ZapA and ZapB form an FtsZ-independent structure at midcell.
ABSTRACT: Cell division in Escherichia coli begins with the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure, the Z-ring, at midcell. All other division proteins are thought to require the Z-ring for recruitment to the future division site. Here, it is reported that the Z-ring associated proteins ZapA and ZapB form FtsZ-independent structures at midcell. Upon Z-ring disruption by the FtsZ polymerization antagonist SulA, ZapA remained at midcell as a cloud-like accumulation. Using ZapA(N60Y), a variant defective for interaction with FtsZ, it was established that these ZapA structures form without a connection to the Z-ring. Furthermore, midcell accumulations of GFP-ZapA(N60Y) often preceded Z-rings at midcell and required ZapB to assemble, suggesting that ZapB polymers form the foundation of these structures. In the absence of MatP, a DNA-binding protein that links ZapB to the chromosomal terminus region, cloud-like ZapA structures still formed but failed to track with the chromosome terminus and did not consistently precede FtsZ at midcell. Taken together, the results suggest that FtsZ-independent structures of ZapA-ZapB provide additional positional cues for Z-ring formation and may help coordinate its assembly with chromosome replication and segregation.
Project description:In most bacterial cells, cell division is dependent on the polymerization of the FtsZ protein to form a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at the midcell. Despite its essential role, the molecular architecture of the Z-ring remains elusive. In this work we examine the roles of two FtsZ-associated proteins, ZapA and ZapB, in the assembly dynamics and structure of the Z-ring in Escherichia coli cells. In cells deleted of zapA or zapB, we observed abnormal septa and highly dynamic FtsZ structures. While details of these FtsZ structures are difficult to discern under conventional fluorescence microscopy, single-molecule-based super-resolution imaging method Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) reveals that these FtsZ structures arise from disordered arrangements of FtsZ clusters. Quantitative analysis finds these clusters are larger and comprise more molecules than a single FtsZ protofilament, and likely represent a distinct polymeric species that is inherent to the assembly pathway of the Z-ring. Furthermore, we find these clusters are not due to the loss of ZapB-MatP interaction in ?zapA and ?zapB cells. Our results suggest that the main function of ZapA and ZapB?in vivo may not be to promote the association of individual protofilaments but to align FtsZ clusters that consist of multiple FtsZ protofilaments.
Project description:Bacterial cell division relies on the formation and contraction of the Z ring, coordinated and regulated by a dynamic protein complex called the divisome. The cell division factor ZapA interacts directly with FtsZ and thereby increases FtsZ protofilament association and Z-ring stability. Here, we investigated ZapB interaction with ZapA and its effect on Z-ring formation and FtsZ protofilament bundling. The combination of the ftsZ84 allele that encodes an FtsZ variant that polymerizes inefficiently with a zapB null mutant resulted in a synthetic defective phenotype. Overproduction of ZapA led to the formation of aberrant FtsZ helical structures and delocalization of ZapB. The N-terminal end of ZapB was essential for ZapB-ZapA interaction, and amino acid changes close to the N terminus of ZapB exhibited reduced interaction with ZapA. Sedimentation assays showed that ZapB interacts strongly with ZapA and reduces ZapA's interaction with FtsZ in vitro. The morphology of the structures formed by ZapA and ZapB together was similar to the cables formed by ZapB in the presence of CaCl(2), a known ZapB bundling agent. The in vivo and in vitro data support a model in which ZapA interacts strongly with ZapB and the ZapA-ZapB interaction is favored over ZapA-FtsZ.
Project description:The tubulin homolog FtsZ forms a polymeric membrane-associated ring structure (Z ring) at midcell that establishes the site of division and provides an essential framework for the localization of a multiprotein molecular machine that promotes division in Escherichia coli. A number of regulatory proteins interact with FtsZ and modulate FtsZ assembly/disassembly processes, ensuring the spatiotemporal integrity of cytokinesis. The Z-associated proteins (ZapA, ZapB, and ZapC) belong to a group of FtsZ-regulatory proteins that exhibit functionally redundant roles in stabilizing FtsZ-ring assembly by binding and bundling polymeric FtsZ at midcell. In this study, we report the identification of ZapD (YacF) as a member of the E. coli midcell division machinery. Genetics and cell biological evidence indicate that ZapD requires FtsZ but not other downstream division proteins for localizing to midcell, where it promotes FtsZ-ring assembly via molecular mechanisms that overlap with ZapA. Biochemical evidence indicates that ZapD directly interacts with FtsZ and promotes bundling of FtsZ protofilaments. Similarly to ZapA, ZapB, and ZapC, ZapD is dispensable for division and therefore belongs to the growing group of FtsZ-associated proteins in E. coli that aid in the overall fitness of the division process.
Project description:Bacterial cell division is guided by filamenting temperature-sensitive Z (FtsZ) treadmilling at midcell. FtsZ itself is regulated by FtsZ-associated proteins (Zaps) that couple it to different cellular processes. Z-associated protein A (ZapA) is known to enhance FtsZ bundling but also forms a synchronizing link with chromosome segregation through Z-associated protein B (ZapB) and matS-bound MatP. ZapA likely exists as dimers and tetramers in the cell. Using a ZapA mutant that is only able to form dimers in vitro (ZapAI83E), this paper investigates the effects of ZapA multimerization state on its interaction partners and cell division. By employing fluorescence microscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer in vivo it was shown that ZapAI83E is unable to complement a zapA deletion strain and localizes diffusely through the cell but still interacts with FtsZ that is not part of the cell division machinery. The diffusely-localized ZapAI83E is unable to recruit ZapB, which in its presence localizes unipolarly. Interestingly, the localization profiles of the chromosome and unipolar ZapB anticorrelate. The work presented here confirms previously reported in vitro effects of ZapA multimerization in vivo and places it in a broader context by revealing the strong implications for ZapB and chromosome localization and ter linkage.
Project description:Spatial regulation of cell division in Escherichia coli occurs at the stage of Z ring formation. It consists of negative (the Min and NO systems) and positive (Ter signal mediated by MatP/ZapA/ZapB) regulators. Here, we find that N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) facilitates functional Z ring formation by strengthening the Ter signal via ZapB. DapE depends on ZapB to localize to the Z ring and its overproduction suppresses the division defect caused by loss of both the Min and NO systems. DapE shows a strong interaction with ZapB and requires the presence of ZapB to exert its function in division. Consistent with the idea that DapE strengthens the Ter signal, overproduction of DapE supports cell division with reduced FtsZ levels and provides some resistance to the FtsZ inhibitors MinCD and SulA, while deletion of dapE, like deletion of zapB, exacerbates the phenotypes of cells impaired in Z ring formation such as ftsZ84 or a min mutant. Taken together, our results report DapE as a new component of the divisome that promotes the integrity of the Z ring by acting through ZapB and raises the possibility of the existence of additional divisome proteins that also function in other cellular processes.
Project description:Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ at midcell in a ring-like structure called the Z-ring. ZapA and other proteins assist Z-ring formation and ZapA binds ZapB, which senses the presence of the nucleoids. The FtsZ?ZapA binding interface was analyzed by chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) under in vitro FtsZ-polymerizing conditions in the presence of GTP. Amino acids residue K42 from ZapA was cross-linked to amino acid residues K51 and K66 from FtsZ, close to the interphase between FtsZ molecules in protofilaments. Five different cross-links confirmed the tetrameric structure of ZapA. A number of FtsZ cross-links suggests that its C-terminal domain of 55 residues, thought to be largely disordered, has a limited freedom to move in space. Site-directed mutagenesis of ZapA reveals an interaction site in the globular head of the protein close to K42. Using the information on the cross-links and the mutants that lost the ability to interact with FtsZ, a model of the FtsZ protofilament?ZapA tetramer complex was obtained by information-driven docking with the HADDOCK2.2 webserver.
Project description:In Escherichia coli, spatiotemporal control of cell division occurs at the level of the assembly/disassembly process of the essential cytoskeletal protein FtsZ. A number of regulators interact with FtsZ and modulate the dynamics of the assembled FtsZ ring at the midcell division site. In this article, we report the identification of an FtsZ stabilizer, ZapC (Z-associated protein C), in a protein localization screen conducted with E. coli. ZapC colocalizes with FtsZ at midcell and interacts directly with FtsZ, as determined by a protein-protein interaction assay in yeast. Cells lacking or overexpressing ZapC are slightly elongated and have aberrant FtsZ ring morphologies indicative of a role for ZapC in FtsZ regulation. We also demonstrate the ability of purified ZapC to promote lateral bundling of FtsZ in a sedimentation reaction visualized by transmission electron microscopy. While ZapC lacks sequence similarity with other nonessential FtsZ regulators, ZapA and ZapB, all three Zap proteins appear to play an important role in FtsZ regulation during rapid growth. Taken together, our results suggest a key role for lateral bundling of the midcell FtsZ polymers in maintaining FtsZ ring stability during division.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Bacterial cell division initiates with the formation of a ring-like structure at the cell center composed of the tubulin homolog FtsZ (the Z-ring), which acts as a scaffold for the assembly of the cell division complex, the divisome. Previous studies have suggested that the divisome is initially composed of FtsZ polymers stabilized by membrane anchors FtsA and ZipA, which then recruit the remaining division proteins. The MinCDE proteins prevent the formation of the Z-ring at poles by oscillating from pole to pole, thereby ensuring that the concentration of the Z-ring inhibitor, MinC, is lowest at the cell center. We show that prior to septum formation, the early-division proteins ZipA, ZapA, and ZapB, along with FtsZ, assemble into complexes that counter-oscillate with respect to MinC, and with the same period. We propose that FtsZ molecules distal from high concentrations of MinC form relatively slowly diffusing filaments that are bound by ZapAB and targeted to the inner membrane by ZipA or FtsA. These complexes may facilitate the early stages of divisome assembly at midcell. As MinC oscillates toward these complexes, FtsZ oligomerization and bundling are inhibited, leading to shorter or monomeric FtsZ complexes, which become less visible by epifluorescence microscopy because of their rapid diffusion. Reconstitution of FtsZ-Min waves on lipid bilayers shows that FtsZ bundles partition away from high concentrations of MinC and that ZapA appears to protect FtsZ from MinC by inhibiting FtsZ turnover.<h4>Importance</h4>A big issue in biology for the past 100 years has been that of how a cell finds its middle. In Escherichia coli, over 20 proteins assemble at the cell center at the time of division. We show that the MinCDE proteins, which prevent the formation of septa at the cell pole by inhibiting FtsZ, drive the counter-oscillation of early-cell-division proteins ZapA, ZapB, and ZipA, along with FtsZ. We propose that FtsZ forms filaments at the pole where the MinC concentration is the lowest and acts as a scaffold for binding of ZapA, ZapB, and ZipA: such complexes are disassembled by MinC and reform within the MinC oscillation period before accumulating at the cell center at the time of division. The ability of FtsZ to be targeted to the cell center in the form of oligomers bound by ZipA and ZapAB may facilitate the early stages of divisome assembly.
Project description:The cytoskeletal GTPase FtsZ assembles at midcell, recruits the division machinery and directs envelope invagination for bacterial cytokinesis. ZapA, a conserved FtsZ-binding protein, promotes Z-ring stability and efficient division through a mechanism that is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the function of ZapA in Caulobacter crescentus. We found that ZapA is encoded in an operon with a small coiled-coil protein we named ZauP. ZapA and ZauP co-localized at the division site and were each required for efficient division. ZapA interacted directly with both FtsZ and ZauP. Neither ZapA nor ZauP influenced FtsZ dynamics or bundling, in vitro, however. Z-rings were diffuse in cells lacking zapA or zauP and, conversely, FtsZ was enriched at midcell in cells overproducing ZapA and ZauP. Additionally, FtsZ persisted at the poles longer when ZapA and ZauP were overproduced, and frequently colocalized with MipZ, a negative regulator of FtsZ polymerization. We propose that ZapA and ZauP promote efficient cytokinesis by stabilizing the midcell Z-ring through a bundling-independent mechanism. The zauPzapA operon is present in diverse Gram-negative bacteria, indicating a common mechanism for Z-ring assembly.
Project description:The prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, forms a ring-like structure (FtsZ-ring) at midcell. The FtsZ-ring establishes the division plane and enables the assembly of the macromolecular division machinery (divisome). Although many molecular components of the divisome have been identified and their interactions extensively characterized, the spatial organization of these proteins within the divisome is unclear. Consequently, the physical mechanisms that drive divisome assembly, maintenance, and constriction remain elusive. Here we applied single-molecule based superresolution imaging, combined with genetic and biophysical investigations, to reveal the spatial organization of cellular structures formed by four important divisome proteins in E. coli: FtsZ, ZapA, ZapB and MatP. We show that these interacting proteins are arranged into a multi-layered protein network extending from the cell membrane to the chromosome, each with unique structural and dynamic properties. Further, we find that this protein network stabilizes the FtsZ-ring, and unexpectedly, slows down cell constriction, suggesting a new, unrecognized role for this network in bacterial cell division. Our results provide new insight into the structure and function of the divisome, and highlight the importance of coordinated cell constriction and chromosome segregation.