Isothermal Time-Temperature-Precipitation Diagram for an Aluminum Alloy 6005A by In Situ DSC Experiments.
ABSTRACT: Time-temperature-precipitation (TTP) diagrams deliver important material data, such as temperature and time ranges critical for precipitation during the quenching step of the age hardening procedure. Although the quenching step is continuous, isothermal TTP diagrams are often applied. Together with a so-called Quench Factor Analysis, they can be used to describe very different cooling paths. Typically, these diagrams are constructed based on mechanical properties or microstructures after an interrupted quenching, i.e., ex situ analyses. In recent years, an in situ calorimetric method to record continuous cooling precipitation diagrams of aluminum alloys has been developed to the application level by our group. This method has now been transferred to isothermal experiments, in which the whole heat treatment cycle was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The Al-Mg-Si-wrought alloy 6005A was investigated. Solution annealing at 540 °C and overcritical quenching to several temperatures between 450 °C and 250 °C were followed by isothermal soaking. Based on the heat flow curves during isothermal soaking, TTP diagrams were determined. An appropriate evaluation method has been developed. It was found that three different precipitation reactions in characteristic temperature intervals exist. Some of the low temperature reactions are not accessible in continuous cooling experiments and require isothermal studies.
Project description:The precipitation behavior of the α strengthening phase in metastable β-Ti alloys is highly dependent on heat treatment parameters such as quenching rate, heating rate and ageing temperature. In this paper we have investigated the influence of quenching rate on the formation of isothermal ω precipitates that have been regarded as potent nucleant sites for α precipitation. The results show that the β-solutionized alloy contains a β matrix with a layer structured morphology. Regular atomic movement of the (002)β plane along the <002> direction was observed in the alloy. The increase in quenching rate refines the thickness of layers, subsequently influencing the nucleation and growth of isothermal ω precipitates after ageing treatment. The high quenching rate promotes the occurrence of ω precipitation, broadens the stage of ω precipitation and increases the number density of ω precipitates. Since the isothermal ω phase provides a heterogeneous nucleation site for α precipitates, it is inferred that the quenching rate may indirectly influence the mechanical properties of metastable β-Ti alloy.
Project description:The dynamic metallurgical characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) process offer fabricated materials with non-equilibrium microstructures compared to their cast and wrought counterparts. To date, few studies on the precipitation kinetics of SLM processed heat-treatable alloys have been reported, despite the importance of obtaining such detailed knowledge for optimizing the mechanical properties. In this study, for the first time, the precipitation behavior of an SLM fabricated Al-Mn-Sc alloy was systematically investigated over the temperature range of 300-450 °C. The combination of in-situ synchrotron-based ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the continuous evolution of Al<sub>6</sub>Mn and Al<sub>3</sub>Sc precipitates upon isothermal heating in both precipitate structure and morphology, which was confirmed by ex-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. A pseudo-delay nucleation and growth phenomenon of the Al<sub>3</sub>Sc precipitates was observed for the SLM fabricated Al-Mn-Sc alloy. This phenomenon was attributed to the preformed Sc clusters in the as-fabricated condition due to the intrinsic heat treatment effect induced by the unique layer-by-layer building nature of SLM. The growth kinetics for the Al<sub>6</sub>Mn and Al<sub>3</sub>Sc precipitates were established based on the in-situ X-ray studies, with the respective activation energies determined to be (74 ± 4) kJ/mol and (63 ± 9) kJ/mol. The role of the precipitate evolution on the final mechanical properties was evaluated by tensile testing, and an observed discontinuous yielding phenomenon was effectively alleviated with increased aging temperatures.
Project description:Theoretical prediction of glass forming ability (GFA) of metallic alloys is a key process in exploring metallic alloy compositions with excellent GFA and thus with the ability to form a large-sized bulk metallic glass. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a promising tool to achieve a theoretical prediction. However, direct MD prediction continues to be challenging due to the time-scale limitation of MD. With respect to practical bulk metallic glass alloys, the time necessary for quenching at a typical cooling rate is five or more orders of magnitude higher than that at the MD time-scale. To overcome the time-scale issue, this study proposes a combined method of classical nucleation theory and MD simulations. The method actually allows to depict the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram of the bulk metallic glass alloys. The TTT directly provides a prediction of the critical cooling rate and GFA. Although the method assumes conventional classical nucleation theory, all the material parameters appearing in the theory were determined by MD simulations using realistic interatomic potentials. The method is used to compute the TTT diagrams and critical cooling rates of two Cu-Zr alloy compositions (Cu50Zr50 and Cu20Zr80). The results indicate that the proposed method reasonably predicts the critical cooling rate based on the computed TTT.
Project description:This study investigated the mechanical properties of steel in flanges, with the goal of obtaining high strength and high toughness. Quenching was applied alone or in combination with tempering at one of nine combinations of three temperatures TTEM and durations tTEM. Cooling rates at various flange locations during quenching were first estimated using finite element method simulation, and the three locations were selected for mechanical testing in terms of cooling rate. Microstructures of specimens were observed at each condition. Tensile test and hardness test were performed at room temperature, and a Charpy impact test was performed at -46 °C. All specimens had a multiphase microstructure composed of matrix and secondary phases, which decomposed under the various tempering conditions. Decrease in cooling rate (CR) during quenching caused reduction in hardness and strength but did not affect low-temperature toughness significantly. After tempering, hardness and strength were reduced and low-temperature toughness was increased. Microstructures and mechanical properties under the various tempering conditions and CRs during quenching were discussed. This work was based on the properties directly obtained from flanges under industrial processes and is thus expected to be useful for practical applications.
Project description:Body-centred cubic magnesium-lithium-aluminium-base alloys are the lightest of all the structural alloys, with recently developed alloy compositions showing a unique multi-dimensional property profile. By hitherto unrecognised mechanisms, such alloys also exhibit exceptional immediate strengthening after solution treatment and water quenching, but strength eventually decreases during prolonged low temperature ageing. We show that such phenomena are due to the precipitation of semi-coherent D03-Mg3Al nanoparticles during rapid cooling followed by gradual coarsening and subsequent loss of coherency. Physical explanation of these phenomena allowed the creation of an exceptionally low-density alloy that is also structurally stable by controlling the lattice mismatch and volume fraction of the Mg3Al nanoparticles. The outcome is one of highest specific-strength engineering alloys ever developed.
Project description:The development of melt spinning technique for preparation of metallic glasses was summarized. The limitations as well as restrictions of the melt spinning embodiments were also analyzed. As an improvement and variation of the melt spinning method, the vertical-type twin-roll casting (VTRC) process was discussed. As the thermal history experienced by the casting metals to a great extent determines the qualities of final products, cooling rate in the quenching process is believed to have a significant effect on glass formation. In order to estimate the ability to produce metallic glasses by VTRC method, temperature and flow phenomena of the melt in molten pool were computed, and cooling rates under different casting conditions were calculated with the simulation results. Considering the fluid character during casting process, the material derivative method based on continuum theory was adopted in the cooling rate calculation. Results show that the VTRC process has a good ability in continuous casting metallic glassy ribbons.
Project description:The work presents results of phase transformation kinetics of hot-rolled 5% Mn steel subjected to different heat treatments. Three different schedules were introduced: isothermal holding in a bainite region, coiling simulation and intercritical annealing. The evolution of microstructure components was investigated using dilatometric and metallographic analyses. According to obtained results, the medium-Mn steel exhibits high resistance for ?/? transformation during the bainite transformation and coiling simulation (upon cooling from the austenite region). During 5 h isothermal holding, no bainite and/or ferrite formation was detected. This results in the formation of martensite upon cooling to room temperature. Differently, when the steel was subjected to the intercritical annealing at 720 and 700 °C (upon heating from room temperature), a final microstructure consisted of ferrite, martensite and retained austenite. At 700 °C, no fresh martensite formation was detected upon cooling to room temperature. This means that the austenite was enriched in carbon during the intercritical annealing step enough to keep its thermal stability.
Project description:This study reports on a facile and economical method for the scalable continuous synthesis of graphene sheets by the thermocatalytic decomposition of methane using a unique and novel unsupported catalyst of iron particles. Single-layered and few-layered graphene sheets were continuously synthesized by the isothermal decomposition reaction of methane over a catalyst of iron particles under atmospheric pressure without the need for a cooling precipitation process. In contrast with the methods currently reported in the published literature, this method exhibits remarkably high capacity and efficiency in terms of graphene throughput and yield, respectively. A maximum graphene yield rate of 20 mg/min per g of catalyst and a graphene output of 6?g per g of catalyst were achieved in this study; this graphene output has far surpassed the best graphene yield of 50?mg per 500?mg of catalyst, thus reported so far, by 60 times.
Project description:Global climate models robustly predict that global mean precipitation should increase at roughly 2-3% [Formula: see text], but the origin of these values is not well understood. Here we develop a simple theory to help explain these values. This theory combines the well-known radiative constraint on precipitation, which says that condensation heating from precipitation is balanced by the net radiative cooling of the free troposphere, with an invariance of radiative cooling profiles when expressed in temperature coordinates. These two constraints yield a picture in which mean precipitation is controlled primarily by the depth of the troposphere, when measured in temperature coordinates. We develop this theory in idealized simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium and also demonstrate its applicability to global climate models.
Project description:Ethanol and oxygen containing gases are mixed in a T-junction at elevated pressure and then passed into a fused silica microcapillary, located in a heating block. Inside the microcapillary a Taylor flow of alternating liquid and vapor segments is formed. The thermodynamic equilibrium composition of the liquid and vapor segment depends on pressure and temperature. Their compositions are measured inside the microcapillary using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The main results obtained therefrom are temperature-composition (Tx) diagrams at conditions relevant for combustion engines [p = (3 to 8) MPa; T = (303 to 473) K]. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data are derived and given in pressure-composition (px) diagrams. The investigation of different gas mixtures containing oxygen and nitrogen allows furthermore the illustration of VLE data at constant pressure and temperature in ternary diagrams. The obtained results are compared to scarce literature data. An equation of state (Peng-Robinson EOS) is furthermore adjusted to the measured results.