First-in-Human Phase I/II Study of NEOD001 in Patients With Light Chain Amyloidosis and Persistent Organ Dysfunction.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by the accumulation of misfolded proteins, which induces the dysfunction of vital organs. NEOD001 is a monoclonal antibody targeting these misfolded proteins. We report interim data from a phase I/II dose-escalation/expansion study of NEOD001 in patients with AL amyloidosis and persistent organ dysfunction (NCT01707264). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients who had completed at least one previous anti-plasma cell-directed therapy, had partial hematologic response or better, and had persistent organ dysfunction received NEOD001 intravenously every 28 days. Dose levels of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 mg/kg were evaluated (3 + 3 study design). Primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose and the recommended dose for future studies and to evaluate safety/tolerability. Secondary and exploratory objectives included pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and organ responses on the basis of published consensus criteria. RESULTS:Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in seven cohorts (dose-escalation component). No drug-related serious adverse events (AEs), discontinuations because of drug-related AEs, dose-limiting toxicities, or antidrug antibodies were reported. The most frequent AEs were fatigue, upper respiratory tract infection, cough, and dyspnea. Recommended dosing was 24 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetics support intravenous dosing every 28 days. Of 14 cardiac-evaluable patients, eight (57%) met the criteria for cardiac response and six (43%) had stable disease. Of 15 renal-evaluable patients, nine (60%) met the criteria for renal response and six (40%) had stable disease. CONCLUSION:Monthly infusions of NEOD001 were safe and well tolerated. Recommended future dosing was 24 mg/kg. Organ response rates compared favorably with those reported previously for chemotherapy. A phase II expansion is ongoing. A global phase III study (NCT02312206) has been initiated. Antibody therapy targeting misfolded proteins is a potential new therapy for the management of AL amyloidosis.
Project description:Immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a clonal plasma cell disorder characterized by misfolded Ig light chain deposition in vital organs of the body, resulting in proteotoxicity and organ dysfunction. Owing to its diverse clinical presentations and a tendency to mimic common medical conditions, AL amyloidosis is often diagnosed late and results in dismal outcomes. Early referral to a specialized center with expertise in management of AL amyloidosis is always recommended. The availability of sensitive biomarkers and novel therapies is reforming our approach to how we manage AL amyloidosis. Treatment for patients with AL amyloidosis should be risk-adapted and customized on the basis of individual patient characteristics. In the future, approaches directed at amyloid fibril clearance in combination with agents that target plasma cells will be needed both to eradicate the malignant clone and to establish organ responses.
Project description:This phase 1/2 study assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of the oral proteasome inhibitor (PI) ixazomib in patients with relapsed/refractory immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis. Ixazomib was administered to adult patients with relapsed/refractory AL amyloidosis after 1 or more prior lines of therapy (including bortezomib) on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles, for up to 12 cycles. Patients with less than partial response after 3 cycles received oral dexamethasone (40 mg, days 1-4) from cycle 4. A 3+3 dose-escalation phase was followed by 2 expansion cohorts (PI-naive and PI-exposed patients) at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Twenty-seven patients were enrolled: 11 during dose escalation (6 at 4.0 mg and 5 at 5.5 mg) and 16 during dose expansion (4.0 mg). Three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities: 1 at 4.0 mg and 2 at 5.5 mg; the MTD was determined as 4.0 mg. Most common adverse events (AEs) included nausea, skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (SSTD), diarrhea, and fatigue; grade 3 or higher AEs included dyspnea, fatigue, and SSTD. Overall, the hematologic response rate was 52% in patients treated at the MTD (n = 21). Organ responses were seen in 56% of patients (5 cardiac, 5 renal). Median hematologic progression-free survival was 14.8 months; 1-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 60% and 85%, respectively (median follow-up, 16.9 months). Weekly oral ixazomib appears to be active in patients with relapsed/refractory AL amyloidosis, with a generally manageable safety profile. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01318902 A phase 3 study is ongoing (#NCT01659658).
Project description:Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is characterized by misfolded light chain (LC) (amyloid) deposition in various peripheral organs, leading to progressive dysfunction and death. There are no regulatory agency-approved treatments for AL amyloidosis, and none of the available standard of care approaches directly targets the LC protein that constitutes the amyloid. NEOD001, currently in late-stage clinical trials, is a conformation-specific, anti-LC antibody designed to specifically target misfolded LC aggregates and promote phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits. The present study demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody 2A4, the murine form of NEOD001, binds to patient-derived soluble and insoluble LC aggregates and induces phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid in vitro. 2A4 specifically labeled all 21 fresh-frozen organ samples studied, which were derived from 10 patients representing both ? and ? LC amyloidosis subtypes. 2A4 immunoreactivity largely overlapped with thioflavin T-positive labeling, and 2A4 bound both soluble and insoluble LC aggregates extracted from patient tissue. Finally, 2A4 induced macrophage engagement and phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits in vitro. These findings provide further evidence that 2A4/NEOD001 can effectively clear and remove human AL-amyloid from tissue and further support the rationale for the evaluation of NEOD001 in patients with AL amyloidosis.
Project description:Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a systemic disease characterised by the aggregation of misfolded immunoglobulin light chain (LC), predominantly in the heart and kidneys, causing organ failure. If untreated, the median survival of patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis is 6 months from the onset of heart failure. Protracted time to establish a diagnosis, often lasting >1 year, is a frequent factor in poor treatment outcomes. Cardiologists, to whom patients are often referred, frequently miss the opportunity to diagnose cardiac AL amyloidosis. Nearly all typical cardiac support measures, with the exception of diuretics, are ineffective and may even worsen clinical symptoms, emphasising the need for accurate diagnosis. Patients with severe cardiac involvement face poor outcomes; heart transplantation is rarely an option because of multiorgan involvement, rapid clinical decline and challenges in predicting which patients will respond to treatment of the underlying plasma cell disorder. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with Ã¢â'¬Ëœsource therapiesÃ¢â'¬â"¢ that limit the production of amyloidogenic LC are associated with better survival and improvement in organ function after a median of 2.4 months following haematological complete response. However, organ recovery is often incomplete because these source therapies do not directly target deposited amyloid. Emerging amyloid-directed therapies may attenuate, and potentially reverse, organ dysfunction by clearing existing amyloid and inhibiting fibril formation of circulating aggregates. Improved recognition of AL amyloidosis by cardiologists allows for earlier treatment and improved outcomes.
Project description:Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a condition frequently seen in neurosurgical practice, especially among the elderly. It is often preceded by head injury, even a trivial trauma. Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a disorder involving extracellular tissue deposition of misfolded native proteins called amyloids. The several types of amyloidosis differ by source of proteins, organ involvement, treatment, and prognosis. We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman affected by AL amyloidosis, harboring surgically treated bilateral chronic nontraumatic subdural hematoma, and we suggest a possible correlation between the clinical entities of CSDH and AL amyloidosis.
Project description:Background:Immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is a rare and often fatal disease for which there is currently no treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration or the European Medicines Agency. Treatment options, which are typically based on therapies for multiple myeloma and are used off-label, are associated with substantial adverse events (AEs). Because the severity of AEs is often determined by clinicians, evaluations of treatment tolerability may not fully consider patients' own experience with treatment. Objectives:To explore the prevalence of AEs and treatment tolerability problems as reported by patients who received therapies for AL amyloidosis, and to examine the effects of AEs on treatment continuation and on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods:Patients with AL amyloidosis were recruited for this noninterventional, longitudinal, online survey. The patients responded to survey items regarding demographics, disease characteristics, most recent AL amyloidosis treatment, and HRQOL. The study analyses are based on data collected during the 6-month follow-up survey and are restricted to patients who completed the baseline and 6-month surveys and received treatment for AL amyloidosis within 6 months before the follow-up survey. Results:A total of 100 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The patients self-reported having a variety of AEs, which ranged in severity. Overall, 69.4% of patients had problems tolerating their treatment in the past 6 months, of whom 22% discontinued at least 1 therapy. In addition, approximately 33% of patients reduced their AL amyloidosis treatment because of AEs. Most often reported AEs included fatigue (83%), shortness of breath (53%), nausea (52%), and diarrhea (51%). Overall, 50% of the patients reported that their treatment was moderately well-tolerated and 41% said it was very well-tolerated. Those whose treatment was not well-tolerated had significantly worse HRQOL than patients whose treatment was well-tolerated. Conclusions:Patient-reported experiences should be considered by clinicians when making treatment-related decisions. More research is needed to explore additional factors that may contribute to treatment discontinuation in patients with AL amyloidosis.
Project description:We report results of a phase II trial of combination of melphalan, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone for the treatment of immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis. The primary objectives were tolerability and hematologic response rate; secondary objectives were organ responses and survival. Treatment protocol consisted of melphalan 5 mg/m(2)/day for four days, lenalidomide 10 mg/day for 21 days and dexamethasone 20-40 mg once a week every 28 days for a total of 12 cycles. Sixteen subjects were enrolled of whom 14 completed at least 3 cycles and were evaluable for response. Grade 3/4 toxicities were experienced by 88% (n=14), the most common being myelosuppression (n=7). Dose reductions occurred in 85% (n=12 of 14) of subjects. Hematologic partial and complete responses were achieved by 43% (n=6 of 14) and 7% (n=1 of 14), respectively. The median overall survival has not been reached and median progression-free survival is 24 months. In conclusion, this combination is associated with significant myelosuppression leading to dose modifications and producing minor hematologic responses in AL amyloidosis. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00679367.
Project description:Systemic amyloidosis is caused by misfolding and extracellular deposition of circulating proteins as amyloid fibrils, resulting in the dysfunction of vital organs. The most common systemic amyloidosis, light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, is caused by misfolded light chains produced by a small, dangerous B-cell clone. The process of amyloid formation, organ targeting, and damage is multifaceted and, after disease initiation, the complexity of the downstream pathogenic cascade increases, rendering its control a challenge. Because of the progressive nature of the disease, early diagnosis to prevent end-stage organ damage is vital. Improving awareness and systematic use of biomarkers of organ damage in screening populations at risk may improve the still unsatisfactory diagnostic process. Amyloid imaging is now emerging as an important companion of biomarkers in formulating the diagnosis and prognosis and monitoring the effects of therapy. An accurate diagnosis is the basis for appropriate therapy that is risk-adapted and response-tailored. Effective treatments targeting the clone and rapidly and profoundly reducing the amyloid light chains have produced marked improvements in overall survival, making AL amyloidosis the most successful model of all amyloidoses. New therapies targeting the amyloid deposits are now under development, together with novel agents modulating light chain aggregation and proteotoxicity. The future of AL amyloidosis treatment is combination therapy and will require an innovative collaborative model for a rapid translation from bench to bedside with the ultimate aim of achieving a cure for this complex disease.
Project description:The amyloidoses are a group of systemic diseases characterized by organ deposition of misfolded protein fragments of diverse origins. The natural history of the disease, involvement of other organs, and treatment options vary significantly based on the protein of origin. In AL amyloidosis, amyloid protein is derived from immunoglobulin light chains, and most often involves the kidneys and the heart. ATTR amyloidosis is categorized as mutant or wild-type depending on the genetic sequence of the transthyretin (TTR) protein produced by the liver. Wild-type ATTR amyloidosis mainly involves the heart, although the reported occurrence of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, spinal stenosis and biceps tendon rupture in these patients speaks to more generalized protein deposition. Mutant TTR is marked by cardiac and/or peripheral nervous system involvement. Cardiac involvement is associated with symptoms of heart failure, and dictates the clinical course of the disease. Cardiac amyloidosis can be diagnosed noninvasively by echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or nuclear scintigraphy. Endomyocardial biopsy may be needed in the case of equivocal imaging findings or discordant data. Treatment is aimed at relieving congestive symptoms and targeting the underlying amyloidogenic process. This includes anti-plasma cell therapy in AL amyloidosis, and stabilization of the TTR tetramer or inhibition of TTR protein production in ATTR amyloidosis. Cardiac transplantation can be considered in highly selected patients in tandem with therapy aimed at suppressing the amyloidogenic process, and appears associated with durable long-term survival.
Project description:Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare hematologic disorder characterized by the accumulation of a misfolded monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain (LC) as fibrillar protein deposits. Current treatments, including cytotoxic chemotherapy and immunomodulatory therapy, are directed at killing the plasma cells that produce the LCs, but have significant toxicity for other cell types. We have designed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the amyloidogenic LC messenger RNA (mRNA) in order to reduce expression of the amyloid precursor protein. Using nanomolar concentrations of siRNAs, we have inhibited synthesis of LC in transfected cells in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, in an in vivo plasmacytoma mouse model of AL amyloidosis, we have demonstrated that these siRNAs can significantly reduce local production and circulating levels of LC. This model system highlights the therapeutic potential of siRNA for AL amyloidosis.