Interactome analysis of gene expression profiles of cervical cancer reveals dysregulated mitotic gene clusters.
ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. HPV infections are the leading cause of cervical cancer. Although progress has been made in understanding cervical cancer, knowledge of oncogenic gene clusters that participate in squamous-cell mitosis is still lacking. We performed a computational analysis with qRT-PCR validation of gene expression profiles of cervical cancer tissues. Genes involved in muscle contraction and development were downregulated in cervical cancer tissues, suggesting decreased muscle function in cervical cancer. Among the genes that were upregulated in cervical cancer tissues, several groups of genes were found to interact with each other and synergistically participate in multiple stages of mitosis including DNA replication, cell cycle progression, and cell division. An analysis of gene regulatory networks showed that replicative helicase proteins (MCM2, MCM4, MCM5, MCM6, and MCM10) and DNA polymerases (PLOA1/E2/E3/Q) have enhanced DNA replication in cervical cancer. A group of kinases, cyclins, and transcriptional factors were found to promote cell cycle transitions from G1 phase to S phase and from G2 phase to M phase. Those proteins included CDK1, CCNA2, CCNB2, and TFDP2. Moreover, a set of motor proteins (KIF11, KIF14 and KIF4A) and their partner PRC1 were found to mediate cytokinesis during cervical cancer progression. Those findings present a better understanding of the mechanism of mitosis in cervical cancer from an interactomic perspective and provide potential targets for anticancer therapies.
Project description:Kinesins play an important role in many physiological functions including intracellular vesicle transport and mitosis. The emerging role of kinesins in different cancers led us to investigate the expression and functional role of kinesins in meningioma. Therefore, we re-analyzed our previous microarray dataset of benign, atypical, and anaplastic meningiomas (n = 62) and got evidence for differential expression of five kinesins (KIFC1, KIF4A, KIF11, KIF14 and KIF20A). Further validation in an extended study sample (n = 208) revealed a significant upregulation of these genes in WHO°I to °III meningiomas (WHO°I n = 61, WHO°II n = 88, and WHO°III n = 59), which was most pronounced in clinically more aggressive tumors of the same WHO grade. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed a WHO grade-associated upregulated protein expression in meningioma tissues. Furthermore, high mRNA expression levels of KIFC1, KIF11, KIF14 and KIF20A were associated with shorter progression-free survival. On a functional level, knockdown of kinesins in Ben-Men-1 cells and in the newly established anaplastic meningioma cell line NCH93 resulted in a significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation upon siRNA-mediated downregulation of KIF11 in both cell lines by up to 95% and 71%, respectively. Taken together, in this study we were able to identify the prognostic and functional role of several kinesin family members of which KIF11 exhibits the most promising properties as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target, which may offer new treatment options for aggressive meningiomas.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Kinesin superfamily (KIFs) has a long-reported significant influence on the initiation, development, and progress of breast cancer. However, the prognostic value of whole family members was poorly done. Our study intends to demonstrate the value of kinesin superfamily members as prognostic biomarkers as well as a therapeutic target of breast cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were done using data from TCGA, GEO, METABRIC, and GTEx. LASSO regression was done to select tumor-related members. Nomogram was constructed to predict the overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients. Expression profiles were testified by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Transcription factor, GO and KEGG enrichments were done to explore regulatory mechanism and functions.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 20 differentially expressed KIFs were identified between breast cancer and normal tissue with 4 (KIF17, KIF26A, KIF7, KIFC3) downregulated and 16 (KIF10, KIF11, KIF14, KIF15, KIF18A, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF20B, KIF22, KIF23, KIF24, KIF26B, KIF2C, KIF3B, KIF4A, KIFC1) overexpressed. Among which, 11 overexpressed KIFs (KIF10, KIF11, KIF14, KIF15, KIF18A, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF23, KIF2C, KIF4A, KIFC1) significantly correlated with worse OS, relapse-free survival (RFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) of breast cancer. A 6-KIFs-based risk score (KIF10, KIF15, KIF18A, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF4A) was generated by LASSO regression with a nomogram validated an accurate predictive efficacy. Both mRNA and protein expression of KIFs are experimentally demonstrated upregulated in breast cancer patients. Msh Homeobox 1 (MSX1) was identified as transcription factors of KIFs in breast cancer. GO and KEGG enrichments revealed functions and pathways affected in breast cancer.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Overexpression of tumor-related KIFs correlate with worse outcomes of breast cancer patients and can work as potential prognostic biomarkers.
Project description:Microtubule (MT)-based motor proteins, kinesins and dyneins, play important roles in multiple cellular processes including cell division. In this study, we describe the generation and use of an Escherichia coli RNase III-prepared human kinesin/dynein esiRNA library to systematically analyze the functions of all human kinesin/dynein MT motor proteins. Our results indicate that at least 12 kinesins are involved in mitosis and cytokinesis. Eg5 (a member of the kinesin-5 family), Kif2A (a member of the kinesin-13 family), and KifC1 (a member of the kinesin-14 family) are crucial for spindle formation; KifC1, MCAK (a member of the kinesin-13 family), CENP-E (a member of the kinesin-7 family), Kif14 (a member of the kinesin-3 family), Kif18 (a member of the kinesin-8 family), and Kid (a member of the kinesin-10 family) are required for chromosome congression and alignment; Kif4A and Kif4B (members of the kinesin-4 family) have roles in anaphase spindle dynamics; and Kif4A, Kif4B, MKLP1, and MKLP2 (members of the kinesin-6 family) are essential for cytokinesis. Using immunofluorescence analysis, time-lapse microscopy, and rescue experiments, we investigate the roles of these 12 kinesins in detail.
Project description:KIF14 is a microtubule motor protein whose elevated expression is associated with poor-prognosis breast cancer. Here we demonstrate KIF14 accumulation in mitotic cells, where it associated with developing spindle poles and spindle microtubules. Cells at later stages of mitosis were characterized by the concentration of KIF14 at the midbody. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that strong RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of KIF14 induced cytokinesis failure, causing several rounds of endoreduplication and resulting in multinucleated cells. Additionally, less efficacious KIF14-specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) induced multiple phenotypes, all of which resulted in acute apoptosis. Our data demonstrate the ability of siRNA-mediated silencing to generate epiallelic hypomorphs associated with KIF14 depletion. Furthermore, the link we observed between siRNA efficacy and phenotypic outcome indicates that distinct stages during cell cycle progression are disrupted by the differential modulation of KIF14 expression.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most common cancer type in females, and exploring the mechanisms of disease progression is playing a crucial role in the development of potential therapeutics. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) family members are well documented to be involved in cell-cycle regulation and mitosis, and contribute to cancer development by their involvement in cellular transformation in several tumor types. The critical roles of PTTG family members as crucial transcription factors in diverse types of cancers are recognized, but how they regulate breast cancer development still remains mostly unknown. Meanwhile, a holistic genetic analysis exploring whether PTTG family members regulate breast cancer progression via the cell cycle as well as the energy metabolism-related network is lacking. To comprehensively understand the messenger RNA expression profiles of PTTG proteins in breast cancer, we herein conducted a high-throughput screening approach by integrating information from various databases such as Oncomine, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, Metacore, ClueGo, and CluePedia. These useful databases and tools provide expression profiles and functional analyses. The present findings revealed that PTTG1 and PTTG3 are two important genes with high expressions in breast cancer relative to normal breast cells, implying their unique roles in breast cancer progression. Results of our coexpression analysis demonstrated that PTTG family genes were positively correlated with thiamine triphosphate (TTP), deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) metabolic, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and cell-cycle related pathways. Meanwhile, through Cytoscape analyzed indicated that in addition to the metastasis markers AURKA, AURKB, and NDC80, many of the kinesin superfamily (KIF) members including KIFC1, KIF2C, KIF4A, KIF14, KIF20A, KIF23, were also correlated with PTTG family transcript expression. Finally, we revealed that high levels of PTTG1 and PTTG3 transcription predicted poor survival, which provided useful insights into prospective research of cancer associated with the PTTG family. Therefore, these members of the PTTG family would serve as distinct and essential prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer.
Project description:KIF14 (kinesin family member 14) is a mitotic kinesin and an important oncogene in several cancers. Tumor KIF14 expression levels are independently predictive of poor outcome, and in cancer cells KIF14 can modulate metastatic behavior by maintaining appropriate levels of cell adhesion and migration proteins at the cell membrane. Thus KIF14 is an exciting potential therapeutic target. Understanding KIF14's regulation in cancer cells is crucial to the development of effective and selective therapies to block its tumorigenic function(s). We previously determined that close to 30% of serous ovarian cancers (OvCa tumors) exhibit low-level genomic gain, indicating one mechanism of KIF14 overexpression in tumors. We now report on transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of KIF14. Through promoter deletion analyses, we identified one cis-regulatory region containing binding sites for Sp1, HSF1 and YY1. siRNA-mediated knockdown of these transcription factors demonstrated endogenous regulation of KIF14 overexpression by Sp1 and YY1, but not HSF1. ChIP experiments confirmed an enrichment of both Sp1 and YY1 binding to the endogenous KIF14 promoter in OvCa cell lines with high KIF14 expression. A strong correlation was seen in primary serous OvCa tumors between Sp1, YY1 and KIF14 expression, further evidence that these transcription factors are important players in KIF14 overexpression. Hypomethylation patterns were observed in primary serous OvCa tumors, suggesting a minor role for promoter methylation in the control of KIF14 gene expression. miRNA expression analysis determined that miR-93, miR-144 and miR-382 had significantly lower levels of expression in primary serous OvCa tumors than normal tissues; treatment of an OvCa cell line with miRNA mimics and inhibitors specifically modulated KIF14 mRNA levels, pointing to potential novel mechanisms of KIF14 overexpression in primary tumors. Our findings reveal multiple mechanisms of KIF14 upregulation in cancer cells, offering new targets for therapeutic interventions to reduce KIF14 in tumors, aiming at improved prognosis.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. The mechanism underlying tumorigenesis and development of PCa is largely unknown. Here, we identified Kinesin family member 14 (KIF14) as a novel candidate oncogene in PCa. We found that KIF14 was overexpressed in multiple PCa cell lines and primary PCa tissues. Knockdown of KIF14 in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing demonstrated that KIF4 suppression led to transcriptional changes of genes involved in p53 and TGF-beta signaling pathway. In addition, upregulated expression of GADD45A, GADD45B, p21, PIDD and Shisa5, which contribute to growth arrest and apoptosis induction, and downregulated CCNB1 that promotes cell cycle progression were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR after KIF4 knockdown. We further found that KIF14 protein level was positively correlated with T stage and Gleason Score. Patients with higher KIF14 expression had shorter overall survival time than those with lower KIF14 expression. Thus, our data indicate that KIF14 could act as a potential oncogene that contributes to tumor progression and poor prognosis in PCa, which may represent a novel and useful prognostic biomarker for PCa.
Project description:Background:With characteristic self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have a crucial influence on the metastasis, relapse and drug resistance of gastric cancer (GC). However, the genes that participates in the stemness of GC stem cells have not been identified. Methods:The mRNA expression-based stemness index (mRNAsi) was analyzed with differential expressions in GC. The weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was utilized to build a co-expression network targeting differentially expressed genes (DEG) and discover mRNAsi-related modules and genes. We assessed the association between the key genes at both the transcription and protein level. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was used to validate the expression levels of the key genes. The risk model was established according to the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis. Furthermore, we determined the prognostic value of the model by employing Kaplan-Meier (KM) plus multivariate Cox analysis. Results:GC tissues exhibited a substantially higher mRNAsi relative to the healthy non-tumor tissues. Based on WGCNA, 17 key genes (ARHGAP11A, BUB1, BUB1B, C1orf112, CENPF, KIF14, KIF15, KIF18B, KIF4A, NCAPH, PLK4, RACGAP1, RAD54L, SGO2, TPX2, TTK, and XRCC2) were identified. These key genes were clearly overexpressed in GC and validated in the GEO database. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network as assessed by STRING indicated that the key genes were tightly connected. After LASSO analysis, a nine-gene risk model (BUB1B, NCAPH, KIF15, RAD54L, KIF18B, KIF4A, TTK, SGO2, C1orf112) was constructed. The overall survival in the high-risk group was relatively poor. The area under curve (AUC) of risk score was higher compared to that of clinicopathological characteristics. According to the multivariate Cox analysis, the nine-gene risk model was a predictor of disease outcomes in GC patients (HR, 7.606; 95% CI, 3.037-19.051; P < 0.001). We constructed a prognostic nomogram with well-fitted calibration curve based on risk score and clinical data. Conclusion:The 17 mRNAsi-related key genes identified in this study could be potential treatment targets in GC treatment, considering that they can inhibit the stemness properties. The nine-gene risk model can be employed to predict the disease outcomes of the patients.
Project description:Kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A) was found to be implicated in the regulation of chromosome condensation and segregation during mitotic cell division, which is essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation. However, little is known about the role of KIF4A in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study explored the biological function of KIF4A in CRC progression and investigated the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we found that KIF4A was remarkably upregulated in primary CRC tissues and cell lines compared with paired non-cancerous tissues and normal colorectal epithelium. Elevated expression of KIF4A in CRC tissues was significantly correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in patients as well as with shorter overall and disease-free cumulative survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that KIF4A was an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in human CRC patients. Functional assays, including a CCK-8 cell proliferation assay, colony formation analysis, cancer xenografts in nude mice, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis, indicated that KIF4A obviously enhanced cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, gene set enrichment analysis, Luciferase reporter assays, and ChIP assays revealed that KIF4A facilitates cell proliferation via regulating the p21 promoter, whereas KIF4A had no effect on cell apoptosis. In addition, Transwell analysis indicated that KIF4A promotes migration and invasion in CRC. Taken together, these findings not only demonstrate that KIF4A contributes to CRC proliferation via modulation of p21-mediated cell cycle progression but also suggest the potential value of KIF4A as a clinical prognostic marker and target for molecular treatments.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and the molecular pathogenesis and development of HCC are largely unknown. In the present study, we found that KIF4A expression was upregulated in HCC (678 samples, P?=?2.03E-8) based on a meta-analysis of Oncomine database. We further confirmed that both KIF4A mRNA and protein expressions were overexpressed in human HCC tumour tissues as well as cancer cell lines. Higher KIF4A expression was correlated with poorer overall survival (P?<?0.0001) and disease-free survival (P?<?0.0337) in HCC patients. We constructed in vitro KIF4A overexpression and depletion HCC cell models. KIF4A overexpression significantly enhanced cellular proliferation and clonogenic abilities, whereas KIF4A depletion caused a dramatic increase of cells with abnormal chromosome segregation and subsequently resulted in augmentation of apoptosis in HCC cells. In addition, we demonstrated that KIF4A depletion was related to inhibition of Akt kinase activity and induction of intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway. Taken together, KIF4A may act as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in human HCC.