ILDR1 is important for paracellular water transport and urine concentration mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Whether the tight junction is permeable to water remains highly controversial. Here, we provide evidence that the tricellular tight junction is important for paracellular water permeation and that Ig-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) regulates its permeability. In the mouse kidney, ILDR1 is localized to tricellular tight junctions of the distal tubules. Genetic knockout of Ildr1 in the mouse kidney causes polyuria and polydipsia due to renal concentrating defects. Microperfusion of live renal distal tubules reveals that they are impermeable to water in normal animals but become highly permeable to water in Ildr1 knockout animals whereas paracellular ionic permeabilities in the Ildr1 knockout mouse renal tubules are not affected. Vasopressin cannot correct paracellular water loss in Ildr1 knockout animals despite normal effects on the transcellular aquaporin-2-dependent pathway. In cultured renal epithelial cells normally lacking the expression of Ildr1, overexpression of Ildr1 significantly reduces the paracellular water permeability. Together, our study provides a mechanism of how cells transport water and shows how such a mechanism may be exploited as a therapeutic approach to maintain water homeostasis.
Project description:Tricellular tight junctions seal the extracellular spaces of tricellular contacts, where the vertices of three epithelial cells meet, and are required for the establishment of a strong barrier function of the epithelial cellular sheet. Angulins and tricellulin are known as specific protein components of tricellular tight junctions, where angulins recruit tricellulin. Mutations in the genes encoding angulin-2/ILDR1 and tricellulin have been reported to cause human hereditary deafness DFNB42 and DFNB49, respectively. To investigate the pathogenesis of DFNB42, we analyzed mice with a targeted disruption of Ildr1, which encodes angulin-2/ILDR1. Ildr1 null mice exhibited profound deafness. Hair cells in the cochlea of Ildr1 null mice develop normally, but begin to degenerate by two weeks after birth. Tricellulin localization at tricellular contacts of the organ of Corti in the cochlea was retained in Ildr1 null mice, but its distribution along the depth of tricellular contacts was affected. Interestingly, compensatory tricellular contact localization of angulin-1/LSR was observed in the organ of Corti in Ildr1 null mice although it was hardly detected in the organ of Corti in wild-type mice. The onset of hair cell degeneration in Ildr1 null mice was earlier than that in the reported Tric mutant mice, which mimic one of the tricellulin mutations in DFNB49 deafness. These results indicate that the angulin-2/ILDR1 deficiency causes the postnatal degenerative loss of hair cells in the cochlea, leading to human deafness DFNB42. Our data also suggest that angulin family proteins have distinct functions in addition to their common roles of tricellulin recruitment and that the function of angulin-2/ILDR1 for hearing cannot be substituted by angulin-1/LSR.
Project description:Claudin-2 is highly expressed in tight junctions of mouse renal proximal tubules, which possess a leaky epithelium whose unique permeability properties underlie their high rate of NaCl reabsorption. To investigate the role of claudin-2 in paracellular NaCl transport in this nephron segment, we generated knockout mice lacking claudin-2 (Cldn2(-/-)). The Cldn2(-/-) mice displayed normal appearance, activity, growth, and behavior. Light microscopy revealed no gross histological abnormalities in the Cldn2(-/-) kidney. Ultrathin section and freeze-fracture replica electron microscopy revealed that, similar to those of wild types, the proximal tubules of Cldn2(-/-) mice were characterized by poorly developed tight junctions with one or two continuous tight junction strands. In contrast, studies in isolated, perfused S2 segments of proximal tubules showed that net transepithelial reabsorption of Na(+), Cl(-), and water was significantly decreased in Cldn2(-/-) mice and that there was an increase in paracellular shunt resistance without affecting the apical or basolateral membrane resistances. Moreover, deletion of claudin-2 caused a loss of cation (Na(+)) selectivity and therefore relative anion (Cl(-)) selectivity in the proximal tubule paracellular pathway. With free access to water and food, fractional Na(+) and Cl(-) excretions in Cldn2(-/-) mice were similar to those in wild types, but both were greater in Cldn2(-/-) mice after i.v. administration of 2% NaCl. We conclude that claudin-2 constitutes leaky and cation (Na(+))-selective paracellular channels within tight junctions of mouse proximal tubules.
Project description:In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tTJs of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC (DFNB49) encoding tricellulin and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells (HCs) but have a normal endocochlear potential. ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in the inner ear sensory epithelia of ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory HCs.
Project description:The immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) gene encodes angulin-2/ILDR1, a recently discovered tight junction protein, which forms tricellular tight junction (tTJ) structures with tricellulin and lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) at tricellular contacts (TCs) in the inner ear. Previously reported recessive mutations within ILDR1 have been shown to cause severe to profound nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), DFNB42. Whole-exome sequencing of a Korean multiplex family segregating partial deafness identified a novel homozygous ILDR1 variant (p.P69H) within the Ig-like domain. To address the pathogenicity of p.P69H, the angulin-2/ILDR1 p.P69H variant protein, along with the previously reported pathogenic ILDR1 mutations, was expressed in angulin-1/LSR knockdown epithelial cells. Interestingly, partial mislocalization of the p.P69H variant protein and tricellulin at TCs was observed, in contrast to a severe mislocalization and complete failure of tricellulin recruitment of the other reported ILDR1 mutations. Additionally, three-dimensional protein modeling revealed that angulin-2/ILDR1 contributed to tTJ by forming a homo-trimer structure through its Ig-like domain, and the p.P69H variant was predicted to disturb homo-trimer formation. In this study, we propose a possible role of angulin-2/ILDR1 in tTJ formation in the inner ear and a wider audiologic phenotypic spectrum of DFNB42 caused by mutations within ILDR1.
Project description:In epithelia, large amounts of water pass by transcellular and paracellular pathways, driven by the osmotic gradient built up by the movement of solutes. The transcellular pathway has been molecularly characterized by the discovery of aquaporin membrane channels. Unlike this, the existence of a paracellular pathway for water through the tight junctions (TJ) was discussed controversially for many years until two molecular components of paracellular water transport, claudin-2 and claudin-15, were identified. A main protein of the tricellular TJ (tTJ), tricellulin, was shown to be downregulated in ulcerative colitis leading to increased permeability to macromolecules. Whether or not tricellulin also regulates water transport is unknown yet. To this end, an epithelial cell line featuring properties of a tight epithelium, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells clone 7 (MDCK C7), was stably transfected with small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting tricellulin, a protein of the tTJ essential for the barrier against passage of solutes up to 10 kDa. Water flux was induced by osmotic gradients using mannitol or 4 and 40 kDa-dextran. Water flux in tricellulin knockdown (KD) cells was higher compared to that of vector controls, indicating a direct role of tricellulin in regulating water permeability in a tight epithelial cell line. We conclude that tricellulin increases water permeability at reduced expression.
Project description:The two compositionally distinct extracellular cochlear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, are separated by tight junctions that outline the scala media and reticular lamina. Mutations in TRIC (also known as MARVELD2), which encodes a tricellular tight junction protein known as tricellulin, lead to nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB49). We generated a knockin mouse that carries a mutation orthologous to the TRIC coding mutation linked to DFNB49 hearing loss in humans. Tricellulin was absent from the tricellular junctions in the inner ear epithelia of the mutant animals, which developed rapidly progressing hearing loss accompanied by loss of mechanosensory cochlear hair cells, while the endocochlear potential and paracellular permeability of a biotin-based tracer in the stria vascularis were unaltered. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed disruption of the strands of intramembrane particles connecting bicellular and tricellular junctions in the inner ear epithelia of tricellulin-deficient mice. These ultrastructural changes may selectively affect the paracellular permeability of ions or small molecules, resulting in a toxic microenvironment for cochlear hair cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, hair cell loss was rescued in tricellulin-deficient mice when generation of normal endolymph was inhibited by a concomitant deletion of the transcription factor, Pou3f4. Finally, comprehensive phenotypic screening showed a broader pathological phenotype in the mutant mice, which highlights the non-redundant roles played by tricellulin.
Project description:KCNE1 is a protein of low molecular mass that is known to regulate the chromanol 293B and clofilium-sensitive K+ channel, KCNQ1, in a number of tissues. Previous work on the kidney of KCNE1 and KCNQ1 knockout mice has revealed that these animals have different renal phenotypes, suggesting that KCNE1 may not regulate KCNQ1 in the renal system. In the current study, in vivo clearance approaches and whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from isolated renal proximal tubules were used to examine the physiological role of KCNE1. Data from wild-type mice were compared to those from KCNE1 knockout mice. In clearance studies the KCNE1 knockout mice had an increased fractional excretion of Na+, Cl?, HCO3(?) and water. This profile was mimicked in wild-type mice by infusion of chromanol 293B, while chromanol was without effect in KCNE1 knockout animals. Clofilium also increased the fractional excretion of Na+, Cl? and water, but this was observed in both wild-type and knockout mice, suggesting that KCNE1 was regulating a chromanol-sensitive but clofilium-insensitive pathway. In whole cell voltage clamp recordings from proximal tubules, a chromanol-sensitive, K+-selective conductance was identified that was absent in tubules from knockout animals. The properties of this conductance were not consistent with its being mediated by KCNQ1, suggesting that KCNE1 regulates another K+ channel in the renal proximal tubule. Taken together these data suggest that KCNE1 regulates a K+-selective conductance in the renal proximal tubule that plays a relatively minor role in driving the transport of Na+, Cl? and HCO3(?).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Calciotropic hormones were thought to facilitate calcium transfer through active transcellular or passive paracellular pathway for calcium homeostasis. While calcium transport proteins such as CaBP-28 k, TRPV5, NCX1, PMCA1b are involved in calcium reabsorption of the renal tubule using transcellular transport, tight junction proteins are known as critically related to calcium absorption through paracellular pathway. The regulation of each pathway for calcium transport was well studied but the correlation was not. It is expected that present study will provide new information about the link between transcellular and paracellular pathway within renal tubules. RESULTS: Transcripts and proteins of tight junction related genes (occludin, ZO-1, and claudins) were examined in CaBP-9 k-and/or-28 k-deficient mice as well as the effect of dietary calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation. With a normal diet, the transcriptional and translational expressions of most tight junction proteins in the kidney was not significantly changed but with a calcium- and vitamin D-deficient diet, and they were significantly increased in the kidney of the CaBP-28 k and CaBP-9 k/28 k double KO (DKO) mice. In these genotypes, the increase of tight junction related transcripts and proteins are referred to as an evidence explaining correlation between transcellular transport and paracellular pathway. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are particularly interesting in evidences that insufficient transcellular calcium transports are compensated by paracellular pathway in calcium or calcium/vitamin D deficient condition, and that both transcellular and paracellular pathways functionally cooperate for calcium reabsorption in the kidney.
Project description:The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a term used to describe the unique properties of central nervous system (CNS) blood vessels. One important BBB property is the formation of a paracellular barrier made by tight junctions (TJs) between CNS endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we show that Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR), a component of paracellular junctions at points in which three cell membranes meet, is greatly enriched in CNS ECs compared with ECs in other nonneural tissues. We demonstrate that LSR is specifically expressed at tricellular junctions and that its expression correlates with the onset of BBB formation during embryogenesis. We further demonstrate that the BBB does not seal during embryogenesis in Lsr knockout mice with a leakage to small molecules. Finally, in mouse models in which BBB was disrupted, including an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis and a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke, LSR was down-regulated, linking loss of LSR and pathological BBB leakage.
Project description:Claudins are major components of tight junctions and contribute to the epithelial-barrier function by restricting free diffusion of solutes through the paracellular pathway. We have mapped a new locus for recessive renal magnesium loss on chromosome 1p34.2 and have identified mutations in CLDN19, a member of the claudin multigene family, in patients affected by hypomagnesemia, renal failure, and severe ocular abnormalities. CLDN19 encodes the tight-junction protein claudin-19, and we demonstrate high expression of CLDN19 in renal tubules and the retina. The identified mutations interfere severely with either cell-membrane trafficking or the assembly of the claudin-19 protein. The identification of CLDN19 mutations in patients with chronic renal failure and severe visual impairment supports the fundamental role of claudin-19 for normal renal tubular function and undisturbed organization and development of the retina.