Quality Assessment of Mixed and Ceramic Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Wastes in the Concrete Manufacture According to the Spanish Standard.
ABSTRACT: Construction and demolition waste (CDW) constitutes an increasingly significant problem in society due to the volume generated, rendering sustainable management and disposal problematic. The aim of this study is to identify a possible reuse option in the concrete manufacturing for recycled aggregates with a significant ceramic content: mixed recycled aggregates (MixRA) and ceramic recycled aggregates (CerRA). In order to do so, several tests are conducted in accordance with the Spanish Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08) to determine the composition in weight and physic-mechanical characteristics (particle size distributions, fine content, sand equivalent, density, water absorption, flakiness index, and resistance to fragmentation) of the samples for the partial inclusion of the recycled aggregates in concrete mixes. The results of these tests clearly support the hypothesis that this type of material may be suitable for such partial replacements if simple pretreatment is carried out. Furthermore, this measure of reuse is in line with European, national, and regional policies on sustainable development, and presents a solution to the environmental problem caused by the generation of CDW.
Project description:This research was inspired by the growing global shortage of natural aggregates. Different types of waste ceramics (apart from recycled concrete) are the most popular materials for the production of waste aggregates as possible substitutes for natural ones. The aim of this research was to analyse the efficiency of different aggregate mixes composed of waste and natural materials focusing on two waste ceramic aggregates, which were prepared concrete mixes based on specifically composed aggregates (blend of natural aggregate, porous and iron oxide-rich (red) waste ceramic aggregate, and dense, kaolin-based (white) waste ceramic aggregate). All aggregates were thoroughly tested before utilisation for concrete mix creation. Altogether, four blends of aggregates were prepared in order to prepare concrete mixes using a simplex experiment design. The mixes were then modified by adding various amounts of crimped steel fibre. Such properties of hardened steel fibre-reinforced concrete (SFRC) such as density, compressive strength, shear strength, ultrasound propagation velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity, and limit of proportionality during flexural testing were of special interest. Tests were conducted according to European and Japanese standards. The achieved fibre-reinforced concretes were characterised by satisfactory strength characteristics, thereby enabling the substitution of traditional reinforcement. Strength classes according to the fib Model Code 2010 were assigned.
Project description:Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth's raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC) is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C) principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete.
Project description:This article analyzes the feasibility of using construction and demolition waste (expanded polystyrene, ceramic, and concrete waste) in a gypsum matrix to manufacture plaster for interior coatings or for prefabricated elements for interior partitions. To do this, several gypsum specimens were prepared (4 × 4 × 16 cm) incorporating different percentages of waste based on the weight of the gypsum (25%, 50%, and 75% of ceramic, concrete, and a mixture of both). Reference samples were also produced (without additions) to compare the results obtained. The compounds with the best performance were selected and lightened by preparing other samples in which 1/3 and 2/3 of the volume of ceramic, concrete, and mixed waste were replaced with expanded polystyrene (EPS). All samples were tested in the laboratory and the following physical and mechanical characteristics were determined: density, surface hardness, flexural strength, compressive strength, capillary water absorption, and thermal conductivity. Several applications were proposed for the selected compounds. A gypsum block with a sandwich configuration was obtained (40 × 20 × 10 cm) using the optimum compound. The block was further tested regarding its density and compression strength. A comparative analysis showed that it is possible to produce materials with a gypsum matrix by adding ceramic, concrete, and EPS waste, improving the behavior of the traditional gypsum and enabling them to be applied in various construction applications. These applications have a lower environmental impact than ordinary ones because they use less primary raw material, due to the reuse of waste.
Project description:The construction industry generates a considerable amount of waste. Faced with this undesirable situation, the ready-mix concrete sector, in particular, has invested energy and resources into reusing its own waste in its production process as it works towards the goal of more sustainable construction. This study examines the feasibility of incorporating two types of concrete waste, which currently end up in landfill, into the production process of ready-mix concrete: the waste generated during the initial production stage (ready-mix concrete waste), and waste created when demolition waste is treated to obtain artificial aggregate. The first phase of the study's methodology corroborates the suitability of the recycled aggregate through characterization tests. After this phase, the impact of incorporating different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate is evaluated by examining the performance of the produced concrete. The replacement rate varied between 15% and 50%. The results indicate that recycled aggregates are, indeed, suitable to be incorporated into ready-mix concrete production. The impact on the final product's performance is different for the two cases examined herein. Incorporating aggregates from generic concrete blocks led to a 20% decrease in the produced concrete's strength performance. On the other hand, using recycled aggregates made from the demolition waste led to a smaller decrease in the concrete's performance: about 8%. The results indicate that with adequate management and prior treatment, the waste from these plants can be re-incorporated into their production processes. If concrete waste is re-used, concrete production, in general, becomes more sustainable for two reasons: less waste ends up as landfill and the consumption of natural aggregates is also reduced.
Project description:This paper presents a study of incorporation of two types of construction and demolition waste (CDW) in rendering mortars, as aggregates at 0%, 20%, 50% and 100% (by volume). Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and mixed recycled aggregate (MRA) were used. The former is mainly composed of cementitious waste and the latter consists of a mixture of non-segregated wastes. The performance of the cement mortars with recycled aggregates was evaluated through an extensive experimental programme. The analysis comprised workability, mechanical strength, water absorption, shrinkage, open porosity and the evaluation of durability by permeability to water under pressure after an artificial accelerated ageing test. The results are considered positive, although as the incorporation of recycled aggregates (both MRA and RCA) increased the mechanical strength, the modulus of elasticity and bulk density decreased, which leads to the production of lighter mortars that are less susceptible to cracking. The modified mortar with 20% of MRA presented the best performance, in terms of mechanical behaviour.
Project description:This study examines the effect of elevated temperature on various properties of reactive powder concrete (RPC) containing varying percentages of recycled fine aggregates as sand replacement. Recycled fine aggregates were collected from two sources, i.e., demolished normal strength concrete and demolished RPC. The specimens were prepared using 25%, 50%, and 75% replacement of natural sand with recycled fine aggregates, exposed to two different curing conditions and were subjected to four temperatures, i.e., 25, 200, 400, and 600 °C. Later, the specimens were tested for mass loss, compressive strength test, split-tensile strength test, flexural strength test, and water absorption test at all temperature ranges. Results determined that although the mechanical properties degraded with the temperature rise, the recycled aggregates can be employed as a partial replacement of natural sand in RPC without causing a significant decrease in the performance of RPC, and can help to produce more sustainable RPC by using recycled aggregates.
Project description:In spite of not being legally accepted in most countries, mixed recycled aggregates (MRA) could be a suitable raw material for concrete manufacturing. The aims of this research were as follows: (i) to analyze the effect of the replacement ratio of natural coarse aggregates with MRA, the amount of ceramic particles in MRA, and the amount of cement, on the mechanical and physical properties of a non-structural concrete made with a low cement content; and (ii) to verify if it is possible to achieve a low-strength concrete that replaces a greater amount of natural aggregate with MRA and that has a low cement content. Two series of concrete mixes were manufactured using 180 and 200 kg/m³ of CEM II/A-V 42.5 R type Portland cement. Each series included seven concrete mixes: one with natural aggregates; two MRA with different ceramic particle contents; and one for each coarse aggregate replacement ratio (20%, 40%, and 100%). To study their properties, compressive and splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, porosity, water penetration, and sorptivity, tests were performed. The results confirmed that the main factors affecting the properties analyzed in this research are the amount of cement and the replacement ratio; the two MRAs used in this work presented a similar influence on the properties. A non-structural, low-strength concrete (15 MPa) with an MRA replacement ratio of up to 100% for 200 kg/m³ of cement was obtained. This type of concrete could be applied in the construction of ditches, sidewalks, and other similar civil works.
Project description:Recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates are specified as types of aggregates with lower densities, higher water absorption capacities, and lower mechanical strength than natural aggregates. In this paper, the mechanical behaviour and microstructural properties of natural aggregates, recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates were compared. Different specimens of unbound recycled mixtures demonstrated increased resistance properties. The formation of new cement hydrated particles was observed, and pozzolanic reactions were discovered by electronon microscopy in these novel materials. The properties of recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates suggest that these recycled materials can be used in unbound road layers to improve their mechanical behaviour in the long term.
Project description:The replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates in the concrete manufacturing has been spreading worldwide as a recycling method to counteract the large amount of construction and demolition waste. Although legislation in this field is still not well developed, many investigations demonstrate the possibilities of success of this trend given that concrete with satisfactory mechanical and durability properties could be achieved. However, recycled aggregates present a low quality compared to natural aggregates, the water absorption being their main drawback. When used untreated in concrete mix, the recycled aggregate absorb part of the water initially calculated for the cement hydration, which will adversely affect some characteristics of the recycled concrete. This article seeks to demonstrate that the technique of pre-saturation is able to solve the aforementioned problem. In order to do so, the water absorption of the aggregates was tested to determine the necessary period of soaking to bring the recycled aggregates into a state of suitable humidity for their incorporation into the mixture. Moreover, several concrete mixes were made with different replacement percentages of natural aggregate and various periods of pre-saturation. The consistency and compressive strength of the concrete mixes were tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed technique.
Project description:Since high quality natural aggregates are becoming scarce, it is important that industrial recycled products and by-products are used as aggregates for concrete. In Japan, the use of recycled aggregate (RG) is encouraged. Since, strength and durability of recycled aggregate concrete is lower than that of normal aggregate concrete, the use of recycled aggregate has not been significant. In order to improve physical properties of concrete using recycled coarse aggregate, blast furnace slag sand has been proposed. Recently, blast furnace slag sand is expected to improve durability, freezing, and thawing damage of concrete in Japan. Properties of fresh and hardened concrete bleeding, compressive strength, and resistance to freezing and thawing which are caused by the rapid freezing and thawing test using liquid nitrogen is a high loader than the JIS A 1148 A method that were investigated. As a result, concrete using treated low-class recycled coarse aggregate and 50% or 30% replacement of crushed sand with blast furnace slag sand showed the best results, in terms of bleeding, resistance to freezing and thawing.