Delineation of B-cell Epitopes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Hemolysin E: Potential antibody therapeutic target.
ABSTRACT: Hemolysin E (HlyE) is an immunogenic novel pore-forming toxin involved in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Thus, mapping of B-cell epitopes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is critical to identify key immunogenic regions of HlyE. A random 20-mer peptide library was used for biopanning with enriched anti-HlyE polyclonal antibodies from typhoid patient sera. Bioinformatic tools were used to refine, analyze and map the enriched peptide sequences against the protein to identify the epitopes. The analysis identified both linear and conformational epitopes on the HlyE protein. The predicted linear GAAAGIVAG and conformational epitope PYSQESVLSADSQNQK were further validated against the pooled sera. The identified epitopes were then used to isolate epitope specific monoclonal antibodies by antibody phage display. Monoclonal scFv antibodies were enriched for both linear and conformational epitopes. Molecular docking was performed to elucidate the antigen-antibody interaction of the monoclonal antibodies against the epitopes on the HlyE monomer and oligomer structure. An in-depth view of the mechanistic and positional characteristics of the antibodies and epitope for HlyE was successfully accomplished by a combination of phage display and bioinformatic analysis. The predicted function and structure of the antibodies highlights the possibility of utilizing the antibodies as neutralizing agents for typhoid fever.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever and a human-restricted pathogen. Currently available typhoid vaccines provide 50 to 90% protection for 2 to 5 years, and available practical diagnostic assays to identify individuals with typhoid fever lack sensitivity and/or specificity. Identifying immunogenic S. Typhi antigens expressed during human infection could lead to improved diagnostic assays and vaccines. Here we describe a platform immunoaffinity proteomics-based technology (IPT) that involves the use of columns charged with IgG, IgM, or IgA antibody fractions recovered from humans bacteremic with S. Typhi to capture S. Typhi proteins that were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. This screening tool identifies immunogenic proteins recognized by antibodies from infected hosts. Using this technology and the plasma of patients with S. Typhi bacteremia in Bangladesh, we identified 57 proteins of S. Typhi, including proteins known to be immunogenic (PagC, HlyE, OmpA, and GroEL) and a number of proteins present in the human-restricted serotypes S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A but rarely found in broader-host-range Salmonella spp. (HlyE, CdtB, PltA, and STY1364). We categorized identified proteins into a number of major groupings, including those involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis, iron homeostasis, and biosynthetic and metabolic functions and those predicted to localize to the outer membrane. We assessed systemic and mucosal anti-HlyE responses in S. Typhi-infected patients and detected anti-HlyE responses at the time of clinical presentation in patients but not in controls. These findings could assist in the development of improved diagnostic assays.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is a need for a reliable, simple diagnostic assay for typhoid fever. Available commercial serologic assays for typhoid fever have limited sensitivity and specificity. Using high-throughput immunoscreening technologies, we previously identified several immunoreactive Salmonella Typhi antigens that seem promising for possible inclusion in a new diagnostic assay: hemolysin E (HlyE), cytolethal distending toxin, S. Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and S. Typhi membrane preparation. METHODS:We assessed plasma antibody responses (immunoglobulin [Ig] M, IgA, and IgG) to these antigens by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with suspected enteric fever, controls with other febrile illnesses, and healthy controls in Dhaka, Bangladesh and performed Tubex and Typhidot tests, the Widal assay, and the typhoid/paratyphoid test (TPTest) in each patient. Using machine learning methods, we identified a parsimonious serology signature to distinguish acute typhoid cases from controls and then validated our findings in an independent test cohort from Nepal of patients with culture-confirmed S. Typhi and controls with other bacteremic illnesses. RESULTS:We demonstrated that the use of 2 antigens (HlyE and LPS) with 1 antibody isotype (IgA) could distinguish typhoid from other invasive bacterial infections (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.95; sensitivity, 90%, specificity, 92%). Use of a single antigen (HlyE) and isotype (IgA) had an AUC of 0.93. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that development of a diagnostic assay for acute typhoid fever focused on detecting IgA responses against HlyE, with or without LPS, is warranted.
Project description:We have previously shown that an assay based on detection of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibodies in supernatant of lymphocytes harvested from patients presenting with typhoid fever (antibody in lymphocyte supernatant [ALS] assay) can identify 100% of patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Bangladesh. In order to define immunodominant proteins within the S. Typhi membrane preparation used as antigen in these prior studies and to identify potential biomarkers unique to S. Typhi bacteremic patients, we probed microarrays containing 2,724 S. Typhi proteins with ALS collected at the time of clinical presentation from 10 Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever. We identified 62 immunoreactive antigens when evaluating both the IgG and IgA responses. Immune responses to 10 of these antigens discriminated between individuals with acute typhoid infection and healthy control individuals from areas where typhoid infection is endemic, as well as Bangladeshi patients presenting with fever who were subsequently confirmed to have a nontyphoid illness. Using an ALS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format and purified antigen, we then confirmed that immune responses against the antigen with the highest immunoreactivity (hemolysin E [HlyE]) correctly identified individuals with acute typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. These observations suggest that purified antigens could be used with ALS and corresponding acute-phase activated B lymphocytes in diagnostic platforms to identify acutely infected patients, even in areas where enteric fever is endemic.
Project description:BACKGROUND:S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. The PhoP regulon is a well studied two component (PhoP/Q) coordinately regulated network of genes whose expression is required for intracellular survival of S. enterica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we examined the protein expression profiles of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro and compared these results to profiles of phoP(-)/Q(-) mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. Our analysis identified 53 proteins in S. Typhimurium LT2 and 56 proteins in S. Typhi that were regulated in a PhoP-dependent manner. As expected, many proteins identified in S. Typhi demonstrated concordant differential expression with a homologous protein in S. Typhimurium. However, three proteins (HlyE, STY1499, and CdtB) had no homolog in S. Typhimurium. HlyE is a pore-forming toxin. STY1499 encodes a stably expressed protein of unknown function transcribed in the same operon as HlyE. CdtB is a cytolethal distending toxin associated with DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and cellular distension. Gene expression studies confirmed up-regulation of mRNA of HlyE, STY1499, and CdtB in S. Typhi in PhoP-inducing conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This study is the first protein expression study of the PhoP virulence associated regulon using strains of Salmonella mutant in PhoP, has identified three Typhi-unique proteins (CdtB, HlyE and STY1499) that are not present in the genome of the wide host-range Typhimurium, and includes the first protein expression profiling of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine studied in humans (Ty800).
Project description:Current diagnostic tests for typhoid fever, the disease caused by Salmonella Typhi, are poor. We aimed to identify serodiagnostic signatures of typhoid fever by assessing microarray signals to 4,445 S. Typhi antigens in sera from 41 participants challenged with oral S. Typhi. We found broad, heterogeneous antibody responses with increasing IgM/IgA signals at diagnosis. In down-selected 250-antigen arrays we validated responses in a second challenge cohort (n = 30), and selected diagnostic signatures using machine learning and multivariable modeling. In four models containing responses to antigens including flagellin, OmpA, HlyE, sipC, and LPS, multi-antigen signatures discriminated typhoid (n = 100) from other febrile bacteremia (n = 52) in Nepal. These models contained combinatorial IgM, IgA, and IgG responses to 5 antigens (ROC AUC, 0.67 and 0.71) or 3 antigens (0.87), although IgA responses to LPS also performed well (0.88). Using a novel systematic approach we have identified and validated optimal serological diagnostic signatures of typhoid fever.
Project description:We performed epitope mapping studies on the major surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus (EBOV) using Chemically Linked Peptides on Scaffolds (CLIPS), which form linear and potential conformational epitopes. This method identified monoclonal antibody epitopes and predicted additional epitopes recognized by antibodies in polyclonal sera from animals experimentally vaccinated against or infected with EBOV. Using the information obtained along with structural modeling to predict epitope accessibility, we then constructed 2 DNA vaccines encoding immunodominant and subdominant epitopes predicted to be accessible on EBOV GP. Although a construct designed to produce a membrane-bound oligopeptide was poorly immunogenic, a construct generating a secreted oligopeptide elicited strong antibody responses in mice. When this construct was administered as a boost to a DNA vaccine expressing the complete EBOV GP gene, the resultant antibody response was focused largely toward the less immunodominant epitopes in the oligopeptide. Taken together, the results of this work suggest a utility for this method for immune focusing of antibody responses elicited by vaccination.
Project description:Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized proteoliposomes discharged from the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs normally contain toxins, enzymes and other factors, and are used as vehicles in a process that has been considered a generalized, evolutionarily conserved delivery system among bacteria. Furthermore, OMVs can be used in biotechnological applications that require delivery of biomolecules, such as vaccines, remarking the importance of their study. Although it is known that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the etiological agent of typhoid fever in humans, delivers toxins (e.g., HlyE) via OMVs, there are no reports identifying genetic determinants of the OMV biogenesis in this serovar. In the present work, and with the aim to identify genes participating in OMV biogenesis in S. Typhi, we screened 15,000 random insertion mutants for increased HlyE secretion. We found 9 S. Typhi genes (generically called zzz genes) determining an increased HlyE secretion that were also involved in OMV biogenesis. The genes corresponded to ompA, nlpI, and tolR (envelope stability), rfaE and waaC (LPS synthesis), yipP (envC), mrcB (synthesis and remodeling of peptidoglycan), degS (stress sensor serine endopeptidase) and hns (global transcriptional regulator). We found that S. Typhi ?zzz mutants were prone to secrete periplasmic, functional proteins with a relatively good envelope integrity. In addition, we showed that zzz genes participate in OMV biogenesis, modulating different properties such as OMV size distribution, OMV yield and OMV protein cargo.
Project description:Brucellosis is a severe zoonotic disease worldwide. Detection and identification of Brucella species are essential to prevent or treat brucellosis in humans and animals. The outer membrane protein-31 (Omp31) is a major protein of Brucellae except for B. abortus, while the Omp31 antigenic epitopes have not been extensively characterized yet.A total of 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against Omp31 of Brucella (B.) melitensis, of which 13 recognized five linear epitopes, 7 reacted with semi-conformational epitopes and 2 reacted with conformational epitopes, respectively. The mAb isotypes were 11 (50%) IgG2a, 5 (23%) IgG1 and 6 (27%) IgM. On the basis of epitope recognition and reactivity levels, 8 mAbs including 3 IgM and 5 IgG clones were considered as highly reactive and potentially diagnostic antibodies. Among these mAbs, 7A3 (IgG1), 5B1 (IgG2a), 2C1 (IgG2a) and 5B3 (IgG2a) reacted with differently conserved linear epitopes of B. melitensis, B. ovis, B. suis and B. canis strains, while 5H3 (IgG2a) highly reacted with a conformational epitope of Omp31 when tested with several immunoassays.These potent monoclonal antibodies can be used for identifying Omp31 antigens or detecting B. melitensis and other Brucella species beyond B. abortus in vitro or in vivo.
Project description:Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of hepatitis C virus (HCV), codes for protease and helicase carrying NTPase enzymatic activities, plays a crucial role in viral replication and an ideal target for diagnosis, antiviral therapy and vaccine development. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to NS3 helicase were characterized by epitope mapping and biological function test. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies were produced to the truncated NS3 helicase of HCV-1b (T1b-rNS3, aa1192-1459). Six mAbs recognized 8/29 16mer peptides, which contributed to identify 5 linear and 1 discontinuous putative epitope sequences. Seven mAbs reacted with HCV-2a JFH-1 infected Huh-7.5.1 cells by immunofluorescent staining, of which 2E12 and 3E5 strongly bound to the exposed linear epitope (1231)PTGSGKSTK(1239) (EP05) or core motif (1373)IPFYGKAI(1380) (EP21), respectively. Five other mAbs recognized semi-conformational or conformational epitopes of HCV helicase. MAb 2E12 binds to epitope EP05 at the ATP binding site of motif I in domain 1, while mAb 3E5 reacts with epitope EP21 close to helicase nucleotide binding region of domain 2. Epitope EP05 is totally conserved and EP21 highly conserved across HCV genotypes. These two epitope peptides reacted strongly with 59-79% chronic and weakly with 30-58% resolved HCV infected blood donors, suggesting that these epitopes were dominant in HCV infection. MAb 2E12 inhibited 50% of unwinding activity of NS3 helicase in vitro. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognize highly conserved epitopes at crucial functional sites within NS3 helicase, which may become important antibodies for diagnosis and antiviral therapy in chronic HCV infection.
Project description:Objectives:Pertussis toxin (PT) is a component of all acellular pertussis vaccines. PT must be detoxified to be included in acellular vaccines, which results in conformational changes in the functional epitopes of PTs. Therefore, induced epitope-specific antibodies to PT may vary after vaccinations or natural infections, and this information could reveal biomarkers implicated for protection and successful immunisation. Methods:Pertussis toxin epitope-specific antibodies in sera from 152 vaccinated children and 72 serologically confirmed patients were tested with a blocking ELISA, based on monoclonal antibodies that target protective PT epitopes. Results:All study groups induced considerable antibody titres to subunit 1 (S1). Of interest, S3 7E10-specific antibodies were present in patients, but not after vaccinations (P < 0.001). The impact of glutaraldehyde treatment of PT was visible on epitope 1D7 (S1), whereas epitopes 1B7 (S1) and 10D (S1) were more preserved. Antibodies to these epitopes were higher after three primary vaccine doses than after a single booster dose. Conclusion:The high amount of 7E10-specific antibodies in patients suggests this epitope might be functionally relevant in protection. The overall characteristics of epitope-specific antibodies are influenced by infection or vaccination background, by the used detoxification method of PT and by the amount of the toxin used in immunisation.