Investigating the causal effect of smoking on hay fever and asthma: a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis in the CARTA consortium.
ABSTRACT: Observational studies on smoking and risk of hay fever and asthma have shown inconsistent results. However, observational studies may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as markers of exposures to examine causal effects. We examined the causal effect of smoking on hay fever and asthma by using the smoking-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16969968/rs1051730. We included 231,020 participants from 22 population-based studies. Observational analyses showed that current vs never smokers had lower risk of hay fever (odds ratio (OR)?=?0·68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0·61, 0·76; P?
Project description:Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that asthma is associated with allergic diseases including hay fever, allergic rhinitis, and eczema. Genetic analysis demonstrated that asthma had a positive genetic correlation with allergic diseases. A Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using the rs16969968 single-nucleotide variant as the instrumental variable indicated that smoking was associated with increased risk of asthma. However, in a different MR analysis, smoking was significantly associated with reduced hay fever and reduced allergic sensitization risk. These findings revealed inconsistencies in the association of smoking with asthma and allergic diseases. Hence, we conducted an updated MR analysis to investigate the causal association between lifetime smoking and asthma risk by using 124 genetic variants as the instrumental variables. No significant pleiotropy was detected using the MR-Egger intercept test. We found that increased lifetime smoking was significantly associated with decreased asthma risk by using the inverse variance weighted (IVW) method (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.956-0.986, and P = 1.77E-04), the weighted median regression method (OR = 0.976, 95% CI 0.96-0.994, and P = 8.00E-03), and the MR-Egger method (OR = 0.919, 95% CI 0.847-0.998, and P = 4.5E-02). Importantly, MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) MR analysis also indicated a significant association between increased lifetime smoking and decreased asthma risk with OR = 0.971, 95% CI 0.956-0.986, and P = 2.69E-04. After the outlier was removed, MR-PRESSO outlier test further supported the significant association with OR = 0.971, 95% CI 0.959-0.984, P = 1.57E-05.
Project description:We investigated if greenness and air pollution exposure in parents' childhood affect offspring asthma and hay fever, and if effects were mediated through parental asthma, pregnancy greenness/pollution exposure, and offspring exposure. We analysed 1106 parents with 1949 offspring (mean age 35 and 6) from the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Mean particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) (µg/m3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were calculated for parents 0-18 years old and offspring 0-10 years old, and were categorised in tertiles. We performed logistic regression and mediation analyses for two-pollutant models (clustered by family and centre, stratified by parental lines, and adjusted for grandparental asthma and education). Maternal medium PM2.5 and PM10 exposure was associated with higher offspring asthma risk (odds ratio (OR) 2.23, 95%CI 1.32-3.78, OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.36-3.80), and paternal high BC exposure with lower asthma risk (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.11-0.87). Hay fever risk increased for offspring of fathers with medium O3 exposure (OR 4.15, 95%CI 1.28-13.50) and mothers with high PM10 exposure (OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.19-5.91). The effect of maternal PM10 exposure on offspring asthma was direct, while for hay fever, it was mediated through exposures in pregnancy and offspring's own exposures. Paternal O3 exposure had a direct effect on offspring hay fever. To conclude, parental exposure to air pollution appears to influence the risk of asthma and allergies in future offspring.
Project description:Alcohol consumption in western pregnant women is not uncommon and could be a risk factor for childhood atopic disease. However, reported alcohol intake may be unreliable, and associations are likely to be confounded.We aimed to study the relation between prenatal alcohol exposure and atopic phenotypes in a large population-based birth cohort with the use of a Mendelian randomization approach to minimize bias and confounding.In white mothers and children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) we first analyzed associations between reported maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and atopic outcomes in the offspring measured at 7 years of age (asthma, wheezing, hay fever, eczema, atopy, and total IgE). We then analyzed the relation of maternal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)1B genotype (rs1229984) with these outcomes (the A allele is associated with faster metabolism and reduced alcohol consumption and, among drinkers, would be expected to reduce fetal exposure to ethanol).After controlling for confounders, reported maternal drinking in late pregnancy was negatively associated with childhood asthma and hay fever (adjusted odds ratio [OR] per category increase in intake: 0.91 [95% CI, 0.82-1.01] and 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78-0.98], respectively). However, maternal ADH1B genotype was not associated with asthma comparing carriers of A allele with persons homozygous for G allele (OR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.66-1.47]) or hay fever (OR, 1.11 [95% CI, 0.71-1.72]), nor with any other atopic outcome.We have found no evidence to suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure increases the risk of asthma or atopy in childhood.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An inverse relationship between allergies with glioma risk has been reported in several but not all epidemiological observational studies. We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with atopy to assess the relationship with glioma risk using Mendelian randomisation (MR), an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations. METHODS:Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association study data. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with atopic dermatitis, asthma and hay fever, IgE levels, and self-reported allergy as instrumental variables. We calculated MR estimates for the odds ratio (OR) for each risk factor with glioma using SNP-glioma estimates from 12,488 cases and 18,169 controls, using inverse-variance weighting (IVW), maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), weighted median estimate (WME) and mode-based estimate (MBE) methods. Violation of MR assumptions due to directional pleiotropy were sought using MR-Egger regression and HEIDI-outlier analysis. RESULTS:Under IVW, MLE, WME and MBE methods, associations between glioma risk with asthma and hay fever, self-reported allergy and IgE levels were non-significant. An inverse relationship between atopic dermatitis and glioma risk was found by IVW (OR 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.00, P = 0.041) and MLE (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P = 0.003), but not by WME (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.01, P = 0.114) or MBE (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02, P = 0.194). CONCLUSIONS:Our investigation does not provide strong evidence for relationship between atopy and the risk of developing glioma, but findings do not preclude a small effect in relation to atopic dermatitis. Our analysis also serves to illustrate the value of using several MR methods to derive robust conclusions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and obesity both appear to increase the risk of asthma. A study was undertaken to investigate the association of HRT with asthma and hay fever in a population of perimenopausal women, focusing on a possible interaction with body mass index (BMI).<h4>Methods</h4>A postal questionnaire was sent to population based samples in Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in 1999-2001, and 8588 women aged 25-54 years responded (77%). Pregnant women, women using oral contraceptives, and women <46 years were excluded. Analyses included 2206 women aged 46-54 years of which 884 were menopausal and 540 used HRT. Stratified analyses by BMI in tertiles were performed.<h4>Results</h4>HRT was associated with an increased risk for asthma (OR 1.57 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.30)), wheeze (OR 1.60 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.10)), and hay fever (OR 1.48 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.90)). The associations with asthma and wheeze were significantly stronger among women with BMI in the lower tertile (asthma OR 2.41 (95% CI 1.21 to 4.77); wheeze OR 2.04 (95% CI 1.23 to 3.36)) than in heavier women (asthma: p(interaction) = 0.030; wheeze: p(interaction) = 0.042). Increasing BMI was associated with more asthma (OR 1.08 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.12) per kg/m2). This effect was only found in women not taking HRT (OR 1.10 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.14) per kg/m2); no such association was detected in HRT users (OR 1.00 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.08) per kg/m2) (p(interaction) = 0.046). Menopause was not significantly associated with asthma, wheeze, or hay fever.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In perimenopausal women there is an interaction between HRT and BMI in the effects on asthma. Lean women who were HRT users had as high a risk for asthma as overweight women not taking HRT. It is suggested that HRT and overweight increase the risk of asthma through partly common pathways.
Project description:To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) has considered the combined phenotype of asthma with hay fever. Previous analyses of family data from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study provide evidence that this phenotype has a stronger genetic cause than asthma without hay fever.We sought to perform a GWAS of asthma with hay fever to identify variants associated with having both diseases.We performed a meta-analysis of GWASs comparing persons with both physician-diagnosed asthma and hay fever (n = 6,685) with persons with neither disease (n = 14,091).At genome-wide significance, we identified 11 independent variants associated with the risk of having asthma with hay fever, including 2 associations reaching this level of significance with allergic disease for the first time: ZBTB10 (rs7009110; odds ratio [OR], 1.14; P = 4 × 10(-9)) and CLEC16A (rs62026376; OR, 1.17; P = 1 × 10(-8)). The rs62026376:C allele associated with increased asthma with hay fever risk has been found to be associated also with decreased expression of the nearby DEXI gene in monocytes. The 11 variants were associated with the risk of asthma and hay fever separately, but the estimated associations with the individual phenotypes were weaker than with the combined asthma with hay fever phenotype. A variant near LRRC32 was a stronger risk factor for hay fever than for asthma, whereas the reverse was observed for variants in/near GSDMA and TSLP. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with suggestive evidence for association with asthma with hay fever risk included rs41295115 near IL2RA (OR, 1.28; P = 5 × 10(-7)) and rs76043829 in TNS1 (OR, 1.23; P = 2 × 10(-6)).By focusing on the combined phenotype of asthma with hay fever, variants associated with the risk of allergic disease can be identified with greater efficiency.
Project description:Although specific pesticides have been associated with wheeze in farmers, little is known about pesticides and asthma. Data from 19,704 male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study were used to evaluate lifetime use of 48 pesticides and prevalent adult-onset asthma, defined as doctor-diagnosed asthma after the age of 20 yrs. Asthma cases were categorised as allergic (n = 127) and nonallergic (n = 314) based on their history of eczema or hay fever. Polytomous logistic regression, controlling for age, state, smoking and body mass, was used to assess pesticide associations. High pesticide exposure events were associated with a doubling of both allergic and nonallergic asthma. For ever-use, 12 individual pesticides were associated with allergic asthma and four with nonallergic asthma. For allergic asthma, coumaphos (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.49-3.70), heptachlor (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.30-3.11), parathion (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.21-3.46), 80/20 mix (carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide) (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.23-3.76) and ethylene dibromide (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.02-4.20) all showed ORs of >2.0 and significant exposure-response trends. For nonallergic asthma, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) showed the strongest association (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.09-1.84), but with little evidence of increasing asthma with increasing use. Current animal handling and farm activities did not confound these results. There was little evidence that allergy alone was driving these associations. In conclusion, pesticides may be an overlooked contributor to asthma risk among farmers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The relationship between sensitization to allergens and disease is complex.<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to identify patterns of response to a broad range of allergen components and investigate associations with asthma, eczema, and hay fever.<h4>Methods</h4>Serum specific IgE levels to 112 allergen components were measured by using a multiplex array (Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip) in a population-based birth cohort. Latent variable modeling was used to identify underlying patterns of component-specific IgE responses; these patterns were then related to asthma, eczema, and hay fever.<h4>Results</h4>Two hundred twenty-one of 461 children had IgE to 1 or more components. Seventy-one of the 112 components were recognized by 3 or more children. By using latent variable modeling, 61 allergen components clustered into 3 component groups (CG1, CG2, and CG3); protein families within each CG were exclusive to that group. CG1 comprised 27 components from 8 plant protein families. CG2 comprised 7 components of mite allergens from 3 protein families. CG3 included 27 components of plant, animal, and fungal origin from 12 protein families. Each CG included components from different biological sources with structural homology and also nonhomologous proteins arising from the same biological source. Sensitization to CG3 was most strongly associated with asthma (odds ratio [OR], 8.20; 95% CI, 3.49-19.24; P < .001) and lower FEV1 (P < .001). Sensitization to CG1 was associated with hay fever (OR, 12.79; 95% CI, 6.84-23.90; P < .001). Sensitization to CG2 was associated with both asthma (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 2.05-6.29) and hay fever (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.38-4.61).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Latent variable modeling with a large number of allergen components identified 3 patterns of IgE responses, each including different protein families. In 11-year-old children the pattern of response to components of multiple allergens appeared to be associated with current asthma and hay fever but not eczema.
Project description:Follicular lymphoma (FL) has been linked with cigarette smoking and, inconsistently, with other risk factors.We assessed associations of medical, hormonal, family history, lifestyle, and occupational factors with FL risk in 3530 cases and 22639 controls from 19 case-control studies in the InterLymph consortium. Age-, race/ethnicity-, sex- and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression.Most risk factors that were evaluated showed no association, except for a few modest or sex-specific relationships. FL risk was increased in persons: with a first-degree relative with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.55 to 2.54); with greater body mass index as a young adult (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27 per 5 kg/m(2) increase); who worked as spray painters (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.36 to 5.24); and among women with Sjögren syndrome (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.23 to 9.19). Lower FL risks were observed in persons: with asthma, hay fever, and food allergy (ORs = 0.79-0.85); blood transfusions (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.89); high recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.86, fourth vs first quartile); who worked as bakers or millers (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.93) or university/higher education teachers (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.83). Elevated risks specific to women included current and longer duration of cigarette use, whereas reduced risks included current alcohol use, hay fever, and food allergies. Other factors, including other autoimmune diseases, eczema, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, hormonal drugs, hair dye use, sun exposure, and farming, were not associated with FL risk.The few relationships observed provide clues suggesting a multifactorial etiology of FL but are limited in the extent to which they explain FL occurrence.
Project description:2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a toxic environmental contaminant that can bioaccumulate in humans, cross the placenta, and cause immunological effects in children, including altering their risk of developing allergies. On July 10, 1976, a chemical explosion in Seveso, Italy, exposed nearby residents to a high amount of TCDD. In 1996, the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) was established to study the effects of TCDD on women's health. Using data from the Seveso Second Generation Health Study, we aim to examine the effect of prenatal exposure to TCDD on the risk of atopic conditions in SWHS children born after the explosion.Individual-level TCDD was measured in maternal serum collected soon after the accident. In 2014, we initiated the Seveso Second Generation Health Study to follow-up the children of the SWHS cohort who were born after the explosion or who were exposed in utero to TCDD. We enrolled 677 children, and cases of atopic conditions, including eczema, asthma, and hay fever, were identified by self-report during personal interviews with the mothers and children. Log-binomial and Poisson regressions were used to determine the association between prenatal TCDD and atopic conditions.A 10-fold increase in 1976 maternal serum TCDD (log10TCDD) was not significantly associated with asthma (adjusted relative risk (RR)?=?0.93; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.40) or hay fever (adjusted RR?=?0.99; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.27), but was significantly inversely associated with eczema (adjusted RR?=?0.63; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.99). Maternal TCDD estimated at pregnancy was not significantly associated with eczema, asthma, or hay fever. There was no strong evidence of effect modification by child sex.Our results suggest that maternal serum TCDD near the time of explosion is associated with lower risk of eczema, which supports other evidence pointing to the dysregulated immune effects of TCDD.