muscle weight, muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), and changes in agrin, AChR-ε, and AChR-γ expression levels were analysed.Compared with the control group (CON), SNI rats showed decreased SFI. The weight of the tibialis anterior muscle and muscle fibre CSA decreased initially and recovered slightly over time. mRNA/protein expression of agrin and AChR-ε were downregulated and AChR-γ expression was detectable (vs zero expression in the CON/CON+EA groups). There were no significant differences in CON+EA versus CON groups. However, the SNI+EA group exhibited significant improvements compared with the untreated SNI group (p<0.05).EA may alleviate tibialis anterior muscle atrophy induced by sciatic nerve injection injury by upregulating agrin and AChR-ε and downregulating AChR-γ.
Project description:BackgroundSmoke inhalation injury increases overall burn mortality by up to 20 times. Current therapy remains supportive with a failure to identify an optimal or targeted treatment protocol for smoke inhalation injury. The goal of this review is to describe emerging therapies that are being developed to treat the pulmonary pathology induced by smoke inhalation injury with or without concurrent burn injury.Main bodyA comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed (1995–present) for therapies not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for smoke inhalation injury with or without concurrent burn injury. Therapies were divided based on therapeutic strategy. Models included inhalation alone with or without concurrent burn injury. Specific animal model, mechanism of action of medication, route of administration, therapeutic benefit, safety, mortality benefit, and efficacy were reviewed. Multiple potential therapies for smoke inhalation injury with or without burn injury are currently under investigation. These include stem cell therapy, anticoagulation therapy, selectin inhibition, inflammatory pathway modulation, superoxide and peroxynitrite decomposition, selective nitric oxide synthase inhibition, hydrogen sulfide, HMG-CoA reductase inhibition, proton pump inhibition, and targeted nanotherapies. While each of these approaches shows a potential therapeutic benefit to treating inhalation injury in animal models, further research including mortality benefit is needed to ensure safety and efficacy in humans.ConclusionsMultiple novel therapies currently under active investigation to treat smoke inhalation injury show promising results. Much research remains to be conducted before these emerging therapies can be translated to the clinical arena.
Project description:Synergism of Iraqi Sand/Cigarette Smoke Co-Exposure in Rats. 24 samples are used. A total of 102 rats will be separated into six exposure groups: each group consisting of 17 male CD Sprague-Dawley rats, 10 to 15 weeks old. The six exposure groups were each exposed via two routes: 1. nose-only inhalation exposures --- air or cigarette smoke; 2. whole-body inhalation exposures -- air or manufactured silica sand or Iraqi sand. The nose only exposures were conducted 3 hours per day, 5 days per week for 6 weeks. During the last two weeks of the nose - only exposures, whole-body exposure were also conducted 18-19 hours per day, 7 days per week.
Project description:Background:Smoke inhalation injury increases overall burn mortality. Locally applied heparin attenuates lung injury in burn animal models of smoke inhalation. It is uncertain whether local treatment of heparin is benefit for burn patients with inhalation trauma. We systematically reviewed published clinical trial data to evaluate the effectiveness of nebulized heparin in treating burn patients with inhalation injury. Methods:A systematic search was undertaken in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, the Chinese Journals Full-text Database, the China Biomedical Literature Database and the Wanfang Database to obtain clinical controlled trails evaluating nebulized heparin in the treatment of burn patients with inhalation injury. Patient and clinical characteristics, interventions and physiological and clinical outcomes were recorded. Cochrane Risk of Bias Evaluation Tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to evaluate data quality. Potential publication bias was assessed by Egger's test. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the stability of the results. The meta-analysis was conducted in R 3.5.1 software. Results:Nine trials were eligible for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Nebulized heparin can reduce lung injury and improve lung function in burn patients with inhalation injury without abnormal coagulation or bleeding, but the findings are still controversial. Mortality in the heparin-treated group was lower than that of the traditional treatment group (relative risk (RR) 0.75). The duration of mechanical ventilation (DOMV) was shorter in the heparin-treated group compared to the traditional treatment group (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.78). Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter than that in the traditional treatment group (SMD -0.42), but incidence rates of pneumonia and unplanned reintubation were not significantly different in the study groups (RRs 0.97 and 0.88, respectively). No statistically significant publication biases were detected for the above clinical endpoints (p?>?0.05). Conclusions:Based on conventional aerosol therapy, heparin nebulization can further reduce lung injury, improve lung function, shorten DOMV and length of hospital stay, and reduce mortality, although it does not reduce the incidence of pneumonia and/or the unplanned reintubation rate.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Inhaled anticoagulation regimens are increasingly being used to manage smoke inhalation-associated acute lung injury. We systematically reviewed published and unpublished preclinical and clinical trial data to elucidate the effects of these regimens on lung injury severity, airway obstruction, ventilation, oxygenation, pulmonary infections, bleeding complications, and survival. DATA SOURCES:PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant published studies. Relevant unpublished studies were identified by searching the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, MINDCULL.com, Current Controlled Trials, and Google. STUDY SELECTION:Inclusion criteria were any preclinical or clinical study in which 1) animals or subjects experienced smoke inhalation exposure, 2) they were treated with nebulized or aerosolized anticoagulation regimens, including heparin, heparinoids, antithrombins, or fibrinolytics (e.g., tissue plasminogen activator), 3) a control and/or sham group was described for preclinical studies, and 4) a concurrent or historical control group described for clinical studies. Exclusion criteria were 1) the absence of a group treated with a nebulized or aerosolized anticoagulation regimen, 2) the absence of a control or sham group, and 3) case reports. DATA EXTRACTION:Ninety-nine potentially relevant references were identified. Twenty-seven references met inclusion criteria including 19 preclinical references reporting 18 studies and eight clinical references reporting five clinical studies. DATA SYNTHESIS:A systematic review of the literature is provided. Both clinical and methodological diversity precluded combining these studies in a meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS:The high mortality associated with smoke inhalation-associated acute lung injury results from airway damage, mucosal dysfunction, neutrophil infiltration, airway coagulopathy with cast formation, ventilation-perfusion mismatching with shunt, and barotrauma. Inhaled anticoagulation regimens in both preclinical and clinical studies improve survival and decrease morbidity without altering systemic markers of clotting and anticoagulation. In some preclinical and clinical studies, inhaled anticoagulants were associated with a favorable effect on survival. This approach appears sufficiently promising to merit a well-designed prospective study to validate its use in patients with severe smoke inhalation-associated acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation.
Project description:Recovery of respiratory activity in an upper cervical hemisection model (C2H) of spinal cord injury (SCI) can be induced by systemic theophylline administration 24-48 h after injury. The objectives in the present study are (1) to identify pro-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors expressed after C2H and (2) molecular signals involved in functional recovery. Four groups of adult female rats classified as (i) sham (SH) controls, (ii) subjected to a left C2 hemisection (C2H) only, (iii) C2H rats administered theophylline for 3 consecutive days 2 days after C2H (C2H-T day 5) and (iv) C2H rats treated with theophylline for 3 consecutive days 2 days after C2H and then weaned for 12 days (C2H-T day 17) prior to assessment of respiratory function and molecular analysis were employed. Corresponding sham controls, C2H untreated (vehicle only controls) and C2H treated (theophylline) rats were sacrificed, C3-C6 spinal cord segments quickly dissected and left (ipsilateral) hemi spinal cord and right (contralateral) hemi spinal cord were separately harvested 2 days post surgery. Sham operated and C2H untreated-controls corresponding to C2H-T day 5 and C2H-T day 17 rats, respectively, were prepared similarly. Messenger RNA levels for pro-inflammatory genes (TXNIP, IL-1?, TNF-? and iNOS) and neurotrophic and survival factors (BDNF, GDNF, and Bcl2) were analyzed by real time quantitative PCR. Gene expression pattern was unaltered in SH rats. TXNIP, iNOS, BDNF, GDNF and Bcl2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the ipsilateral hemi spinal cord in C2H rats. BDNF, GDNF and Bcl2 levels remained elevated in the ipsilateral hemi spinal cord in C2H-T day 5 rats. In this same group, there was further enhancement in TXNIP and IL-1? while iNOS returned to basal levels. Theophylline increased DNA binding activity of transcription factors - cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE) binding protein (CREB) and pro-inflammatory NF-?B. Messenger RNA levels for all genes returned to basal levels in C2H-T day 17 rats. However, BDNF mRNA levels remained significantly elevated after weaning from the drug. Our results suggest that enhanced resolution of early inflammatory processes and expression of pro-survival factors may underlie theophylline-induced respiratory recovery. The results identify potential targets for gene and drug therapies.
Project description:To investigate the effects of estrogen G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) agonist G1 on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and microglial polarization in rat traumatic brain injury (TBI).Male SD rats were randomly divided into sham group, TBI + vehicle group, TBI + G1 group. Experimental moderate TBI was induced using Feeney's weigh-drop method. G1 (100?g/kg) or vehicle was intravenously injected from femoral vein at 30 min post-injury. Rats were sacrificed at 24 h after injury for detection of neuronal apoptosis and microglia polarization. Neuronal apoptosis was assayed by immunofluorescent staining of active caspase-3. M1 type microglia markers (iNOS and IL-1?) and M2 type markers (Arg1 and IL-4) were examined by immunoblotting or ELISA. Total protein level of Akt and phosphorylated Akt were assayed by immunoblotting.G1 significantly reduced active caspase-3 positive neurons in hippocampus. Meanwhile G1 increased the ratio of Arg1/iNOS. IL-1? production was decreased but IL-4 was increased after G1 treatment. G1 treatment also increased the active form of Akt.GPR30 agonist G1 inhibited neuronal apoptosis and favored microglia polarization to M2 type.