Evidence for a new viral late-domain core sequence, FPIV, necessary for budding of a paramyxovirus.
ABSTRACT: Enveloped virus budding has been linked to both the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the vacuolar protein-sorting pathway of cells. We show here for the paramyxovirus SV5 that proteasome inhibitors and expression of dominant-negative VPS4(E228Q) ATPase blocks budding. The SV5 matrix (M) protein lacks previously defined late domains (e.g., P[T/S]AP, PPxY, YPDL) that recruit cellular factors. We identified a new motif for budding (core sequence FPIV) that can compensate functionally for lack of a PTAP late domain in budding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Mutagenesis experiments suggest the more general sequence O-P-x-V. The proline residue was found to be critically important for function of this sequence, as substitution of this proline in the SV5 M protein resulted in poor budding of SV5 VLPs and failure of recombinant SV5 virus to replicate normally. Adaptation of mutant virus occurred rapidly, resulting in new proline residues elsewhere in the M protein. We hypothesize that these proline residues act to partially restore virus budding by generation of new motifs that act as suboptimal late domains.
Project description:The release of enveloped viruses from infected cells often requires a virally encoded activity, termed a late-budding domain (L domain), encoded by essential PTAP, PPXY, or YPDL sequence motifs. PTAP-type L domains recruit one of three endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-I). However, subsequent events in viral budding are poorly defined, and neither YPDL nor PPXY-type L domains require ESCRT-I. Here, we show that ESCRT-I and other class E vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) factors are linked by a complex series of protein-protein interactions. In particular, interactions between ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III are bridged by AIP-1/ALIX, a mammalian orthologue of the yeast class E VPS factor, Bro1. Expression of certain ESCRT-III components as fusion proteins induces a late budding defect that afflicts all three L-domain types, suggesting that ESCRT-III integrity is required in a general manner. Notably, the prototype YPDL-type L domain encoded by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) acts by recruiting AIP-1/ALIX and expression of a truncated form of AIP-1/ALIX or small interfering RNA-induced AIP-1/ALIX depletion specifically inhibits EIAV YPDL-type L-domain function. Overall, these findings indicate that L domains subvert a subset of class E VPS factors to mediate viral budding, some of which are required for each of the L-domain types, whereas others apparently act as adaptors to physically link specific L-domain types to the class E VPS machinery.
Project description:Matrix (M) proteins reportedly direct the budding of paramyxoviruses from infected cells. In order to begin to characterize the assembly process for the highly lethal, emerging paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV), we have examined the budding of NiV M. We demonstrated that expression of the NiV M protein is sufficient to produce budding virus-like particles (VLPs) that are physically and morphologically similar to NiV. We identified in NiV M a sequence, YMYL, with similarity to the YPDL late domain found in the equine infectious anemia virus Gag protein. When the YMYL within NiV M was mutated, VLP release was abolished and M was relocalized to the nucleus, but the mutant M proteins retained oligomerization activity. When YMYL was fused to a late-domain mutant of the Ebola virus VP40 matrix protein, VP40 budding was restored. These results suggest that the YMYL sequence may act as a trafficking signal and a late domain for NiV M.
Project description:Virus-host interactions play key roles in promoting efficient egress of many RNA viruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV or "e") and Marburg virus (MARV or "m"). Late- (L-) domains conserved in viral matrix proteins recruit specific host proteins, such as Tsg101 and Nedd4, to facilitate the budding process. These interactions serve as attractive targets for the development of broad-spectrum budding inhibitors. A major gap still exists in our understanding of the mechanism of filovirus budding due to the difficulty in detecting virus-host complexes and mapping their trafficking patterns in the natural environment of the cell. To address this gap, we used a bimolecular complementation (BiMC) approach to detect, localize, and follow the trafficking patterns of eVP40-Tsg101 complexes in live mammalian cells. In addition, we used the BiMC approach along with a VLP budding assay to test small molecule inhibitors identified by in silico screening for their ability to block eVP40 PTAP-mediated interactions with Tsg101 and subsequent budding of eVP40 VLPs. We demonstrated the potential broad spectrum activity of a lead candidate inhibitor by demonstrating its ability to block PTAP-dependent binding of HIV-1 Gag to Tsg101 and subsequent egress of HIV-1 Gag VLPs.
Project description:Enveloped viruses are released from infected cells after coalescence of viral components at cellular membranes and budding of membranes to release particles. For some negative-strand RNA viruses (e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus and Ebola virus), the viral matrix (M) protein contains all of the information needed for budding, since virus-like particles (VLPs) are efficiently released from cells when the M protein is expressed from cDNA. To investigate the requirements for budding of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5), its M protein was expressed in mammalian cells, and it was found that SV5 M protein alone could not induce vesicle budding and was not secreted from cells. Coexpression of M protein with the viral hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) or fusion (F) glycoproteins also failed to result in significant VLP release. It was found that M protein in the form of VLPs was only secreted from cells, with an efficiency comparable to authentic virus budding, when M protein was coexpressed with one of the two glycoproteins, HN or F, together with the nucleocapsid (NP) protein. The VLPs appeared similar morphologically to authentic virions by electron microscopy. CsCl density gradient centrifugation indicated that almost all of the NP protein in the cells had assembled into nucleocapsid-like structures. Deletion of the F and HN cytoplasmic tails indicated an important role of these cytoplasmic tails in VLP budding. Furthermore, truncation of the HN cytoplasmic tail was found to be inhibitory toward budding, since it prevented coexpressed wild-type (wt) F protein from directing VLP budding. Conversely, truncation of the F protein cytoplasmic tail was not inhibitory and did not affect the ability of coexpressed wt HN protein to direct the budding of particles. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple viral components, including assembled nucleocapsids, have important roles in the paramyxovirus budding process.
Project description:Ebola virus budding is mediated by two proline-rich motifs, PPxY and PTAP, within the viral matrix protein VP40. We have previously shown that a Nedd4-like protein BUL1, but not Nedd4, positively regulates budding of type D retrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (J. Yasuda, E. Hunter, M. Nakao, and H. Shida, EMBO Rep. 3:636-640, 2002). Here, we report that the cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 regulates budding of VP40-induced virus-like particles (VLPs) through interaction with the PPxY motif. Mutation of the active site cysteine (C894A), resulting in abrogation of ubiquitin ligase activity, impaired the function of Nedd4 on budding. In addition, the WW domains of Nedd4 are essential for binding to the viral PPxY motif, and a small fragment of Nedd4 containing only WW domains significantly inhibited Ebola VLP budding in a dominant-negative manner. Our findings suggest that the viruses containing PPxY as an L-domain motif specifically use E3 in the process of virus budding. We also examined the effects of overexpression of Tsg101 and its mutant. As expected, Tsg101 enhanced VP40-induced VLP release, and TsgDeltaC, which lacks its C-terminal half, inhibited VLP release. These results indicate that Nedd4, together with Tsg101, plays an important role in Ebola virus budding.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Late assembly (L)-domains are protein interaction motifs, whose dysfunction causes characteristic budding defects in enveloped viruses. Three different amino acid motifs, namely PT/SAP, PPXY and YPX(n)L have been shown to play a major role in the release of exogenous retroviruses. Although the L-domains of exogenous retroviruses have been studied comprehensively, little is known about these motifs in endogenous human retroviruses. RESULTS: Using a molecular clone of the human endogenous retrovirus K113 that had been engineered to reverse the presumed non-synonymous postinsertional mutations in the major genes, we identified three functional L-domains of the virus, all located in the Gag p15 protein. A consensus PTAP tetrapeptide serves as the core of a main L-domain for the virus and its inactivation reduces virus release in HEK 293T cells by over 80%. Electron microscopy of cells expressing the PTAP mutant revealed predominantly late budding structures and budding chains at the plasma membrane. The fact that this motif determines subcellular colocalization with Tsg101, an ESCRT-I complex protein known to bind to the core tetrapeptide, supports its role as an L-domain. Moreover, two YPX(n)L motifs providing additional L-domain function were identified in the p15 protein. One is adjacent to the PTAP sequence and the other is in the p15 N-terminus. Mutations in either motif diminishes virus release and induces an L-domain phenotype while inactivation of all three L-domains results in a complete loss of particle release in HEK 293T cells. The flexibility of the virus in the use of L-domains for gaining access to the ESCRT machinery is demonstrated by overexpression of Tsg101 which rescues the release of the YPX(n)L mutants. Similarly, overexpression of Alix not only enhances release of the PTAP mutant by a factor of four but also the release of a triple mutant, indicating that additional cryptic YPX(n)L domains with a low affinity for Alix may be present. No L-domain activity is provided by the proline-rich peptides at the Gag C-terminus. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that HERV-K(HML-2) release is predominantly mediated through a consensus PTAP motif and two auxiliary YPX(n)L motifs in the p15 protein of the Gag precursor.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The equine infection anemia virus (EIAV) p9 Gag protein contains the late (L-) domain required for efficient virus release of nascent virions from the cell membrane of infected cell. RESULTS: In the present study the p9 protein and N- and C-terminal fragments (residues 1-21 and 22-51, respectively) were chemically synthesized and used for structural analyses. Circular dichroism and 1H-NMR spectroscopy provide the first molecular insight into the secondary structure and folding of this 51-amino acid protein under different solution conditions. Qualitative 1H-chemical shift and NOE data indicate that in a pure aqueous environment p9 favors an unstructured state. In its most structured state under hydrophobic conditions, p9 adopts a stable helical structure within the C-terminus. Quantitative NOE data further revealed that this alpha-helix extends from Ser-27 to Ser-48, while the N-terminal residues remain unstructured. The structural elements identified for p9 differ substantially from that of the functional homologous HIV-1 p6 protein. CONCLUSIONS: These structural differences are discussed in the context of the different types of L-domains regulating distinct cellular pathways in virus budding. EIAV p9 mediates virus release by recruiting the ALG2-interacting protein X (ALIX) via the YPDL-motif to the site of virus budding, the counterpart of the YPXnL-motif found in p6. However, p6 contains an additional PTAP L-domain that promotes HIV-1 release by binding to the tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101). The notion that structures found in p9 differ form that of p6 further support the idea that different mechanisms regulate binding of ALIX to primary versus secondary L-domains types.
Project description:Previous work has demonstrated that the V protein of simian virus 5 (SV5) targets STAT1 for proteasome-mediated degradation (thereby blocking interferon [IFN] signaling) in human but not in murine cells. In murine BF cells, SV5 establishes a low-grade persistent infection in which the virus fluxes between active and repressed states in response to local production of IFN. Upon passage of persistently infected BF cells, virus mutants were selected that were better able to replicate in murine cells than the parental W3 strain of SV5 (wild type [wt]). Viruses with mutations in the Pk region of the N-terminal domain of the V protein came to predominate the population of viruses carried in the persistently infected cell cultures. One of these mutant viruses, termed SV5 mci-2, was isolated. Sequence analysis of the V/P gene of SV5 mci-2 revealed two nucleotide differences compared to wt SV5, only one of which resulted in an amino acid substitution (asparagine [N], residue 100, to aspartic acid [D]) in V. Unlike the protein of wt SV5, the V protein of SV5 mci-2 blocked IFN signaling in murine cells. Since the SV5 mci-2 virus had additional mutations in genes other than the V/P gene, a recombinant virus (termed rSV5-V/P N(100)D) was constructed that contained this substitution alone within the wt SV5 backbone to evaluate what effect the asparagine-to-aspartic-acid substitution in V had on the virus phenotype. In contrast to wt SV5, rSV5-V/P N(100)D blocked IFN signaling in murine cells. Furthermore, rSV5-V/P N(100)D virus protein synthesis in BF cells continued for significantly longer periods than that for wt SV5. However, even in cells infected with rSV5-V/P N(100)D, there was a late, but significant, inhibition in virus protein synthesis. Nevertheless, there was an increase in virus yield from BF cells infected with rSV5-V/P N(100)D compared to wt SV5, demonstrating a clear selective advantage to SV5 in being able to block IFN signaling in these cells.
Project description:The membrane scission event that separates nascent enveloped virions from host cell membranes often requires the ESCRT pathway, which can be engaged through the action of peptide motifs, termed late (L-) domains, in viral proteins. Viral PTAP and YPDL-like L-domains bind directly to the ESCRT-I and ALIX components of the ESCRT pathway, while PPxY motifs bind Nedd4-like, HECT-domain containing, ubiquitin ligases (e.g. WWP1). It has been unclear precisely how ubiquitin ligase recruitment ultimately leads to particle release. Here, using a lysine-free viral Gag protein derived from the prototypic foamy virus (PFV), where attachment of ubiquitin to Gag can be controlled, we show that several different HECT domains can replace the WWP1 HECT domain in chimeric ubiquitin ligases and drive budding. Moreover, artificial recruitment of isolated HECT domains to Gag is sufficient to stimulate budding. Conversely, the HECT domain becomes dispensable if the other domains of WWP1 are directly fused to an ESCRT-1 protein. In each case where budding is driven by a HECT domain, its catalytic activity is essential, but Gag ubiquitination is dispensable, suggesting that ubiquitin ligation to trans-acting proteins drives budding. Paradoxically, however, we also demonstrate that direct fusion of a ubiquitin moiety to the C-terminus of PFV Gag can also promote budding, suggesting that ubiquitination of Gag can substitute for ubiquitination of trans-acting proteins. Depletion of Tsg101 and ALIX inhibits budding that is dependent on ubiquitin that is fused to Gag, or ligated to trans-acting proteins through the action of a PPxY motif. These studies underscore the flexibility in the ways that the ESCRT pathway can be engaged, and suggest a model in which the identity of the protein to which ubiquitin is attached is not critical for subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding components of the ESCRT pathway and viral budding to proceed.
Project description:For many enveloped viruses, cellular multivesicular body (MVB) sorting machinery has been reported to be utilized for efficient viral budding. Matrix and Gag proteins have been shown to contain one or two L-domain motifs (PPxY, PT/SAP, YPDL, and FPIV), some of which interact specifically with host cellular proteins involved in MVB sorting, which are recruited to the viral budding site. However, for many enveloped viruses, L-domain motifs have not yet been identified and the involvement of MVB sorting machinery in viral budding is still unknown. Here we show that both Sendai virus (SeV) matrix protein M and accessory protein C contribute to virus budding by physically interacting with Alix/AIP1. A YLDL sequence within the M protein showed L-domain activity, and its specific interaction with the N terminus of Alix/AIP1(1-211) was important for the budding of virus-like particles (VLPs) of M protein. In addition, M-VLP budding was inhibited by the overexpression of some deletion mutant forms of Alix/AIP1 and depletion of endogenous Alix/AIP1 with specific small interfering RNAs. The YLDL sequence was not replaceable by other L-domain motifs, such as PPxY and PT/SAP, and even YPxL. C protein was also able to physically interact with the N terminus of Alix/AIP1(212-357) and enhanced M-VLP budding independently of M-Alix/AIP1 interaction, although it was not released from the transfected cells itself. Our results suggest that the interaction of multiple viral proteins with Alix/AIP1 may enhance the efficiency of the utilization of cellular MVB sorting machinery for efficient SeV budding.