Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders.
ABSTRACT: Gonadectomy, or neutering, is a very common surgery for dogs having many positive effects on behavior, health, and longevity. There are also certain risks associated with neutering including the development of orthopedic conditions, cognitive decline, and a predisposition to some neoplasias. This study was designed specifically to identify if a correlation exists between neuter status and inherited conditions in a large aggregate cohort of dogs representing many different breeds.Neutered dogs were at less risk for early and congenital conditions (aortic stenosis, early onset cataracts, mitral valve disease, patent ductus arteriosus, portosystemic shunt, and ventricular septal defect) than intact dogs. Neutering was also associated with reduced risk of dilated cardiomyopathy and gastric dilatation volvulus in males. Neutering was significantly associated with an increased risk for males and females for cancers (hemangiosarcoma, hyperadrenocorticism, lymphoma, mast cell tumor, and osteosarcoma), ruptured anterior cruciate ligament and epilepsy. Intervertebral disk disease was associated with increased risk in females only. For elbow dysplasia, hip dysplasia, lens luxation, and patellar luxation neutering had no significant effect on the risk for those conditions. Neutering was associated with a reduced risk of vehicular injury, a condition chosen as a control.In this retrospective study, several conditions showed an increased risk associated with neutering whereas other conditions were less likely to be expressed in neutered dogs. The complexity of the interactions between neutering and inherited conditions underscores the need for reflective consultation between the client and the clinician when considering neutering. The convenience and advantages of neutering dogs that will not be included in a breeding program must be weighed against possible risk associated with neutering.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To describe a large population of dogs with a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism at the time of death in North American veterinary teaching hospitals, and to identify comorbid conditions associated with hyperadrenocorticism. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective cohort study of 1519 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism from a population of 70,574 dogs reported to the Veterinary Medical Database. Signalment, presence or absence of hyperadrenocorticism, aetiology of hyperadrenocorticism (if described), frequency of select comorbidities and causes of death were evaluated in dogs with and without hyperadrenocorticism. RESULTS:Hyperadrenocorticism was more frequent in females. Neutering was associated with a minor, but significant, increase in the odds of hyperadrenocorticism. Hyperadrenocorticism was the presumed cause of death of 393 (25?9%) of affected dogs. When aetiology was specified (527 dogs, corresponding to 34?7% of the cases), pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [387 (73?4%) out of 527 dogs] was more common than functional adrenocortical tumour [136 (25?8%) out of 527 dogs). Hyperadrenocorticism was over-represented in certain expected (miniature poodle, dachshund) and unexpected (Irish setter, bassett hound) breeds compared with the population at large. Of the select comorbidities investigated, dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were at increased risk for concurrent diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, hypertension, gall bladder mucocoele and thromboembolic disease compared with dogs without hyperadrenocorticism. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE:Hyperadrenocorticism is significantly associated with certain comorbid conditions but is not a major cause of mortality in affected dogs. Documented patterns now provide targets for prospective clinical research.
Project description:Gonadectomy is an important reproductive management tool employed in many countries, and is highly prevalent in the US with an estimated 85% of dogs being neutered. Despite the societal benefits in pet population control, negative associations between neuter status, and health conditions have been reported in recent years. Most particularly observed are the consequences of early age neutering. Knowing that different physiological systems rely upon gonadal steroids during development and physiological maintenance, studies have been undertaken to assess the impact of neuter status on multiple body and organ systems. For some inherited conditions, neutering is associated with an increased risk of expression. Neutering has also been associated with altered metabolism and a predisposition for weight gain in dogs, which may confound the detected risk association between neutering and disease expression. This review summarizes the effects of neutering on cancer, orthopedic, and immune disorders in the dog and also explores the potentially exacerbating factor of body weight.
Project description:The early neutering of male and female dogs and its relationship to an increased risk of joint disorders and some cancers has recently become a concern, raising questions about the standard practice in the U.S. and much of Europe of neutering by 6 months of age. A noteworthy recent finding from this center is that there are major breed differences with small-dog breeds generally showing little vulnerability to neutering compared with breeds of larger body size. These findings on purebreds raise questions for dog owners and veterinarians about mixed-breed dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine a sample of mixed breed dogs of five weight categories using the same veterinary hospital database and diagnostic criteria for joint disorders and cancers as used in the newly published paper on 35 breeds and previous papers on the Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, and German Shepherd Dog. The weight categories were <10 kg (739 cases), 10-19 kg (546 cases), 20-29 kg (992 cases), 30-39 kg (604 cases), and over 40 kg (258 cases). Males and females were analyzed separately, as were various ages at neutering. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear or rupture, and elbow dysplasia. The cancers were lymphoma, mast cell tumor, hemangiosarcoma, and osteosarcoma. There was no significant increased occurrence of one or more cancers, compared with intact dogs, in any weight category. However, in the three categories of dogs weighing 20 kg or more, neutering before 1 year generally was significantly associated with risks of one or more joint disorders above that of dogs left intact, commonly to 3 times the level of intact dogs, with sex differences in the degrees of joint disorders associated with neutering. For the dogs in the two weight categories <20 kg, no increased risks were found for joint disorders. This information can be useful to dog caregivers in deciding on the age at which to neuter specific dogs, and for veterinarians offering guidance to pet owners.
Project description:Neutering (including spaying) of male and female dogs in the first year after birth has become routine in the U.S. and much of Europe, but recent research reveals that for some dog breeds, neutering may be associated with increased risks of debilitating joint disorders and some cancers, complicating pet owners' decisions on neutering. The joint disorders include hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear or rupture, and elbow dysplasia. The cancers include lymphoma, mast cell tumor, hemangiosarcoma, and osteosarcoma. In previous studies on the Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever and German Shepherd Dog, neutering before a year of age was associated with increased risks of one or more joint disorders, 2-4 times that of intact dogs. The increase was particularly seen with dogs neutered by 6 months of age. In female Golden Retrievers, there was an increase in one or more of the cancers followed to about 2-4 times that of intact females with neutering at any age. The goal of the present study was to expand and use the same data collection and analyses to cover an additional 29 breeds, plus three varieties of Poodles. There were major breed differences in vulnerability to neutering, both with regard to joint disorders and cancers. In most cases, the caregiver can choose the age of neutering without increasing the risks of these joint disorders or cancers. Small-dog breeds seemed to have no increased risks of joint disorders associated with neutering, and in only two small breeds (Boston Terrier and Shih Tzu) was there a significant increase in cancers. To assist pet owners and veterinarians in deciding on the age of neutering a specific dog, guidelines that avoid increasing the risks of a dog acquiring these joint disorders or cancers are laid out for neutering ages on a breed-by-breed and sex basis.
Project description:Background. Failure among pet owners to neuter their pets results in increased straying and overpopulation problems. Variations in neutering levels can be explained by cultural differences, differences in economic status in rural and urban locations, and owner perceptions about their pet. There are also differences between male and female pet owners. There is no research pertaining to Irish pet owner attitudes towards neutering their pets. This paper identified the perceptions of a sample of Irish cat and dog owners that influenced their decisions on pet neutering. Methods. This study was conducted using social science (qualitative) methods, including an interview-administered survey questionnaire and focus group discussions. Data was coded and managed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results. Focus groups were conducted with 43 pet (cats and dogs) owners. Two major categories relating to the decision to neuter were identified: (1) enabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: controlling unwanted pet behaviour; positive perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes; perceived owner responsibility; pet function; and the influence of veterinary advice), and (2) disabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: perceived financial cost of neutering; perceived adequacy of existing controls; and negative perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes). Discussion. Pet owner sense of responsibility and control are two central issues to the decision to neuter their pets. Understanding how pet owners feel about topics such as pet neutering, can help improve initiatives aimed at emphasising the responsibility of population control of cats and dogs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To quantify changes in the patellar tendon length following surgical correction of medial patellar luxation in dogs and evaluate potential risk factors associated with patellar tendon elongation. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective case series (n = 50). METHODS:Dogs that underwent surgery for medial patellar luxation correction and had 2-3 months follow up were included. Digital radiographs were utilized to quantify the patellar tendon length to patellar length ratio at various follow-up points. Odds ratio comparisons between potential risk factors associated with changes in patellar tendon length were performed. RESULTS:Post-operative patellar tendon lengthening of ? 5% was observed in 20% of stifles and post-operative patellar tendon shortening of ? 5% was observed in 22% of stifles at the 2-3 month follow up period. The risk factors including age, body weight, trochleoplasty and grade of medial patellar luxation were not significantly associated with risk of patellar tendon elongation. Patellar tendon lengthening was not associated with recurrence of luxation. CONCLUSION:Patellar tendon lengthening and shortening can be observed in dogs following common medial patellar luxation corrective procedures in the short term follow up period. Patellar tendon lengthening does not appear to be associated with age, weight, trochleoplasty, grade of luxation, or risk of luxation recurrence.
Project description:Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6-11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4-5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3-4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A retrospective case-control study was conducted to estimate breed predisposition for common orthopaedic conditions in 12 popular dog breeds in Norway and Sweden. Orthopaedic conditions investigated were elbow dysplasia (ED); cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD); medial patellar luxation (MPL); and fractures of the radius and ulna. Dogs surgically treated for the conditions above at the Swedish and Norwegian University Animal Hospitals between the years 2011 and 2015 were compared with a geographically adjusted control group calculated from the national ID-registries. Logistic regression analyses (stratified for clinic and combined) were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Mixed breed dogs were used as reference.<h4>Results</h4>Breeds found at-risk for ED were the Labrador retriever (OR?=?5.73), the Rottweiler (OR?=?5.63), the German shepherd dog (OR?=?3.31) and the Staffordshire bull terrier (OR?=?3.08). The Chihuahua was the only breed where an increased risk for MPL (OR?=?2.80) was identified. While the Rottweiler was the only breed predisposed for CCLD (OR?=?3.96), the results were conflicting for the Labrador retriever (OR?=?0.44 in Sweden, 2.85 in Norway); the overall risk was identical to mixed-breed dogs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Most results are in concordance with earlier studies. However, an increased risk of CCLD was not identified for the Labrador retriever, the Staffordshire bull terrier was found to have an increased risk of ED and some country-specific differences were noted. These results highlight the importance of utilising large caseloads and appropriate control groups when breed susceptibility is reported.
Project description:Despite being routinely recommended by veterinarians, neutering of dogs and cats has both positive and negative impacts on animal welfare and is ethically problematic. We examined attitudes of a sample of the UK public towards routine neutering of dogs and cats using a questionnaire. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with statements describing welfare and ethical reasons 'for' and 'against' the neutering of male and female dogs and cats. We conducted a general linear model (GLM) analysis to investigate the effects of demographic factors on agreement scores. Respondents (n = 451) expressed views both supporting and opposing neutering. The predominant view (>80%) supported neutering, justified primarily by prevention of unwanted offspring and reproductive diseases. Around 10% of the respondents disagreed and felt that neutering should only be done for medical reasons. Men were less likely than women to support neutering (p < 0.001). Those with meat reduction diets were more likely to be against neutering (p < 0.05) and cat owners supported neutering more than non-cat owners (p < 0.05). Although the data reflected a wide range of ethical views, our findings show that the UK public generally supports the routine neutering of dogs and cats. This insight has implications for future policy-making and compliance with veterinary advice.
Project description:Neutering is a common veterinary recommendation and is often associated with obesity development. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two different amounts of protein intake by neutered dogs regarding maintenance energy requirement (MER), body composition, and biochemical and hormonal parameters. A total of fourteen healthy adult dogs were fed either a diet containing 59·7 g protein/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) (P60) or a diet with 94·0 g protein/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) (P94) for 26 weeks after neutering to maintain their body weight prior to neutering. A mixed model was fitted to verify diet, time and diet × time interaction effects on biochemical parameters, serum concentrations of insulin, glucagon, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). MER and the body composition data were evaluated within diets (paired t test) and within times (unpaired t test). A time effect was found for fructosamine, TAG, total lipids and IGF-1 serum concentrations. The diet × time interaction was significant for glucagon (P < 0·05). No differences between diets in the MER within each time were found. However, there was a reduction in the MER of dogs fed the P60 diet 26 weeks after neutering (P = 0·042). The fat body mass of dogs fed the P60 diet increased (P < 0·05) after neutering, even without a body-weight change. Some of the biochemical parameters changed over time, but all remained within the normal range. For the period evaluated in the present study, a diet with 94·0 g of protein/1000 kcal (4184 kJ) metabolisable energy seems to be a beneficial nutritional strategy to maintain the MER and the body composition of dogs after neutering.