Maturational Patterns of Systolic Ventricular Deformation Mechanics by Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Preterm Infants over the First Year of Age.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the maturational changes in systolic ventricular strain mechanics by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in extremely preterm neonates from birth to 1 year of age and discern the impact of common cardiopulmonary abnormalities on the deformation measures. METHODS:In a prospective multicenter study of 239 extremely preterm infants (<29 weeks gestation at birth), left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSRs), interventricular septal wall (IVS) GLS and GLSRs, right ventricular (RV) free wall longitudinal strain and strain rate, and segmental longitudinal strain in the RV free wall, LV free wall, and IVS were serially measured on days 1, 2, and 5 to 7, at 32 and 36 weeks postmenstrual age, and at 1 year corrected age (CA). Premature infants who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia or had echocardiographic findings of pulmonary hypertension were analyzed separately. RESULTS:In uncomplicated preterm infants (n = 103 [48%]), LV GLS and GLSRs remained unchanged from days 5 to 7 to 1 year CA (P = .60 and P = .59). RV free wall longitudinal strain, RV free wall longitudinal strain rate, and IVS GLS and GLSRs significantly increased over the same time period (P < .01 for all measures). A significant base-to-apex (highest to lowest) segmental longitudinal strain gradient (P < .01) was seen in the RV free wall and a reverse apex-to-base gradient (P < .01) in the LV free wall. In infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or pulmonary hypertension (n = 119 [51%]), RV free wall longitudinal strain and IVS GLS were significantly lower (P < .01), LV GLS and GLSRs were similar (P = .56), and IVS segmental longitudinal strain persisted as an RV-dominant base-to-apex gradient from 32 weeks postmenstrual age to 1 year CA. CONCLUSIONS:This study tracks the maturational patterns of global and regional deformation by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in extremely preterm infants from birth to 1 year CA. The maturational patterns are ventricular specific. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension leave a negative impact on RV and IVS strain, while LV strain remains stable.
Project description:Background and objective: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) - based feature tracking (FT) can detect left ventricular (LV) strain abnormalities in pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients, but little is known about the prognostic value of LV function and mechanics in PH patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate LV systolic function by conventional CMR and LV global strains by CMR-based FT analysis in precapillary PH patients, thereby defining the prognostic value of LV function and mechanics. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 43 patients with precapillary PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) 55.91 ± 15.87 mmHg, pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) ?15 mmHg) referred to CMR for PH evaluation. Using FT software, the LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS), also right ventricular (RV) GLS were analyzed. Results: Patients were classified into two groups according to survival (survival/non-survival). LV GLS was significantly reduced in the non-survival group (-12.4% [-19.0?(-7.8)] vs. -18.4% [-22.5?(-15.5)], p = 0.009). By ROC curve analysis, LV GLS > -14.2% (CI: 3.229 to 37.301, p < 0.001) was found to be robust predictor of mortality in PH patients. Univariable analysis using the Cox model showed that severely reduced LV GLS > -14.2%, with good sensitivity (77.8%) and high specificity (93.5%) indicated an increase of the risk of death by 11-fold. LV GLS significantly correlated in PH patients with RV ESVI (r = 0.322, p = 0.035), RV EF (r = 0.444, p < 0.003). Conclusions: LV systolic function and LV global longitudinal strain measurements using CMR-FT correlates with RV dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes in precapillary PH patients.
Project description:AIMS:High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves peak oxygen uptake and left ventricular diastology in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, its effects on myocardial strain in HFpEF remain unknown. We explored the effects of HIIT and moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training (MI-ACT) on left and right ventricular strain parameters in patients with HFpEF. Furthermore, we explored their relationship with peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ). METHODS AND RESULTS:Fifteen patients with HFpEF (age = 70 ± 8.3 years) were randomized to either: (i) HIIT (4 × 4 min, 85-90% peak heart rate, interspersed with 3 min of active recovery; n = 9) or (ii) MI-ACT (30 min at 70% peak heart rate; n = 6). Patients were trained 3 days/week for 4 weeks and underwent VO2peak testing and 2D echocardiography at baseline and after completion of the 12 sessions of supervised exercise training. Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) average global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS) and peak systolic longitudinal strain rate (GSR) were quantified. Paired t-tests were used to examine within-group differences and unpaired t-tests used for between-group differences (? = 0.05). Right ventricular average global peak systolic longitudinal strain improved significantly in the HIIT group after training (pre = -18.4 ± 3.2%, post = -21.4 ± 1.7%; P = 0.02) while RV-GSR, LV-GLS, and LV-GSR did not (P > 0.2). No significant improvements were observed following MI-ACT. No significant between-group differences were observed for any strain measure. ?LV-GLS and ?RV-GLS were modestly correlated with ?VO2peak (r = -0.48 and r = -0.45; P = 0.1, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with HFpEF, 4 weeks of HIIT significantly improved RV-GLS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We investigated longitudinal right ventricular (RV) function assessed using speckle-tracking strain echocardiography in patient with myocardial infarction (MI), and identified the contributing factors for RV dysfunction.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively studied 71 patients with old MI (the OMI group) and 45 normal subjects (the Control group) who underwent a transthoracic echocardiography. Global and free wall RV peak systolic strains (PSSs) in the longitudinal direction were measured by using speckle-tracking strain echocardiography. Left ventricular (LV) PSSs were measured in the longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions. Cardiac hemodynamics including peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure was also assessed non-invasively. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were measured in all patients.<h4>Results</h4>In the OMI group, 73% of the patients had a normal estimated peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure of less than 35?mmHg. Global and free wall RV PSS were impaired in the OMI group compared with the Control group, and these RV systolic indices were significantly associated with heart rate, logarithmic transformed plasma BNP, greater than 1 year after onset of MI, Doppler-derived estimated pulmonary vascular resistance, LV systolic indices, LV mass index, infarcted segments within a territory of the left circumflex artery and residual total occlusion in the culprit right coronary artery. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that reduced longitudinal LV PSS in the 4-chamber view and BNP levels ?500 pg/ml were independently associated with reduced global and free wall RV PSS. Moreover, when patients were divided into 3 groups according to plasma BNP levels (BNP <100 pg/ml; n = 31, 100 ?BNP <500 pg/ml; n = 24, and BNP ?500 pg/ml; n = 16), only patients with BNP ?500 pg/ml had a strong correlation between RV PSS and longitudinal LV PSS in the 4-chamber view (r = 0.78 for global RV PSS and r = 0.71 for free wall RV PSS, p <0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Longitudinal RV systolic strain depends significantly on longitudinal LV systolic strain especially in patients with high plasma BNP levels, but not on estimated peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure. These results indicate that process of RV myocardial dysfunction following MI may be governed by neurohormonal activation which causing ventricular remodeling rather than increased RV afterload.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is characterized by progressive multiorgan accumulation of intracellular sphingolipids due to ?-galactosidase A enzyme deficiency, resulting in progressive ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, arrhythmias, and death. Decreased native (non-contrast) left ventricular (LV) T1 (longitudinal relaxation time) with MRI discriminates AFD from healthy controls or other presentations of concentric hypertrophy, but the right ventricle (RV) has not been studied. The aims of the current study were to evaluate native RV T1 values in AFD, with a goal of better understanding the pathophysiology of RV involvement.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Native T1 values were measured in the inferior RV wall (RVI), interventricular septum (IVS), and inferior LV (LVI) in patients with AFD, patients with pulmonary hypertension, who provided an alternative RV pathological process for comparison, and healthy controls. A minimum wall thickness of 4 mm was selected to minimize partial volume errors in tissue T1 analysis. T1 analysis was performed in 6 subjects with AFD, 6 subjects with PH, and 21 controls. Native T1 values were shorter (adjusted p<0.05 for all comparisons), independent of location, in subjects with AFD (RVI-T1 = 1096±49 ms, IVS-T1 = 1053±41 ms, LVI-T1 = 1072±44 ms) compared to both PH (RVI-T1 = 1239±41 ms, IVS-T1 = 1280±123 ms, LVI-T1 = 1274±57 ms) and HC (IVS-T1 = 1180±60 ms, LVI-T1 = 1183±45 ms). RVI measurements were not possible in controls due to insufficient wall thickness.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Native T1 values appear similarly reduced in the left and right ventricles of individuals with AFD and RV wall thickening, suggesting a common pathology. In contrast, individuals with PH and thickened RVs showed increased native T1 values in both ventricles, suggestive of fibrosis.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of upfront combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil on left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH). LV and RV peak longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate (SR), which consisted of peak systolic SR (SRs), peak early diastolic SR (SRe), and peak atrial-diastolic SR (SRa) were analyzed using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data from the recently published ATPAHSS-O trial (ambrisentan and tadalafil upfront combination therapy in SSc-PAH). Twenty-one patients completed the study protocol. Measures of RV systolic function (RV free wall [RVFW] peak longitudinal strain [pLS], RVFW peak longitudinal SRs [pLSRs]) and RV diastolic function (RVFW peak longitudinal SRa [pLSRa], RVFW peak circumferential SRe) were improved after treatment. LV systolic function (LV peak global longitudinal strain [pGLS]) and diastolic function (LV peak global longitudinal SRe [pGLSRe]) were also significantly improved at follow-up. Increased 6-min walk distance was significantly correlated with RVFW pLS and pLSRs, while the decrease in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide was correlated with LV pGLS. Increased cardiac index was associated with improved LV pGLSRe, and reduction in mean right atrial pressure was correlated with improved RVFW pLS and pLSRa. Combination therapy was associated with a significant improvement in both RV and LV function as assessed by CMR-derived strain and SR. Importantly, the improvement in RV and LV strain and SR correlated with improvements in known prognostic markers of PAH. (Approved by clinicaltrials.gov [NCT01042158] before patient recruitment.).
Project description:Since cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature-tracking (CMR-FT) has been demonstrated to be of incremental clinical merit we investigated the interchangeability of global left and right ventricular strain parameters between different CMR-FT software solutions.CMR-cine images of 10 patients without significant reduction in LVEF and RVEF and 10 patients with a significantly impaired systolic function were analyzed using two different types of FT-software (TomTec, Germany; QStrain, Netherlands). Global longitudinal strains (LV GLS, RV GLS), global left ventricular circumferential (GCS) and radial strains (GRS) were assessed. Differences in intra- and inter-observer variability within and between software types based on single and up to three repeated and subsequently averaged measurements were evaluated.Inter-vendor agreement was highest for GCS followed by LV GLS. GRS and RV GLS showed lower inter-vendor agreement. Variability was consistently higher in healthy volunteers as compared to the patient group. Intra-vendor reproducibility was excellent for GCS, LV GLS and RV GLS, but lower for GRS. The impact of repeated measurements was most pronounced for GRS and RV GLS on an intra-vendor level.Cardiac pathology has no influence on CMR-FT reproducibility. LV GLS and GCS qualify as the most robust parameters within and between individual software types. Since both parameters can be interchangeably assessed with different software solutions they may enter the clinical arena for optimized diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in various pathologies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Basal interventricular septum (IVS) hypertrophy (BSH) with reduced basal IVS contraction and IVS-aorta angle is frequently associated with aortic stenosis (AS). BSH shape suggests compression by the longitudinally elongated ascending aorta, causing basal IVS thickening and contractile dysfunction, further suggesting the possibility of aortic wall shortening to improve the BSH. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), as opposed to transcatheter AVR (TAVR), includes aortic wall shortening by incision and stitching on the wall and may potentially improve BSH. We hypothesized that BSH configuration and its contraction improves after SAVR in patients with AS. Methods?and?Results: In 32 patients with SAVR and 36 with TAVR for AS, regional wall thickness and systolic contraction (longitudinal strain) of 18 left ventricular (LV) segments, and IVS-aorta angle were measured on echocardiography. After SAVR, basal IVS/average LV wall thickness ratio, basal IVS strain, and IVS-aorta angle significantly improved (1.11±0.24 to 1.06±0.17; -6.2±5.7 to -9.1±5.2%; 115±22 to 123±14°, P<0.001, respectively). Contractile improvement in basal IVS was correlated with pre-SAVR BSH (basal IVS/average LV wall thickness ratio or IVS-aorta angle: r=0.47 and 0.49, P<0.01, respectively). In contrast, BSH indices did not improve after TAVR. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with AS, SAVR as opposed to TAVR improves associated BSH and its functional impairment.
Project description:Heart ventricular dysfunction has been characterized as reduced longitudinal function of the right ventricle (RV), and is associated with chronic alcohol abuse. This study investigated the use of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) to assess the longitudinal systolic and diastolic RV function of patients with alcoholic myocardial damage.We stratified 92 asymptomatic alcoholic men into three groups of increasing alcohol intake, Groups A-C. Thirty age-matched normal adult men served as the control group. Conventional echocardiography and tricuspid annulus peak systolic excursion (TAPSE) parameters were obtained. 2DSTE parameters were recorded from an apical 4-chamber view of the RV free wall. LV peak global longitudinal systolic strain was calculated from segmental averaging of the three apical long-axis views.In Group C, the RV end diastolic diameter (RVEDD) was dramatically higher than that of Groups A, B and the control, while TAPSE was significantly lower in Group C compared with the other experimental groups. In Group B, the longitudinal early diastolic strain rate (SRe) and late diastolic strain rate (SRa) of the RV free wall, and LV longitudinal strain were significantly lower than that of Group A or the control. In Group C, all the 2DSTE parameters were significantly lower than that of the other groups. A significant negative linear correlation was noted between global RV systolic parameters systolic strain peak (S), peak systolic strain rate (SRs) and TAPSE (r1=-0.84, r2=-0.72, respectively, P <0.05).Two-dimensional STE provided an effective and non-invasive method to assess the RV longitudinal function of patients with alcoholic myocardial damage. This methodology may be useful for diagnosing, directing treatment, and judging prognosis of alcoholic cardiac damage.
Project description:Myocardial strain provides a novel means of quantifying subtle alterations in contractile function; incremental utility post-MI is unknown.To test longitudinal-quantified by postprocessing routine echo-for assessment of MI size measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and conventional methods, and assess regional and global strain (GLS) as markers of LV thrombus.The population comprised of patients with anterior ST-segment MI who underwent echo and CMR prospectively. Preexisting echoes were retrieved, re-analyzed for strain, and compared to conventional MI markers as well as CMR-evidenced MI, function, and thrombus.Seventy-four patients underwent echo and CMR 4 ± 1 weeks post-MI; 72% had abnormal GLS. CMR-quantified MI size was 2.5-fold larger and EF lower among patients with abnormal GLS, paralleling 2.6-3.1 fold differences in Q-wave size and CPK (all P ? .002). GLS correlated with CMR-quantified MI (r = .66), CPK (r = .52) and Q-wave area (r = .44; all P ? .001): Regional strain was lower in the base, mid, and apical LV among patients with CMR-defined transmural MI in each territory (P < .05) and correlated with cine-CMR regional EF (r = .53-.71; P < .001) and echo wall motion (r = .45-.71; P < .001). GLS and apical strain were ~2-fold lower among patients with LV thrombus (P ? .002): Apical strain yielded higher diagnostic performance for thrombus (AUC: 0.83 [0.72-0.93], P = .001) than wall motion (0.73 [0.58-0.88], P = .02), as did global strain (0.78 [0.65-0.90], P = .005) compared to LVEF (0.58 [0.45-0.72], P = .41).Echo-quantified longitudinal strain provides a marker of MI size and improves stratification for post-MI LV thrombus beyond conventional indices.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that shear deformation of myocardial sheets in transmural planes of left ventricular (LV) wall is an important mechanism for systolic wall thickening, and normal and shear strains of the LV free wall differ from those of the interventricular septum (IVS). We sought to test whether these also hold for human hearts. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers (male 23 and female 7, aged 34 ± 6 years) from Outpatient Department of the University of Tokyo Hospital were included. Echocardiographic images were obtained in the left decubitus position using a commercially available system (Aloka SSD-6500, Japan) equipped with a 3.5-MHz transducer. The ECG was recorded simultaneously. The peak systolic radial normal strain (length change), shear strain (angle change) and time to peak systolic radial normal strain were obtained non-invasively by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. RESULTS: The peak systolic radial normal strain in both IVS and LV posterior wall (LVPW) showed a trend to increase progressively from the apical level to the basal level, especially at short axis views, and the peak systolic radial normal strain of LVPW was significantly greater than that of IVS at all three levels. The time to peak systolic radial normal strain was the shortest at the basal IVS, and increased progressively from the base to the apical IVS. It gradually increased from the apical to the basal LVPW in sequence, especially at short axis views. The peak of radial normal strain of LVPW occurred much later than the peak of IVS at all three levels. For IVS, the shear deformation was clockwise at basal level, and counterclockwise at mid and apical levels in LV long-axis view. For LVPW, the shear deformations were all counterclockwise in LV long-axis view and increased slightly from base to the apex. LVPW showed larger shear strains than IVS at all three levels. Bland-Altman analysis shows very good agreement between measurements taken by the same observer and by two independent observers. CONCLUSION: "Myocardial sheets" theory also holds true for intact human LV. Moreover, dyssynchrony exists even in healthy human subjects, which should be considered when evaluating the diseased hearts.