The Effect of Nefopam Infusion during Laparascopic Cholecystectomy on Postoperative Pain.
ABSTRACT: Background: While recovery from remifentanil is fast due to its rapid metabolism, it can induce hyperalgesia by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Therefore, administration of NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine is effective in relieving hyperalgesia caused by remifentanil. A previous study showed that nefopam administration before anesthesia combined with low-dose remifentanil reduced pain and analgesic consumption during the immediate postoperative period. We hypothesized that intraoperative infusion of nefopam during laparoscopic cholecystectomy would be as effective as ketamine in controlling pain during the acute postoperative period after sevoflurane and remifentanil based anesthesia. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into three groups. General anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and effect-site target concentration of remifentanil (4 ng/ml) in all patients. An intravenous bolus of nefopam (0.3 mg/kg) was given, followed by continuous infusion (65 µg/kg/h) in Group N (n=20). An intravenous bolus of ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) was administered, followed by continuous infusion (180 µg/kg/h) in Group K (n=20), and Group C received a bolus and subsequent infusion of normal saline equal to the infusion received by Group K (n=20). We compared postoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores and analgesic requirements over the first 8 postoperative hours between groups. Results: The pain scores (VAS) and fentanyl requirements for 1 h after surgery were significantly lower in the nefopam and ketamine groups compared with the control group (p<0.05). There were no differences between the nefopam and ketamine groups. The three groups showed no differences in VAS scores and number of analgesic injections from 1 to 8 h after surgery. Conclusion: Intraoperative nefopam infusion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduced opioid requirements and pain scores (VAS) during the early postoperative period after remifentanil-based anesthesia.
Project description:Aim. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of continuous intraoperative infusion of S(+)-ketamine under intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion of remifentanil and propofol for postoperative pain control. Methods. Forty-eight patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were assigned to receive continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion at a rate of 0.3?mg·kg(-1)·h(-1) (n = 24, intervention group) or an equivalent volume of saline at the same rate (n = 24, placebo group). The same target-controlled intravenous anesthesia was induced in both groups. Pain was assessed using a 0 to 10 verbal numeric rating scale during the first 12 postoperative hours. Pain scores and morphine consumption were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 4 and 12 hours after surgery. Results. Pain scores were lower in the intervention group at all time points. Morphine consumption did not differ significantly between groups during PACU stay, but it was significantly lower in the intervention group at each time point after PACU discharge (P = 0.0061). At 12 hours after surgery, cumulative morphine consumption was also lower in the intervention group (5.200 ± 2.707) than in the placebo group (7.525 ± 1.872). Conclusions. Continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under target-controlled intravenous anesthesia provided better postoperative pain control than placebo, reducing morphine requirement. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02421913.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The two most common general anesthesia techniques are total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and venous/inhalation balanced general anesthesia (BGA). It is unclear whether any of these two techniques affect patient perception of the quality of recovery. The aim of this randomized, double-blinded clinical trial was to assess the quality of postoperative recovery of women undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. We compared patients who received TIVA with those who received BGA. We also evaluated the factors that may decrease patient-perceived quality of postoperative recovery. METHODS:We prospectively recruited 121 women aged 18-65 years who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis. These patients were randomized to receive TIVA (target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil) or BGA (continuous remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane inhalation). To measure the quality of postanesthetic and postoperative recovery, we administered the Quality of Recovery-40 (QoR-40) questionnaire 24 hours after the patient awoke from anesthesia. RESULTS:All 60 patients in the TIVA group responded to QoR-40 (median, 188 points; minimum 128; maximum 200). Sixty-one patients in the BGA group had a mean QoR-40 score of 186 points (median, 188 points; minimum 146; maximum 200). There was no significant difference in the QoR-40 score between the two groups (p = 0.577). The patients who presented postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain had worse perception of the quality of postoperative recovery. CONCLUSIONS:Both TIVA and BGA had a similar effect on the perception of the quality of postoperative recovery in women undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PONV and pain may negatively affect patient perception of the quality of postoperative recovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As a part of multimodal analgesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, both intraoperative lidocaine and esmolol facilitate postoperative analgesia. Our objective was to compare these two emerging strategies that challenge the use of intraoperative opioids. We aimed to assess if intraoperative esmolol infusion is not inferior to lidocaine infusion for opioid consumption after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS:In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority clinical trial, 90 female patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy received either intravenous (IV) lidocaine bolus 1.5?mg/kg at induction followed by an infusion (1.5?mg/ kg/h) or IV bolus of esmolol 0.5?mg/kg at induction followed by an infusion (5-15??g/kg/min) till the end of surgery. Remaining aspect of anesthesia followed a standard protocol apart from no intraoperative opioid supplementation. Postoperatively, patients received either morphine or tramadol IV to maintain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores ?3. The primary outcome was opioid consumption (in morphine equivalents) during the first 24 postoperative hours. Pain and sedation scores, time to first perception of pain and void, and occurrence of nausea/vomiting were secondary outcomes measured up to 24?h postoperatively. RESULTS:Two patients in each group were excluded from the analysis. The postoperative median (IQR) morphine equivalent consumption in patients receiving esmolol was 1 (0-1.5) mg compared to 1.5 (1-2) mg in lidocaine group (p?=?0.27). The median pain scores at various time points were similar between the two groups (p?>?0.05). More patients receiving lidocaine were sedated in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) than those receiving esmolol (p?<?0.05); however, no difference was detected later. CONCLUSION:Infusion of esmolol is not inferior to lidocaine in terms of opioid requirement and pain severity in the first 24?h after surgery. Patients receiving lidocaine were more sedated during their stay in PACU than those receiving esmolol. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov - NCT02327923. Date of registration: December 31, 2014.
Project description:Female gender has been identified as one of the risk factors closely linked to perioperative anxiety and a lower level of satisfaction. A successful preoperative anesthesia education may improve such negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative anesthesia education via an Anesthesia Service Platform (ASP) could reduce the anxiety levels in female patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, and accelerate rehabilitation. A total of 222 patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to the control group and the ASP group. Patients' baseline and post-intervention psychological status was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and General Well-Being Schedule. Pain management and recovery were assessed by VAS every 12 h for 48 h after surgery; length of stay (LOS) and postoperative analgesic consumption were also assessed. Patients in the control group experienced higher anxiety levels before surgery and had longer LOS than those in the ASP group. Patients in the ASP group had a higher general well-being score; however, they suffered more pain and consumed more analgesics after surgery. ASP is effective for preventing anxiety in female patients before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, improving patients' general well-being levels, and shortening their LOS, but negatively influences patients' postoperative pain levels.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The perioperative administration of dexmedetomidine may improve the quality of recovery (QoR) after major abdominal and spinal surgeries. We evaluated the effect of an intraoperative bolus of dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain, emergence agitation, and the QoR after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine 0.5??g/kg 5 minutes after anesthesia induction (dexmedetomidine group, n?=?45) or normal saline (control group, n?=?45). The primary outcome was the QoR at the first postoperative day using a 40-item scoring system (QoR-40). Secondary outcomes included intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, postoperative agitation, pain, and nausea and vomiting.<h4>Results</h4>The heart rate and the mean blood pressure were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group (P?<?.001 and .007, respectively). During extubation, emergence agitation was significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group (23% vs 64%, P?<?.001). The median pain scores in the post-anesthetic care unit were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group (4 [2-7] vs 5 [4-7], P?=?.034). The incidence of postoperative agitation, pain, and nausea and vomiting was not different between the groups. On the first postoperative day, recovery profile was similar between the groups. However, the scores on the emotional state and physical comfort dimensions were significantly higher in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group (P?=?.038 and .040, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>A bolus dose of dexmedetomidine after anesthesia induction may improve intraoperative hemodynamics, emergence agitation, and immediate postoperative analgesia. However, it does not affect overall QoR-40 score after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Project description:Objective Although robotic thyroidectomy (RoT) is a minimally invasive surgery, percutaneous tunneling causes moderate to severe pain immediately postoperatively. We evaluated the efficacy of ketamine for postoperative pain management in patients following RoT. Methods Sixty-four patients scheduled for RoT were randomly divided into two groups. In the ketamine group (n?=?32), ketamine was infused from induction of anaesthesia until the end of the procedure (0.15-mg/kg bolus with continuous infusion at 2?µg/kg/min). In the control group (n?=?32), the same volume of saline was infused. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for acute and chronic pain, the incidence of hypoesthesia, postoperative analgesic requirements, and complications related to opioids or ketamine were compared between the two groups. Results The VAS pain scores were significantly lower in the ketamine group up to 24 h postoperatively. The VAS pain score when coughing was significantly higher in the control group than in the ketamine group at 24 h postoperatively. A significantly greater proportion of patients in the control group required rescue analgesics. Complications were comparable in both groups. Conclusions Ketamine infusion decreased pain scores for 24 h postoperatively and reduced analgesic requirements without serious complications in patients following RoT.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01997801.
Project description:Pethidine is a synthetic opioid with local anesthetic properties. Our goal was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of pethidine for achieving the ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane (OSTAP) block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This prospective, double-blind study included 79 patients of physical status I and II according to American Society of Anesthesiologists, scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups, depending on the drug used to achieve preoperative bilateral OSTAP block: 1) OSTAP-Placebo (treated with normal saline); 2) OSTAP-Bupivacaine (treated with 0.25% bupivacaine); and 3) OSTAP-Pethidine (treated with 1% pethidine). The efficacy of pethidine in achieving the OSTAP block was analyzed using visual analog scale (VAS), intraoperative opioid dose, opioid consumption in post anesthesia care unit, and opioid consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours. The pain scores assessed by VAS at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours were significantly lower in OSTAP-Pethidine than in OSTAP-Placebo group (p < 0.001). The mean intraoperative opioid consumption was significantly lower in OSTAP-Pethidine compared to OSTAP-Placebo group (150 versus 400 mg, p < 0.001), as well as the mean opioid consumption in the first 24 hours (20.4 versus 78 mg, p < 0.001). Comparing VAS assessment between OSTAP-Bupivacaine and OSTAP-Pethidine groups, statistically significant differences were observed only for the immediate postoperative pain assessment (0 hours), where lower values were observed in OSTAP-Pethidine group (p = 0.004). There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (p = 0.131) between the groups. The use of 1% pethidine can be an alternative to 0.25% bupivacaine in achieving OSTAP block for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Project description:Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been postulated as an adjuvant analgesic for preventing remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia after surgery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the effectiveness of ketamine [racemic mixture and S-(+)-ketamine] in reducing morphine consumption and pain intensity scores after remifentanil-based general anesthesia. We performed a literature search of the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases in June 2017 and selected randomized controlled trials using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. To minimize confounding and heterogeneity, studies of NMDA receptor antagonists other than ketamine were excluded and the selected studies were grouped into those assessing minor or major surgery. Methodological quality was evaluated with the PEDro and JADA scales. The data were extracted and meta-analyses were performed where possible. Twelve RCTs involving 156 adults who underwent minor surgery and 413 adults who underwent major surgery were included in the meta-analysis. When used as an adjuvant to morphine, ketamine reduced postoperative morphine consumption in the first 24 h and postoperative pain intensity in the first 2 h in the minor and major surgery groups. It was also associated with significantly reduced pain intensity in the first 24 h in the minor surgery group. Time to the first rescue analgesia was longer in patients who received ketamine and underwent major surgery. No significant differences in the incidence of ketamine-related adverse effects were observed among patients in the intervention group and controls. This systematic review and meta-analysis show that low-dose (?0.5 mg/kg for iv bolus or ?5 ?g/kg/min for iv perfusion) of ketamine reduces postoperative morphine consumption and pain intensity without increasing the incidence of adverse effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pneumoperitoneum (PP), as used for laparoscopic procedures, impairs stroke volume, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and urine output. This study investigated whether perioperative fluid management can abolish these negative effects of PP on hemodynamics. METHODS: Twenty-one patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) were randomized into three groups: group 1 received overnight infusion and received a bolus of colloid before induction of anesthesia, followed by a bolus just before PP; group 2 received overnight infusion and a colloid bolus before anesthesia; group 3 served as controls and received only infusion during operation. All three groups received the same total amount of crystalloids and colloids until nephrectomy. Data analysis of the donor included; mean arterial pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), left ventricular ejection time (LVETc), perioperative urine output and renal function measured as the creatinine clearance (CrCl) until one-year post-operative. RESULTS: SV was significantly higher in group 1 compared to controls for all measurements. In the control group SV significantly decreased after changing from the supine to lateral position whereas there was no change in SV in both pre-hydrated groups. In all groups, MAP decreased after induction of anesthesia, and restored to pre-anesthetic values during PP. CrCl decreased in the control group during PP, but not in the other groups. From two days postoperative, CrCl was comparable between the three study groups. CONCLUSION: Overnight infusion and a bolus of colloid just before PP attenuate hemodynamic compromise from PP.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Surgical-related inflammatory responses have negative effects on postoperative recovery. Intravenous (IV) lidocaine and dexmedetomidine inhibits the inflammatory response. We investigated whether the co-administration of lidocaine and dexmedetomidine could further alleviate inflammatory responses compared with lidocaine or dexmedetomidine alone during laparoscopic hysterectomy.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 160 patients were randomly allocated into four groups following laparoscopic hysterectomy: the control group (group C) received normal saline, the lidocaine group (group L) received lidocaine (bolus infusion of 1.5?mg/kg over 10?min, 1.5?mg/kg/h continuous infusion), the dexmedetomidine group (group D) received dexmedetomidine (bolus infusion of 0.5??g/kg over 10?min, 0.4??g/kg/h continuous infusion), and the lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine group (group LD) received a combination of lidocaine (bolus infusion of 1.5?mg/kg over 10?min, 1.5?mg/kg/h continuous infusion) and dexmedetomidine (bolus infusion of 0.5??g/kg over 10?min, 0.4??g/kg/h continuous infusion). The levels of plasma interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) at different time points were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included hemodynamic variables, postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, time to first flatus, and incidence of nausea and vomiting after surgery.<h4>Results</h4>The levels of plasma IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-? were lower in groups D and LD than in group C and were lowest in group LD at the end of the procedure and 2?h after the operation (P?<?0.05). The VAS scores were decreased in groups D and LD compared with group C (P?<?0.05). The heart rate (HR) was decreased at the end of the procedure and 2?h after the operation in groups D and LD compared to groups C and L (P?<?0.001). The mean blood pressure (MBP) was lower at 2?h after the operation in groups L, D, and LD than in group C (P?<?0.001). There was a lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in group LD than in group C (P?<?0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The combination of lidocaine and dexmedetomidine significantly alleviated the inflammatory responses, decreased postoperative pain, and led to fewer PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03276533 ), registered on August 23, 2017.