Characterization of Insect Resistance Loci in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection Using Genome-Wide Association Studies.
ABSTRACT: Management of insects that cause economic damage to yields of soybean mainly rely on insecticide applications. Sources of resistance in soybean plant introductions (PIs) to different insect pests have been reported, and some of these sources, like for the soybean aphid (SBA), have been used to develop resistant soybean cultivars. With the availability of SoySNP50K and the statistical power of genome-wide association studies, we integrated phenotypic data for beet armyworm, Mexican bean beetle (MBB), potato leafhopper (PLH), SBA, soybean looper (SBL), velvetbean caterpillar (VBC), and chewing damage caused by unspecified insects for a comprehensive understanding of insect resistance in the United States Department of Agriculture Soybean Germplasm Collection. We identified significant single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphic markers for MBB, PLH, SBL, and VBC, and we highlighted several leucine-rich repeat-containing genes and myeloblastosis transcription factors within the high linkage disequilibrium region surrounding significant SNP markers. Specifically for soybean resistance to PLH, we found the PLH locus is close but distinct to a locus for soybean pubescence density on chromosome 12. The results provide genetic support that pubescence density may not directly link to PLH resistance. This study offers a novel insight of soybean resistance to four insect pests and reviews resistance mapping studies for major soybean insects.
Project description:The common cutworm (CCW, Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is one of the most serious pests of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Previously, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for antibiosis resistance to CCW, CCW-1 and CCW-2, were detected in the resistant cultivar Himeshirazu. In this study, we conducted an anti-xenosis bioassay using a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between a susceptible cultivar Fukuyutaka and Himeshirazu to perform QTL analysis. Two QTLs for antixenosis resistance, qRslx1 and qRslx2, were identified on Chrs 7 and 12, and the resistant alleles of qRslx1 and qRslx2 were derived from Himeshirazu and Fukuyutaka, respectively. The position of qRslx1 is similar to that of CCW-1. We also analyzed pubescence characteristics because they have been reported to be associated with soybean insect resistance. Two QTLs for pubescence length (on Chrs 7 and 12) and two QTLs for pubescence density (on Chrs 1 and 12) were identified. The pubescence QTLs on Chrs 7 and 12 were located near qRslx1 and qRslx2, respectively. These results suggest that the antixenosis resistance could be controlled genetically by the identified QTLs and that the pubescence characteristics might contribute to the soybean antixenosis resistance to CCW.
Project description:Spodoptera frugiperda is one of the main pests of maize and cotton in Brazil and has increased its occurrence on soybean. Field-evolved resistance of this species to Cry1 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins expressed in maize has been characterized in Brazil, Argentina, Puerto Rico and southeastern U.S. Here, we conducted studies to evaluate the survival and development of S. frugiperda strains that are susceptible, selected for resistance to Bt-maize single (Cry1F) or pyramided (Cry1F/Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2) events and F1 hybrids of the selected and susceptible strains (heterozygotes) on DAS-444Ø6-6 × DAS-81419-2 soybean with tolerance to 2,4-D, glyphosate and ammonium glufosinate herbicides (event DAS-444Ø6-6) and insect-resistant due to expression of Cry1Ac and Cry1F Bt proteins (event DAS-81419-2). Susceptible insects of S. frugiperda did not survive on Cry1Ac/Cry1F-soybean. However, homozygous-resistant and heterozygous insects were able to survive and emerge as fertile adults when fed on Cry1Ac/Cry1F-soybean, suggesting that the resistance is partially recessive. Life history studies revealed that homozygous-resistant insects had similar development, reproductive performance, net reproductive rate, intrinsic and finite rates of population increase on Cry1Ac/Cry1F-soybean and non-Bt soybean. In contrast, heterozygotes had their fertility life table parameters significantly reduced on Cry1Ac/Cry1F-soybean. Therefore, the selection of S. frugiperda for resistance to single and pyramided Bt maize can result in cross-crop resistance to DAS-444Ø6-6 × DAS-81419-2 soybean. The importance of these results to integrated pest management (IPM) and insect resistance management (IRM) programs is discussed.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura; SBA) is the most economically damaging insect of soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. One previous study demonstrated that avirulent (biotype 1) and virulent (biotype 2) biotypes could co-occur and interact on resistant (i.e., Rag1) and susceptible soybean resulting in induced susceptibility after 11 days of feeding. The main objective of this research was to employ RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technique to compare the induced susceptibility effect of biotype 2 on susceptible and resistant soybean at day 1 and day 11 (i.e., both susceptible and resistant soybean were initially challenged by biotype 2 and the effect was monitored through biotype 1 populations). DATA DESCRIPTION:We investigated susceptible and Rag1 transcriptome response to SBA feeding in soybean plants colonized by biotype 1 in the presence or absence of an inducer population (i.e., biotype 2). Ten RNA datasets are reported with 266,535,654 sequence reads (55.2 GB) obtained from pooled samples derived from the leaves collected at day 1 and day 11 post SBA infestation. A comprehensive understanding of these transcriptome data will enhance our understanding of interactions among soybean and two different biotypes of soybean aphids at the molecular level.
Project description:Short rotation woody biomass cultivars developed from fast-growing shrub species of willow (Salix spp.) have superior properties as perennial energy crops for the Northeast and Midwest US. However, the insect pest potato leafhopper (PLH) Empoasca fabae (Harris) can cause serious damage and reduce yield of susceptible genotypes. Currently, the willow cultivars in use display varying levels of susceptibility under PLH infestation. However, genes and markers for resistance to PLH are not yet available for marker-assisted selection in breeding. In this study, transcriptome differences between a resistant genotype 94006 (S. purpurea) and a susceptible cultivar 'Jorr' (S. viminalis), and their hybrid progeny were determined. Over 600 million RNA-Seq reads were generated and mapped to the Salix purpurea reference transcriptome. Gene expression analyses revealed the unique defense mechanism in resistant genotype 94006 that involves PLH-induced secondary cell wall modification. In the susceptible genotypes, genes involved in programed cell death were highly expressed, explaining the necrosis symptoms after PLH feeding. Overall, the discovery of resistance genes and defense mechanisms provides new resources for shrub willow breeding and research in the future.
Project description:Shrub willow (Salix spp.), a short rotation woody biomass crop, has superior properties as a perennial energy crop for the Northeast and Midwest US. However, the insect pest potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (PLH) can cause serious damage and reduce yield of susceptible genotypes. Currently, the willow cultivars in use display varying levels of susceptibility under PLH infestation. However, genes and markers for resistance to PLH are not yet available for marker-assisted selection in breeding. In this study, transcriptome differences between a resistant genotype 94006 (S. purpurea) and a susceptible cultivar ‘Jorr’ (S. viminalis), and their hybrid progeny were determined. Over 600 million RNA-Seq reads were generated and mapped to the Salix purpurea reference transcriptome. Gene expression analyses revealed the unique defense mechanism in resistant genotype 94006 that involves PLH-induced secondary cell wall modification. In the susceptible genotypes, genes involved in programed cell death were highly expressed, explaining the necrosis symptoms after potato leafhopper feeding. Overall, the discovery of resistance genes and defense mechanisms provides new resources for shrub willow breeding and research in the future. Overall design: Leaf tissue mRNA profiles of two shrub willow species and their 7 progenies, before and after PLH infestation at four time points, were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate/triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2500
Project description:Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines; SBA) and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines; SCN) are two major pests of soybean (Glycine max) in the United States of America. This study aims to characterize three-way interactions among soybean, SBA, and SCN using both demographic and genetic datasets. SCN-resistant and SCN-susceptible soybean cultivars with a combination of soybean aphids (biotype 1) and SCN (HG type 0) in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six blocks were used to evaluate the three-way interactions in a greenhouse setup. Treatments receiving SCN were infested at planting with 2000 nematode eggs, and the treatments with soybean aphids were infested at second trifoliate growth stage (V2) with 15 soybean aphids. The whole roots were sampled from plants at 5 and 30 days post SBA infestation for RNA sequencing using Illumina Hiseq. 3000. The data comprises of 47 libraries that are useful for further analyses of important genes, which are involved in interaction effects of SBA and SCN on soybean.
Project description:The most important insect pests causing severe economic damages to soybean (Glycine max L.) production worldwide are Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, Noctuidae), Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, Erebidae), Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar, Noctuidae), Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham; Tortricidae), Spodoptera albula (Walker, Noctuidae), S. cosmiodes (Walker, Noctuidae), S. eridania (Stoll, Noctuidae), S. frugiperda (Smith; Noctuidae), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, Noctuidae), H. zea (Boddie; Noctuidae) and Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera,Platygastidae). Despite the success of biotech Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)/herbicide tolerance (HT)-soybean in the past decade in terms of output, unforeseen mitigated performances have been observed due to changes in climatic events that favors the emergence of insect resistance. Thus, there is a need to develop hybrids with elaborated gene stacking to avert the upsurge in insect field tolerance to crystal (Cry) toxins in Bt-soybean. This study covers the performance of important commercial transgenic soybean developed to outwit destructive insects. New gene stacking soybean events such as Cry1Ac-, Cry1AF- and PAT-soybean (DAS-81419-2®, Conkesta™ technology), and MON-87751-7?×?MON-87701-2?×?MON 87708?×?MON 89788 (bearing Cry1A.105 [Cry1Ab, Cry1F, Cry1Ac], Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac) are being approved and deployed in fields. Following this deployment trend, we recommend herein that plant-mediated RNA interference into Bt-soybean, and the application of RNA-based pesticides that is complemented by other best agricultural practices such as refuge compliance, and periodic application of low-level insecticides could maximize trait durability in Bt-soybean production in the twenty-first century.
Project description:UV-radiation elicits a suite of developmental (photomorphogenic) and protective responses in plants, but responses early post-germination have received little attention, particularly in intensively bred plants of economic importance. We examined germination, hypocotyl elongation, leaf pubescence and subcellular responses of germinating and/or etiolated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings in response to treatment with discrete wavelengths of UV-A or UV-B radiation. We demonstrate differential responses of germinating/young soybean seedlings to a range of UV wavelengths that indicate unique signal transduction mechanisms regulate UV-initiated responses. We have investigated how phenylalanine, a key substrate in the phenylpropanoid pathway, may be involved in these responses. Pubescence may be a key location for phenylalanine-derived protective compounds, as UV-B irradiation increased pubescence and accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds within primary leaf pubescence, visualized by microscopy and absorbance spectra. Mass spectrometry analysis of pubescence indicated that sinapic esters accumulate in the UV-irradiated hairs compared to unirradiated primary leaf tissue. Deleterious effects of some UV-B wavelengths on germination and seedling responses were reduced or entirely prevented by inclusion of phenylalanine in the growth media. Key effects of phenylalanine were not duplicated by tyrosine or tryptophan or sucrose, nor is the specificity of response due to the absorbance of phenylalanine itself. These results suggest that in the seed-to-seedling transition, phenylalanine may be a limiting factor in the development of initial mechanisms of UV protection in the developing leaf.
Project description:Cotton possesses certain physical features, including leaf and stem trichomes that help plants deter damage caused by insect pests, and to some extent, from abiotic factors as well. Among those features, trichomes (pubescence) hold a special place as a first line of defense and a managemental tool against sucking insect pests of cotton. Different insect pests of cotton (whiteflies, aphids, jassids, and boll weevil) severely damage the yield and quality of the crop. Likewise, whiteflies, aphids, jassids, and other insect pests are considered as potential carriers for cotton leaf curl viruses and other diseases. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) study was conducted to understand and explore the genomic regions governing hairy (Pubescence) leaves and stem phenotypes. A total of 224 individuals developed from an intraspecific cross (densely haired cotton (Liaoyang duomao mian) × hairless cotton (Zong 128)) and characterized phenotypically for leaf and stem pubescence in different environments. Here we identify and report significant QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with leaf and stem pubescence, and the response of plant under pest (aphid) infestation. Further, we identified putative genes colocalized on chromosome A06 governing mechanism for trichome development and host-pest interaction. Our study provides a comprehensive insight into genetic architecture that can be employed to improve molecular marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at developing biotic (insect pests) resilient cotton cultivars.
Project description:Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.