Effectiveness of facility-based personalized maternal nutrition counseling in improving child growth and morbidity up to 18 months: A cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso.
ABSTRACT: The period from conception to 24 months of age is a crucial window for nutrition interventions. Personalized maternal counseling may improve childbirth outcomes, growth, and health. We assessed the effectiveness of facility-based personalized maternal nutrition counseling (from pregnancy to 18 months after birth) in improving child growth and health in rural Burkina Faso. We conducted a paired cluster randomized controlled trial in a rural district of Burkina Faso with 12 primary health centers (clusters). Healthcare providers in the intervention centers received patient-centered communication and nutrition counseling training. Pregnant women in the third trimester living in the center catchment areas and intending to stay for the next 2 years were prospectively included. We followed 2253 mother-child pairs quarterly until the child was aged 18 months. Women were interviewed about counseling experiences, dietary practices during pregnancy, and their child's feeding practices and morbidity history. Anthropometric measurements were taken at each visit using standardized methods. The primary outcomes were the cumulative incidence of wasting, and changes in child weight-for-height z-score (WHZ). Secondary outcomes were the women's prenatal dietary practices, early breastfeeding practices, exclusive breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary food, child's feeding frequency and dietary diversity, children's mean birth weight, endpoint prevalence of stunting, and cumulative incidence of diarrhea, fever, and acute respiratory infection. All analyses were by intention-to-treat using mixed effects models. The intervention and control arms each included six health centers. Mothers in the intervention arm had a significantly higher exposure to counseling with 11.2% for breastfeeding techniques to 75.7% for counseling on exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers of infants below 6 months of age in the intervention arm were more likely to exclusively breastfeed (54.3% vs 42.3%; Difference of Proportion (DP) 12.8%; 95% CI: 2.1, 23.6; p = 0.020) as compared to the control arm. Between 6 and 18 months of age, more children in the intervention arm benefited from the required feeding frequency (68.8% vs 53.4%; DP 14.1%; 95% CI: 9.0, 19.2; p<0.001) and a larger proportion had a minimum dietary diversity (28.6% vs 22.0%; DP 5.9%; 95% CI: 2.7, 9.2; p<0.001). Birth weight of newborns in the intervention arm was on average 84.8 g (p = 0.037) larger compared to the control arm. However, we found no significant differences in child anthropometry or morbidity between study arms. Facility-based personalized maternal nutrition counseling was associated with an improved prenatal dietary practices, Infant and Young Child Feeding practices, and child birth weight. Complementary strategies are warranted to obtain meaningful impact on child growth and morbidity. This includes strategies to ensure good coverage of facility-based services and effective nutrition/care practices in early childhood.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the effects of a child obesity prevention intervention, beginning in pregnancy, on infant feeding practices in low-income Hispanic families. STUDY DESIGN:The Starting Early randomized controlled trial enrolled pregnant women at a third trimester visit. Women (n = 533) were randomly allocated to a standard care control group or an intervention group participating in prenatal and postpartum individual nutrition/breastfeeding counseling and subsequent nutrition and parenting support groups coordinated with well-child visits. Outcome measures included infant feeding practices and maternal infant feeding knowledge at infant age 3 months, using questions adapted from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and an infant 24-hour diet recall. RESULTS:A total of 456 families completed 3-month assessments. The intervention group had higher prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding on the 24-hour diet recall (42.7% vs 33.0%, P = .04) compared with controls. The intervention group reported a higher percentage of breastfeeding vs formula feeding per day (mean [SD] 67.7 [39.3] vs 59.7 [39.7], P = .03) and was less likely to introduce complementary foods and liquids compared with controls (6.3% vs 16.7%, P = .001). The intervention group had higher maternal infant feeding knowledge scores (Cohen d, 0.29, 95% CI .10-.48). The effect of Starting Early on breastfeeding was mediated by maternal infant feeding knowledge (Sobel test 2.86, P = .004). CONCLUSIONS:Starting Early led to increased exclusive breastfeeding and reduced complementary foods and liquids in 3-month-old infants. Findings document a feasible and effective infrastructure for promoting breastfeeding in families at high risk for obesity in the context of a comprehensive obesity prevention intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01541761.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In South Africa, rates of exclusive breastfeeding remain low and breastfeeding promotion is a national health priority. Mobile health and narrative entertainment-education are recognized strategies for health promotion. In-home counseling by community health workers (CHWs) is a proven breastfeeding promotion strategy. This protocol outlines a cluster-randomized controlled trial with a nested mixed-methods evaluation of the MObile Video Intervention for Exclusive breastfeeding (MOVIE) program. The evaluation will quantify the causal effect of the MOVIE program and generate a detailed understanding of the context in which the intervention took place and the mechanisms through which it enacted change. Findings from the study will inform the anticipated scale-up of mobile video health interventions in South Africa and the wider sub-Saharan region. METHODS:We will conduct a stratified cluster-randomized controlled trial in urban communities of the Western Cape, to measure the effect of the MOVIE intervention on exclusive breastfeeding and other infant feeding practices. Eighty-four mentor-mothers (CHWs employed by the Philani Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Trust) will be randomized 1:1 into intervention and control arms, stratified by neighborhood type. Mentor-mothers in the control arm will provide standard of care (SoC) perinatal in-home counseling. Mentor-mothers in the intervention arm will provide SoC plus the MOVIE intervention. At least 1008 pregnant participants will be enrolled in the study and mother-child pairs will be followed until 5 months post-delivery. The primary outcomes of the study are exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 5 months of age. Secondary outcomes are other infant feeding practices and maternal knowledge. In order to capture human-centered underpinnings of the intervention, we will conduct interviews with stakeholders engaged in the intervention design. To contextualize quantitative findings and understand the mechanisms through which the intervention enacted change, end-line focus groups with mentor-mothers will be conducted. DISCUSSION:This trial will be among the first to explore a video-based, entertainment-education intervention delivered by CHWs and created using a community-based, human-centered design approach. As such, it could inform health policy, with regards to both the routine adoption of this intervention and, more broadly, the development of other entertainment-education interventions for health promotion in under-resourced settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study and its outcomes were registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( #NCT03688217 ) on September 27th, 2018.
Project description:Background:Undernutrition and poor cognitive development affect many children in developing countries. Good nutrition and health care are essential for optimal child development and growth. Objectives:We assessed the impact of peer counseling combined with psychosocial stimulation on feeding practices and child growth and development in slums in Bangladesh. Methods:We performed a community-based cluster randomized controlled trial in selected slums; 350 mother-infant pairs were allocated to receive peer counseling on feeding practices plus psychosocial stimulation (PC + PCS; n = 175) or usual health messages (control; n = 175) using restricted randomization. Data were collected at enrollment and 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 mo after delivery. We collected data on infant and young child feeding practices and anthropometric measurements from birth until 12 mo to assess the main outcomes, including feeding practices and growth. We used the Bayley Scale III at 12 mo to assess child development. The effects of the PC + PCS intervention were assessed by using regression models. Results:More mothers in the PC + PCS group than in the control group reported early initiation of breastfeeding (in the first hour: 89% compared with 78%, respectively; P < 0.05) and exclusive breastfeeding at 5 mo (73% compared with 27%, respectively; P < 0.001). Peer counseling had positively impacted infant length gain at 12 mo (P < 0.005). Children in the PC + PCS group were found to be more socially and emotionally active compared with controls at 12 mo (standardized score: 0.165 compared with -0.219, respectively; P < 0.05). Conclusion:Combining peer counseling with psychosocial stimulation had positive effects on infant feeding practices and growth at 12 mo and on the social-emotional development of young children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrial.gov as NCT03040375.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infant mortality rates are still high in Ethiopia. Breastfeeding is regarded as the simplest and least expensive strategy for reduction of infant mortality rates. Community-based educational and support interventions provided prenatally and postnatally are effective in increasing breastfeeding rates. However, such interventions are not widely implemented in Ethiopia. This study aims to assess the effect of breastfeeding education and support on timely initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS:A cluster-randomized controlled trial at the community level will be conducted to compare the effect of breastfeeding education and support versus routine care. The intervention will be provided by Women Development Army leaders who are already in the country's health system using a 40-h WHO breastfeeding counseling course, "Infant and Young Child Feeding Counseling: an integrated course" and the "Training of Trainers Manual for Counseling on Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition" in the local language. Culturally appropriate operational packages of information will be developed for them. Using preset criteria at least 432 pregnant women in their third trimester will be recruited from 36 zones. Visits in the intervention arm include two prenatal visits and 8 postnatal visits. Supervisory visits will be conducted monthly to each intervention zone. Data will be entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using STATA version 13.0. All analysis will be done by intention to treat analysis. We will fit mixed-effects linear regression models for the continuous outcomes and mixed-effects linear probability models for the binary outcomes with study zone as random intercept to estimate study arm difference (intervention vs. routine education) adjusted for baseline value of the outcome and additional relevant covariates. The protocol was developed in collaboration with the Jimma Zone and Mana district Health office. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of University of Oslo and Jimma University. This study is partly funded by NORAD's NORHED programme. DISCUSSION:We expect that the trial will generate findings that can inform breastfeeding policies and practices in Ethiopia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 03030651 January 25, 2017 version 3 dated 16 July 2018.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nutrition training of health workers can help to reduce child undernutrition. Specifically, trained health workers might contribute to this end through frequent nutrition counseling of caregivers. This may improve child-feeding practices and thus reduce the risk of undernutrition among children of counseled caregivers. Although studies have shown varied impacts of health workers' nutrition training on child feeding practices, no systematic review of the effectiveness of such intervention has yet been reported. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of nutrition training for health workers on child feeding practices including feeding frequency, energy intake, and dietary diversity among children aged six months to two years. METHODS: We searched the literature for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs using medical databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge, and through WHO regional databases. Our intervention of interest was nutrition training of health workers. We pooled the results of the selected trials, evaluated them using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, and calculated the overall effect size of the intervention in meta-analyses. RESULTS: Ten RCTs and cluster RCTs out of 4757 retrieved articles were eligible for final analyses. Overall, health workers' nutrition training improved daily energy intake of children between six months and two years of age. The pooled evidence from the three studies reporting mean energy intake per day revealed a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.76, 95% CI (0.63-0.88). For the two studies with median energy intake SMD was 1.06 (95% CI 0.87-1.24). Health workers' nutrition training also improved feeding frequency among children aged six months to two years. The pooled evidence from the three studies reporting mean feeding frequency showed an SMD of 0.48 (95% CI 0.38-0.58). Regarding dietary diversity, children in intervention groups were more likely to consume more diverse diets compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Nutrition training for health workers can improve feeding frequency, energy intake, and dietary diversity of children aged six months to two years. Scaling up of nutrition training for health workers presents a potential entry point to improve nutrition status among children.
Project description:Integrated nutrition and health programs seek to reduce undernutrition by educating child caregivers about infant feeding and care. Data on the quality of program implementation and consequent effects on infant feeding practices are limited. This study evaluated the effectiveness of enhancing a nutrition and health program on breastfeeding and complementary-feeding practices in rural India.Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, one of the implementing districts of a Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) nutrition and health program was randomly selected for enhanced services and compared with a district receiving the Government of India's standard nutrition and health package alone. A cohort of 942 mother-child dyads was longitudinally followed from birth to 18 months. In both districts, the evaluation focused on responses to services delivered by community-based nutrition and health care providers [anganwadi workers (AWWs) and auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs)].The CARE enhanced program district showed an improvement in program coverage indicators (e.g., contacts, advice) through outreach visits by both AWWs (28.8-59.8% vs. 0.7-12.4%; all p<0.05) and ANMs (8.6-46.2% vs. 6.1-44.2%; <0.05 for ages ?6 months). A significantly higher percentage of child caregivers reported being contacted by the AWWs in the CARE program district (20.5-45.6% vs. 0.3-21.6%; p<0.05 for all ages except at 6months). No differences in ANM household contacts were reported. Overall, coverage remained low in both areas. Less than a quarter of women received any infant feeding advice in the intervention district. Earlier and exclusive breastfeeding improved with increasing number or quality of visits by either level of health care provider (OR: 2.04-3.08, p = <0.001), after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Socio-demographic indicators were the major determinants of exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 month and age-appropriate complementary-feeding practices thereafter in the program-enhanced but not comparison district.An enhanced nutrition and health intervention package improved program exposure and associated breastfeeding but not complementary-feeding practices, compared to standard government package.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00198835.
Project description:This study examined infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counseling, decision-making, and practices among HIV-infected women with children 0-23 months participating in Malawi's Option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program. We conducted 160 survey interviews, 32 in-depth interviews, and 32 observations of PMTCT visits. Surveys indicated that exclusive breastfeeding was common (75 %) among children <6 months, while minimum dietary diversity (41 %) and minimum acceptable diet (40 %) for children 6-23 months occurred less often. In-depth interviews supported these findings. Most women felt comfortable with current breastfeeding recommendations, but chronic food insecurity made it difficult for them to follow complementary feeding guidelines. Women trusted IYCF advice from health workers, but mainly received it during pregnancy. During observations of postnatal PMTCT visits, health workers infrequently advised on breastfeeding (41 % of visits) or complementary feeding (29 % of visits). This represents a missed opportunity for health workers to support optimal IYCF practices within Option B+.
Project description:One in five Australian pre-schoolers are overweight or obese, meaning the first years of life are vital for obesity primary prevention. Parent child feeding practices impact on children's dietary intake, which in turn impacts on their weight status. Parents' child feeding beliefs are heavily influenced by parenting peers. The aim of this cohort study is to evaluate the impact of the Parents in Child Nutrition Informing Community (PICNIC) study on parents feeding practices and diet quality. The secondary outcomes are the perceptions of trained peer educators and education recipients based on their involvement in PICNIC. One hundred parents with a child aged 0-2 years at time of recruitment will participate in peer educator training, then disseminate nutrition and child feeding content to other parents over an intervention period of 12 months, supported by project-specific, evidence-based social media pages and website. An additional 100 new parents, recruited by peer educators, will participate in the study as nutrition education recipients. Both peer educators and education recipients will complete quantitative child feeding surveys before and during the 12 month intervention and a dietary intake survey at a time point 12 months post intervention. Following the intervention, 30 education recipients will be asked to participate in semi-structured phone interviews about their experiences with PICNIC. Peer educators will contribute as co-researchers and active participants in the evolution of the PICNIC model. This study will contribute to enhanced understanding of contemporary health literacy strategies for communicating nutrition and feeding messages to new parents and the impact of these strategies on parents feeding practices and children's dietary intake in a community setting.
Project description:Undernutrition below two years of age remains a major public health problem in India. We conducted an evaluation of an integrated nutrition and health program that aimed to improve nutritional status of young children by improving breast and complementary feeding practices over that offered by the Government of India's standard nutrition and health care program.In Uttar Pradesh state, through multi-stage cluster random sampling, 81 villages in an intervention district and 84 villages in a comparison district were selected. A cohort of 957 third trimester pregnant women identified during house-to-house surveys was enrolled and, following childbirth, mother-child dyads were followed every three months from birth to 18 months of age. The primary outcomes were improvements in weight-for-age and length-for-age z scores, with improved breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices as intermediate outcomes.Optimal breastfeeding practices were higher among women in intervention than comparison areas, including initiating breastfeeding within one hour of delivery (17.4% vs. 2.7%, p<0.001), feeding colostrum (34.7% vs. 8.4%, p<0.001), avoiding pre-lacteals (19.6% vs. 2.1%, p<0.001) and exclusively breastfeeding up to 6 months (24.1% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.001). However, differences were few and mixed between study arms with respect to complementary feeding practices. The mean weight-for-age z-score was higher at 9 months (-2.1 vs. -2.4, p = 0.0026) and the prevalence of underweight status was lower at 12 months (58.5% vs. 69.3%, p = 0.047) among intervention children. The prevalence of stunting was similar between study arms at all ages. Coefficients to show the differences between the intervention and comparison districts (0.13 cm/mo) suggested significant faster linear growth among intervention district infants at earlier ages (0-5 months).Mothers participating in the intervention district were more likely to follow optimal breast, although not complementary feeding practices. The program modestly improved linear growth in earlier age and weight gain in late infancy. Comprehensive nutrition and health interventions are complex; the implementation strategies need careful examination to improve feeding practices and thus impact growth.The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00198835.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and breastfeeding is important for the healthy growth and development of the fetus and infant. PURPOSE:This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of a maternal milk supplementation (MMS) in conjunction with a breastfeeding support program on breastfeeding practices including duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding and child neurodevelopment outcomes at 30 months old. METHODS:We followed up the offspring of 204 Vietnamese women who completed a randomized controlled trial where the intervention group received MMS with a breastfeeding support program from the last trimester to 12 weeks postpartum while the control group received standard care. At 30 months postpartum, information on child feeding practices was collected and child neurodevelopment was assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III). RESULTS:There was no significant difference in the duration of any breastfeeding (ABF) from birth between the groups. However, the intervention group had longer exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration (p = 0.0172), higher EBF rate at 6 months (p = 0.0093) and lower risk of discontinuing EBF (p = 0.0071) than the control. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher Bayley-III composite scores in the domains of cognitive (p = 0.0498) and motor (p = 0.0422) functions, as well as a tendency toward better social-emotional behavior (p = 0.0513) than children in the control group. The association between maternal intervention and child development was attenuated after further adjustment for birth weight but not EBF duration, suggesting that improvements in child development may be partially attributed to the benefits of prenatal nutrition supplementation on birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:MMS with breastfeeding support during late pregnancy and early postpartum significantly improved EBF practices. The intervention was also associated with improvements in neurodevelopment in children at 30 months old.