Tensile and Flexural Properties of Cement Composites Reinforced with Flax Nonwoven Fabrics.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to develop a process to produce high-performance cement-based composites reinforced with flax nonwoven fabrics, analyzing the influence of the fabric structure-thickness and entanglement-on mechanical behavior under flexural and tensile loadings. For this purpose, composite with flax nonwoven fabrics with different thicknesses were first prepared and their cement infiltration was evaluated with backscattered electron (BSE) images. The nonwoven fabrics with the optimized thickness were then subjected to a water treatment to improve their stability to humid environments and the fiber-matrix adhesion. For a fixed thickness, the effect of the nonwoven entanglement on the mechanical behavior was evaluated under flexural and direct tension tests. The obtained results indicate that the flax nonwoven fabric reinforcement leads to cement composites with substantial enhancement of ductility.
Project description:Reinforcement of flexible fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites with standard textile fibres is a potential low cost solution to less critical loading applications. The mechanical behaviour of FRPs based on mechanically bonded nonwoven preforms composed of either low or high modulus fibres in a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix were compared following compression moulding. Nonwoven preform fibre compositions were selected from lyocell, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyamide (PA) as well as para-aramid fibres (polyphenylene terephthalamide; PPTA). Reinforcement with standard fibres manifold improved the tensile modulus and strength of the reinforced composites and the relationship between fibre, fabric and composite's mechanical properties was studied. The linear density of fibres and the punch density, a key process variable used to consolidate the nonwoven preform, were varied to study the influence on resulting FRP mechanical properties. In summary, increasing the strength and degree of consolidation of nonwoven preforms did not translate to an increase in the strength of resulting fibre reinforced TPU-composites. The TPU composite strength was mainly dependent upon constituent fibre stress-strain behaviour and fibre segment orientation distribution.
Project description:Despite the good mechanical properties of natural fibre composites, their use in load-bearing components is still limited, which may be due to lack of knowledge and confidence in calculating the performance of the composites by mechanical models. The present study is providing an experimental evaluation of stiffness predictions of multiaxial flax fibre composite by classical laminate theory (CLT). The experimental base is (i) multiaxial flax fibre composites fabricated with two types of biaxial non-crimp fabrics, having a nominal yarn orientation of ±45°, and (ii) uniaxial flax fibre composites fabricated with the same flax yarn as used in the fabrics. The fabricated composites are characterised by volumetric composition, yarn orientation and tensile properties. A fast and easy operational Fast Fibre Orientation (FFO) method is developed to determine the actual yarn orientation in fabrics and composites. It is demonstrated that the FFO method is a robust method, giving repeatable results for yarn orientations, and it can be used both on fabrics and composites. CLT predictions of stiffness of the multiaxial flax fibre composites are shown to be in good agreement with the measured stiffnesses of the composites in three testing directions (0°, 45°, and 90°). The use of the actual yarn orientations measured by the FFO method, instead of the nominal yarn orientations of ±45°, is shown to result in improved CLT predictions of stiffness with a mean deviation between predictions and measurements on 0.2 GPa. Altogether, it is demonstrated that stiffness of multiaxial flax fibre composites can be accurately predicted by CLT, without any fitting constants, based on independently determined stiffness parameters of the related uniaxial flax fibre composite, and based on measured yarn orientations in the flax fibre fabric.
Project description:Polymer composites containing natural fibers are receiving growing attention as possible alternatives for composites containing synthetic fibers. The use of biodegradable matrices obtained from renewable sources in replacement for synthetic ones is also increasing. However, only limited information is available about the creep behavior of the obtained composites. In this work, the tensile creep behavior of PLA based composites, containing flax and jute twill weave woven fabrics, produced through compression molding, was investigated. Tensile creep tests were performed at different temperatures (i.e., 40 and 60 °C). The results showed that the creep behavior of the composites is strongly influenced by the temperature and the woven fabrics used. As preliminary characterization, quasi-static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical tests were carried out on the composites. Furthermore, fabrics (both flax and jute) were tested as received by means of quasi-static tests and creep tests to evaluate the influence of fabrics mechanical behavior on the mechanical response of the resulting composites. The morphological analysis of the fracture surface of the tensile samples showed the better fiber-matrix adhesion between PLA and jute fabric.
Project description:The main limitation preventing the use of enzymatic cellulosic ethanol in industrial production is its higher cost which is mainly due to the elevated price of β-glucosidase (BG). Herein, we report on a simple strategy for the in-situ encapsulation of BG for repeated cellulosic ethanol production. In this strategy, BG was net-immobilized into a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) net-cloth layer on a PP nonwoven fabric by way of the visible light-induced surface controlled/living graft cross-linking polymerization. The visible light and mild reaction conditions could ensure the activity retention of BG during immobilization, while the non-swelling uniform net-mesh formed by living cross-linking polymerization could prevent the leakage of BG effectively (at the immobilization rate of more than 98.6% and the leakage rate of only 0.4%). When the BG-loaded fabric was used in combination with free cellulase (CEL), the results of the catalytic reaction demonstrated that these BG-loaded fabrics could not only give a 40% increase in cellulose conversions but also be reused for more than fifteen batches without losing the activity. These BG-loaded fabrics with characteristics including easy separation, excellent operation stability, a low cost of the polymeric matrix and a simple fabrication process are particularly interesting for a future bio-fuel production strategy.
Project description:The effects of surface treatment of flax fibers featuring vinyltrimethoxy silane (VTMO) and maleic anhydride-polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical properties of flax/PP composites were investigated. α-polypropylene (α-PP) and β-polypropylene (β-PP) were used as matrices for measuring the mechanical properties of the flax fiber/polypropylene (flax/PP) composites. Flax/PP composites composed of double-covered uncommingled yarn (DCUY) were prepared using a film-stacking technique. The influence of surface treatment on the tensile, flexural, impact, and water uptake properties of Flax/PP composites were investigated. MAPP treatment was suitable for flax/PP composites in terms of superior tensile and impact properties. VTMO treatment showed superior flexural properties and less influence on the impact properties after moisture absorption.
Project description:In this work, the tensile, compressive, and flexural properties of three types of 3D woven composites were studied in three directions. To make an accurate comparison, three 3D woven composites are made to have the same fiber volume content by controlling the weaving parameters of 3D fabric. The results show that the 3D orthogonal woven composite (3DOWC) has better overall mechanical properties than those of the 3D shallow straight-joint woven composite (3DSSWC) and 3D shallow bend-joint woven composite (3DSBWC) in the warp direction, including tension, compression, and flexural strength. Interestingly their mechanical properties in the weft direction are about the same. In the through-thickness direction, however, the tensile and flexural strength of 3DOWC is about the same as 3DSBW, both higher than that of 3DSSWC. The compressive strength, on the other hand, is mainly dependent on the number of weft yarns in the through-thickness direction.
Project description:A laminated composite was produced using a thermoplastic prepreg by inserting an interleaved film with the same type of matrix as the prepreg during the lay-up process to improve the low interlaminar properties, which is a known weakness of laminated composites. Carbon fiber fabric (CFF) and polypropylene (PP) were used to manufacture the thermoplastic prepregs. Eight prepregs were used to produce the laminated composites. Interleaved films with different thicknesses were inserted into each prepreg. The physical properties of the composite, such as thickness, density, fiber volume fraction (Vf), and void content (Vc), were examined. The tensile strength, flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), impact property, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the mechanical properties. Compared to the composite without any inserted interleaved film, as the thickness of the inserted interleaved resin film was increased, Vc decreased by 51.45%. At the same time, however, the tensile strength decreased by 8.75%. Flexural strength increased by 3.79% and flexural modulus decreased by 15.02%. Interlaminar shear strength increased by 11.05% and impact strength increased by 15.38%. Fracture toughness of the laminated composite was improved due to insertion of interleaved film.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Compared to other stem cells, the multipotency of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) is limited. Effective approaches that trigger or enhance lineage-specific transdifferentiation are highly envisaged in the improvement of ASCs-based cell therapies. Using Immunofluorescence assays and the secretion of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) protein, we studied the impact of two substrates: Hydroxyapatite (HAp)-coated nonwoven polyethylene (PET)/polypropylene (PP) fabric and glass surfaces, representing 3 dimensional (D) and 2 D environments respectively, on the induction of cardiomyocytes - a non-mesodermal cell type from ASCs for 1-5 weeks. RESULTS:ASCs were successfully isolated from human adipose tissue under cGMP conditions. Within 1-3 weeks, expression of cTnT in the induced 3D cultures was overall significantly higher (P?<?0.021) than that in the induced 2D cultures or controls (P?<?0.0009). Remarkably, after 3 weeks of culture, cTnT secretion in the induced 3D cultures gradually declined, nearly reaching levels observed in the 2D cultures. The results show that HAp-coated nonwoven PE/PP fabric could enhance lineage-specific differentiation of ASCs toward cardiac-like cells. However, the fabric might suppress growth of the transformed cells. These preliminary findings encourage further interest in validating the fabric's potential in improving ASCs transdifferentiation.
Project description:Composite industry has long been seeking practical solutions to boost laminate through-thickness strengths and interlaminar shear strengths (ILSS), so that composite primary structures, such as stiffeners, can bear higher complex loadings and be more delamination resistant. Three dimensional (3D) woven fabrics were normally employed to render higher transverse and shear strengths, but the difficulty and high expense in producing such fabrics make it a hard choice. Based on a novel idea that the warp yarns that interlock layers of the weft yarns might provide adequate fiber crimps that would allow the interlaminar shear or radial stresses to be transferred and borne by the fibers, rather than by the relatively weaker matrix resin, thus improving the transverse strengths, this work provided a two point five dimensional (2.5D) approach as a practical solution, and demonstrated the superior transverse performances of an economical 2.5D shallow-bend woven fabric (2.5DSBW) epoxy composites, over the conventional two dimensional (2D) laminates and the costly 3D counterpart composites. This approach also produced a potential candidate to fabricate high performance stiffeners, as shown by the test results of L-beams which are common structural components of any stiffeners. This study also discovered that an alternative structure, namely a 2.5D shallow-straight woven fabric (2.5DSSW), did not show any advantages over the two control structures, which were a 2D plain weave (2DPW) and a 3D orthogonal woven fabric (3DOW) made out of the same carbon fibers. Composites of these structures in this study were conveniently fabricated using a vacuum-assisted resin infusion process (VARI). The L-beams were tested using a custom-made test fixture. The strain distribution and failure mode analysis of these beams were conducted using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and X-ray Computed Tomography Scanning (CT). The results demonstrated that the structures containing Z-yarns or having high yarn crimps or waviness, such as in cases of 3DOW and 2.5DSBW, respectively, were shown to withstand high loadings and to resist delamination, favorable for the applications of high-performance structural composites.
Project description:Properties critical to the structure of apparel and apparel fabrics (thermal and moisture transfer, elasticity, and flexural rigidity), those related to performance (durability to abrasion, cleaning, and storage), and environmental effects have not been consistently addressed in the research on fabric sensors designed to interact with the human body. These fabric properties need to be acceptable for functionalized fabrics to be effectively used in apparel. Measures of performance such as electrical conductivity, impedance, and/or capacitance have been quantified. That the apparel/human body system involves continuous transient conditions needs to be taken into account when considering performance. This review highlights gaps concerning fabric-related aspects for functionalized apparel and includes information on increasing the inclusion of such aspects. A multidisciplinary approach including experts in chemistry, electronics, textiles, and standard test methods, and the intended end use is key to widespread development and adoption.