Diet-induced adipose tissue expansion is mitigated in mice with a targeted inactivation of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest).
ABSTRACT: Interindividual variation of white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), a paternally-expressed imprinted gene belonging to the ?/?-hydrolase fold protein family, becomes apparent among genetically inbred mice fed high fat diet (HFD) and is positively associated with adipose tissue expansion (ATE). To elucidate a role for MEST in ATE, mice were developed with global and adipose tissue inactivation of Mest. Mice with homozygous (MestgKO) and paternal allelic (MestpKO) inactivation of Mest were born at expected Mendelian frequencies, showed no behavioral or physical abnormalities, and did not perturb expression of the Mest locus-derived microRNA miR-335. MestpKO mice fed HFD showed reduced ATE and adipocyte hypertrophy, improved glucose tolerance, and reduced WAT expression of genes associated with hypoxia and inflammation compared to littermate controls. Remarkably, caloric intake and energy expenditure were unchanged between genotypes. Mice with adipose tissue inactivation of Mest were phenotypically similar to MestpKO, supporting a role for WAT MEST in ATE. Global profiling of WAT gene expression of HFD-fed control and MestpKO mice detected few differences between genotypes; nevertheless, genes with reduced expression in MestpKO mice were associated with immune processes and consistent with improved glucose homeostasis. Ear-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EMSC) from MestgKO mice showed no differences in adipogenic differentiation compared to control cells unless challenged by shRNA knockdown of Gpat4, an enzyme that mediates lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Reduced adipogenic capacity of EMSC from MestgKO after Gpat4 knockdown suggests that MEST facilitates lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Our data suggests that reduced diet-induced ATE in MEST-deficient mice diminishes hypoxia and inflammation in WAT leading to improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Since inactivation of Mest in mice has minimal additional effects aside from reduction of ATE, an intervention that mitigates MEST function in adipocytes is a plausible strategy to obviate obesity and type-2-diabetes.
Project description:Heterogeneity of obesity within a population of inbred mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes of gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). One gene in particular with large variations among mice, mesoderm-specific transcript (Mest), has been shown to be highly inducible after being fed a short-term HFD, and its expression in WAT before HFD feeding is predictive for susceptibility to the development of obesity. To gain further insight into the association of Mest with rapid changes in body composition, 96 individually housed C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD for only 2 weeks, resulting in a 12-fold and 90-fold variation in Mest mRNA in visceral epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal WAT, respectively. WAT Mest mRNA was positively associated with interindividual variation of fat mass. Surprisingly, there was only a slight association of WAT Mest with food intake when normalized by body weight or lean mass. In addition, WAT Mest expression coincided highly with the expression of the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 14 (Klf14), an imprinted gene that regulates lipid metabolism in WAT. Our data suggest that KLF14 transcriptional activity may partially mediate, or act in concert with, MEST as part of an epigenetic mechanism that promotes fat mass accumulation in mice fed an obesogenic diet.
Project description:Highly variable expression of mesoderm-specific transcript (Mest) in adipose tissue among genetically homogeneous mice fed an obesogenic diet, and its positive association with fat mass expansion, suggests that Mest is an epigenetic determinant for the development of obesity. Although the mechanisms by which MEST augments fat accumulation in adipocytes have not been elucidated, it has sequence homology and catalytic peptide motifs which suggests that it functions as an epoxide hydrolase or as a glycerol- or acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. To better understand MEST function, detailed studies were performed to precisely define the intracellular organelle localization of MEST using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Lentiviral-mediated expression of a C-terminus Myc-DDK-tagged MEST fusion protein expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes/adipocytes, and ear-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EMSC) from mice was observed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes and is consistent with previous studies showing endogenous MEST in the membrane fraction of adipose tissue. MEST was not associated with the Golgi apparatus or mitochondria; however, frequent contacts were observed between MEST-positive ER and mitochondria. MEST-positive domains were also shown on the plasma membrane (PM) of non-permeabilized cells but they did not co-localize with ER-PM bridges. Post-adipogenic differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and EMSC showed significant co-localization of MEST with the lipid droplet surface marker perilipin at contact points between the ER and lipid droplet. Identification of MEST as an ER-specific protein that co-localizes with lipid droplets in cells undergoing adipogenic differentiation supports a function for MEST in the facilitation of lipid accumulation and storage in adipocytes.
Project description:Phaeodactylum tricornutum (P. tricornutum) comprise several lipophilic constituents with proposed anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. We investigated the effect of an ethanolic P. tricornutum extract (PTE) on energy metabolism in obesity-prone mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Six- to eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were switched to HFD and, at the same time, received orally placebo or PTE (100 mg or 300 mg/kg body weight/day). Body weight, body composition, and food intake were monitored. After 26 days, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical, morphological, and gene expression analyses. PTE-supplemented mice accumulated fucoxanthin metabolites in adipose tissues and attained lower body weight gain, body fat content, weight of white adipose tissue (WAT) depots, and inguinal WAT adipocyte size than controls, independent of decreased food intake. PTE supplementation was associated with lower expression of Mest (a marker of fat tissue expandability) in WAT depots, lower gene expression related to lipid uptake and turnover in visceral WAT, increased expression of genes key to fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis (Cpt1, Ucp1) in subcutaneous WAT, and signs of thermogenic activation including enhanced UCP1 protein in interscapular brown adipose tissue. In conclusion, these data show the potential of PTE to ameliorate HFD-induced obesity in vivo.
Project description:Brown adipocytes, which exist in brown adipose tissue (BAT), are activated by adrenergic stimulation, depending on the activity of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Beige adipocytes emerge from white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to chronic adrenergic stimulation. We investigated obesity-related changes in responses of both types of adipocytes to adrenergic stimulation in mice. Feeding of mice with high-fat diets (HFD: 45%-kcal fat) for 14 weeks resulted in significantly higher body and WAT weight compared to feeding with normal diets (ND: 10%-kcal fat). Injection with ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL; 0.1 mg/kg, once a day) for one week elevated the mRNA and protein expression levels of UCP1 in BAT, irrespective of diet. In WAT, CL-induced UCP1 expression in ND mice; however, the responses to CL treatment were attenuated in HFD mice, indicating that CL-induced browning of WAT was impaired in obese mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a significant decrease in platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) ?-expressing beige adipocyte progenitors in WAT of HFD mice compared with those of ND mice. Expression of PDGF-B, a PDGFR? ligand, increased in WAT following CL-injection in ND mice, but not in HFD mice. Treatment of mice with a PDGFR inhibitor significantly decreased CL-dependent UCP1 protein induction in WAT. Our study demonstrates that ?3-adrenergic stimulation-dependent beige adipocyte induction in WAT is impaired by obesity in mice, potentially due to obesity-dependent reduction in the number of PDGFR?-expressing progenitors and decreased PDGF-B expression.
Project description:Obesity is a growing epidemic in developed countries. Obese individuals are susceptible to comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorder. Increasing the ability of adipose tissue to expend excess energy could improve protection from obesity. One promising target is microRNA (miR)-155-5p. We demonstrate that deletion of miR-155 (-5p and -3p) in female mice prevents diet-induced obesity. Body weight gain did not differ between wild-type (WT) and miR-155 knockout (KO) mice fed control diet (CD); however, miR-155 KO mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) gained 56% less body weight and 74% less gonadal white adipose tissue (WAT) than WT mice. Enhanced WAT thermogenic potential, brown adipose tissue differentiation, and/or insulin sensitivity might underlie this obesity resistance. Indeed, miR-155 KO mice on HFD had 21% higher heat release than WT HFD mice. Compared to WT adipocytes, miR-155 KO adipocytes upregulated brown (Ucp1, Cidea, Pparg) and white (Fabp4, Pnpla2, AdipoQ, Fasn) adipogenic genes, and glucose metabolism genes (Glut4, Irs1). miR-155 deletion abrogated HFD-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and WAT inflammation. Therefore, miR-155 deletion increases adipogenic, insulin sensitivity, and energy uncoupling machinery, while limiting inflammation in WAT, which together could restrict HFD-induced fat accumulation. Our results identify miR-155 as a novel candidate target for improving obesity resistance.
Project description:Obesity-associated inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) is a causal factor of systemic insulin resistance. To better understand how adipocytes regulate WAT inflammation, the present study generated chimeric mice in which inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase was low, normal, or high in WAT while the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (Pfkfb3) was normal in hematopoietic cells, and analyzed changes in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced WAT inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in the mice. Indicated by proinflammatory signaling and cytokine expression, the severity of HFD-induced WAT inflammation in WT → Pfkfb3<sup>+/-</sup> mice, whose Pfkfb3 was disrupted in WAT adipocytes but not hematopoietic cells, was comparable with that in WT → WT mice, whose Pfkfb3 was normal in all cells. In contrast, the severity of HFD-induced WAT inflammation in WT → Adi-Tg mice, whose Pfkfb3 was over-expressed in WAT adipocytes but not hematopoietic cells, remained much lower than that in WT → WT mice. Additionally, HFD-induced insulin resistance was correlated with the status of WAT inflammation and comparable between WT → Pfkfb3<sup>+/-</sup> mice and WT → WT mice, but was significantly lower in WT → Adi-Tg mice than in WT → WT mice. In vitro, palmitoleate decreased macrophage phosphorylation states of Jnk p46 and Nfkb p65 and potentiated the effect of interleukin 4 on suppressing macrophage proinflammatory activation. Taken together, these results suggest that the Pfkfb3 in adipocytes functions to suppress WAT inflammation. Moreover, the role played by adipocyte Pfkfb3 is attributable to, at least in part, palmitoleate promotion of macrophage anti-inflammatory activation.
Project description:Obesity-associated inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) is a causal factor of systemic insulin resistance; however, precisely how immune cells regulate WAT inflammation in relation to systemic insulin resistance remains to be elucidated. The present study examined a role for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in hematopoietic cells in regulating WAT inflammation and systemic insulin sensitivity. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) for 12 weeks and examined for WAT inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2) content, while additional HFD-fed mice were treated with rosiglitazone and examined for PFKFB3 mRNAs in WAT stromal vascular cells (SVC). Also, chimeric mice in which PFKFB3 was disrupted only in hematopoietic cells and control chimeric mice were also fed an HFD and examined for HFD-induced WAT inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. In vitro, adipocytes were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived macrophages and examined for adipocyte proinflammatory responses and insulin signaling. Compared with their respective levels in controls, WAT iPFK2 amount in HFD-fed mice and WAT SVC PFKFB3 mRNAs in rosiglitazone-treated mice were significantly increased. When the inflammatory responses were analyzed, peritoneal macrophages from PFKFB3-disrputed mice revealed increased proinflammatory activation and decreased anti-inflammatory activation compared with control macrophages. At the whole animal level, hematopoietic cell-specific PFKFB3 disruption enhanced the effects of HFD feeding on promoting WAT inflammation, impairing WAT insulin signaling, and increasing systemic insulin resistance. In vitro, adipocytes co-cultured with PFKFB3-disrupted macrophages revealed increased proinflammatory responses and decreased insulin signaling compared with adipocytes co-cultured with control macrophages. These results suggest that PFKFB3 disruption in hematopoietic cells only exacerbates HFD-induced WAT inflammation and systemic insulin resistance.
Project description:Brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat and hence have an important therapeutic capacity for obesity. Development of brown-like adipocytes (also called beige) is also another attractive target for obesity treatment. Here, we investigated the effect of farnesol, an isoprenoid, on adipogenesis in adipocytes and on the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) as well as on the weight gain of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Farnesol inhibited adipogenesis and the related key regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? through the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). Farnesol markedly increased the expression of uncoupling protein 1 and PPAR? coactivator 1 ? in differentiated hAMSCs. In addition, farnesol limited the weight gain in HFD obese mice and induced the development of beige adipocytes in both inguinal and epididymal WAT. These results suggest that farnesol could be a potential therapeutic agent for obesity treatment.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Genome-wide association studies identified ORMDL3 as an obesity-related gene, and its expression was negatively correlated with body mass index. However, the precise biological roles of ORMDL3 in obesity and lipid metabolism remain uncharacterized. Here, we investigate the function of ORMDL3 in adipose tissue thermogenesis and high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance.<h4>Methods</h4>Ormdl3-deficient (Ormdl3<sup>-/-</sup>) mice were employed to delineate the function of ORMDL3 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Glucose and lipid homeostasis in Ormdl3<sup>-/-</sup> mice fed a HFD were assessed. The lipid composition in adipose tissue was evaluated by mass spectrometry. Primary adipocytes in culture were used to determine the mechanism by which ORMDL3 regulates white adipose browning.<h4>Results</h4>BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning were significantly impaired in Ormdl3<sup>-/-</sup> mice upon cold exposure or administration with the β3 adrenergic agonist. In addition, compared to WT mice, Ormdl3<sup>-/-</sup> mice displayed increased weight gain and insulin resistance in response to HFD. The induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a marker of thermogenesis, was attenuated in primary adipocytes derived from Ormdl3<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Importantly, ceramide levels were elevated in the adipose tissue of Ormdl3<sup>-/-</sup> mice. In addition, the reduction in thermogenesis and increase in body weight caused by Ormdl3 deficiency could be rescued by inhibiting the production of ceramides.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings suggest that ORMDL3 contributes to the regulation of BAT thermogenesis, WAT browning, and insulin resistance.
Project description:While the main function of white adipose tissue (WAT) is to store surplus of energy as triacylglycerol, that of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is to burn energy as heat. Epigenetic mechanisms participate prominently in both WAT and BAT energy metabolism. We previously reported that the histone demethylase ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide (<i>Utx</i>) is a positive regulator of brown adipocyte thermogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate whether <i>Utx</i> also regulates WAT metabolism in vivo. We generated a mouse model with <i>Utx</i> deficiency in adipocytes (AUTXKO). AUTXKO animals fed a chow diet had higher body weight, more fat mass and impaired glucose tolerance. AUTXKO mice also exhibited cold intolerance with an impaired brown fat thermogenic program. When challenged with high-fat diet (HFD), AUTXKO mice displayed adipose dysfunction featured by suppressed lipogenic pathways, exacerbated inflammation and fibrosis with less fat storage in adipose tissues and more lipid storage in the liver; as a result, AUTXKO mice showed a disturbance in whole body glucose homeostasis and hepatic steatosis. Our data demonstrate that <i>Utx</i> deficiency in adipocytes limits adipose tissue expansion under HFD challenge and induces metabolic dysfunction via adipose tissue remodeling. We conclude that adipocyte <i>Utx</i> is a key regulator of systemic metabolic homeostasis.