Complete Genome Sequences of Three Representative Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Family Strains Belonging to Distinct Genotype Clusters in Hanoi, Vietnam, during 2007 to 2009.
ABSTRACT: We present here three complete genome sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family strains isolated in Hanoi, Vietnam. These three strains were selected from major genotypic clusters (15-MIRU-VNTR) identified in a previous population-based study. We emphasize their importance and potential as reference strains in this Asian region.
Project description:A total of 221 isolates of M. tuberculosis were sampled from hospitals and the general population in the northern plain of Vietnam, one of the most populated region of the country. Genotypic composition and diversity were characterized, and we investigated how they are affected by sampling (hospital vs. general population), correcting for potential confounding effects (location, age and gender of the patients). Spoligotyping and 12 MIRU-VNTR typing were used as first line. Then 15 MIRU-VNTR standard set was used, making 21 MIRU-VNTR typing for the clustered isolates. Result showed that 8 lineages and 13 sub-lineages were circulating in the region. The most predominant lineages were Beijing (38.5%) and EAI (38.5%). Others appeared with small proportions H (1.4%), LAM (1.8%), T (8.1%), X (0.9%), MANU (2.3%), and Zero (0.4%). Higher clustering rate was found in the hospital samples (17.9% in urban and 19.2% in rural areas) compared to the population ones (0%). The typical Vietnamese EAI4-VNM sub-lineage of EAI lineage accounted for 67% of EAI strains and was associated with older ages. Beijing genotypes were associated with younger, urban population and were characterized by high clustering rates. These characteristics strongly suggest that Beijing strains are invading the population, replacing the local EAI-VNM4, thus predicting a more serious tuberculosis situation in the future in the absence of more effective control strategies.
Project description:The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Beijing strain is highly virulent, drug resistant, and endemic over Asia. To explore the genetic diversity of this family in several different regions of eastern Asia, 338 Beijing strains collected in Taiwan (Republic of China) were analyzed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing and compared with published MIRU-VNTR profiles and by the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI) of Beijing strains from Japan and South Korea. The results revealed that VNTR2163b (HGDI>0.6) and five other loci (VNTR424, VNTR4052, VNTR1955, VNTR4156 and VNTR 2996; HGDI>0.3) could be used to discriminate the Beijing strains in a given geographic region. Analysis based on the number of VNTR repeats showed three VNTRs (VNTR424, 3192, and 1955) to be phylogenetically informative loci. In addition, to determine the geographic variation of sequence types in MTB populations, we also compared sequence type (ST) data of our strains with published ST profiles of Beijing strains from Japan and Thailand. ST10, ST22, and ST19 were found to be prevalent in Taiwan (82%) and Thailand (92%). Furthermore, classification of Beijing sublineages as ancient or modern in Taiwan was found to depend on the repeat number of VNTR424. Finally, phylogenetic relationships of MTB isolates in Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan were revealed by a minimum spanning tree based on MIRU-VNTR genotyping. In this topology, the MIRU-VNTR genotypes of the respective clusters were tightly correlated to other genotypic characters. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that clonal evolution of these MTB lineages has occurred.
Project description:IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping is the most widely used genotyping method to study the epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, due to the complexity of the IS6110 RFLP genotyping technique, and the interpretation of RFLP data, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping has been proposed as the new genotyping standard. This study aimed to determine the discriminatory power of different MIRU-VNTR locus combinations relative to IS6110 RFLP genotyping, using a collection of Beijing genotype M. tuberculosis strains with a well-established phylogenetic history. Clustering, diversity index, clustering concordance, concordance among unique genotypes, and divergent and convergent evolution were calculated for seven combinations of 27 different MIRU-VNTR loci and compared to IS6110 RFLP results. Our results confirmed previous findings that MIRU-VNTR genotyping can be used to estimate the extent of recent or ongoing transmission. However, molecular epidemiological linking of cases varied significantly depending on the genotyping method used. We conclude that IS6110 RFLP and MIRU-VNTR loci evolve independently and at different rates, which leads to discordance between transmission chains predicted by the respective genotyping methods. Concordance between the two genotyping methods could be improved by the inclusion of genetic distance (GD) into the clustering formulae for some of the MIRU-VNTR loci combinations. In summary, our findings differ from previous reports, which may be explained by the fact that in settings of low tuberculosis incidence, the genetic distance between epidemiologically unrelated isolates was sufficient to define a strain using either marker, whereas in settings of high incidence, continuous evolution and persistence of strains revealed the weaknesses inherent to these markers.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health concerns in Assam, a remote state located in the northeastern (NE) region of India. The present study was undertaken to explore the circulating genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in this region. A total of 189 MTBC strains were collected from smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases from different designated microscopy centres (DMC) from various localities of Assam. All MTBC isolates were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and subsequently genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spoligotyping of MTBC isolates revealed 89 distinct spoligo patterns. The most dominant MTBC strain belonged to Beijing lineage and was represented by 35.45% (n = 67) of total isolates, followed by MTBC strains belonging to Central Asian-Delhi (CAS/Delhi) lineage and East African Indian (EAI5) lineage. In addition, in the present study 43 unknown spoligo patterns were detected. The discriminatory power of spoligotyping was found to be 0.8637 based on Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI). On the other hand, 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that out of total 189 MTBC isolates from Assam 185 (97.9%) isolates had unique MIRU-VNTR profiles and 4 isolates grouped into 2 clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of 67 Beijing isolates based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that Beijing isolates from Assam represent two major groups, each comprising of several subgroups. Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree analysis based on combined spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data of 78 Non-Beijing isolates was carried out for strain lineage identification as implemented by MIRU-VNTRplus database. The important lineages of MTBC identified were CAS/CAS1_Delhi (41.02%, n = 78) and East-African-Indian (EAI, 33.33%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of orphan (23.28%) MTBC spoligotypes revealed that majority of these orphan isolates from Assam represent two new sub-clades Assam/EAI and Assam/CAS. The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Beijing and Non-Beijing strains was found to be 10.44% and 9.01% respectively. In conclusion, the present study has shown the predominance of Beijing isolates in Assam which is a matter of great concern because Beijing strains are considered to be ecologically more fit enabling wider dissemination of M. tuberculosis. Other interesting finding of the present study is the discovery of two new clades of MTBC isolates circulating in Assam. More elaborate longitudinal studies are required to be undertaken in this region to understand the transmission dynamics of MTBC.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To describe hospital admission and emergency visit rates and potential risk factors of prolonged hospitalisation and death among children in Hanoi.<h4>Study design</h4>A retrospective study reviewed 212?216 hospitalisation records of children (aged 0-17) who attended the Vietnam National Children's Hospital in Hanoi between 2007 and 2014. Four indicators were analysed and reported: (1) rate of emergency hospital visits, (2) rate of hospitalisation, (3) length of hospital stay and (4) number of deaths. The risk of prolonged hospitalisation was investigated using Cox proportion hazard, and the risk of death was investigated through logistic regressions.<h4>Results</h4>During 2007-2014, the average annual rate of emergency visits was 2.2 per 1000 children and the rate of hospital admissions was 13.8 per 1000 children. The annual rates for infants increased significantly by 3.9 per 1000 children during 2012-2014 for emergency visits and 25.1 per 1000 children during 2009-2014 for hospital admissions. Digestive diseases (32.0%) and injuries (30.2%) were common causes of emergency visits, whereas respiratory diseases (37.7%) and bacterial and parasitic infections (19.8%) accounted for most hospital admissions. Patients with mental and behavioural disorders remained in the hospital the longest (median=12 days). Morbidities related to the perinatal period dominated mortality causes (32.5% of deaths among those admitted to the hospital. Among the respiratory diseases, pneumonia was the leading cause of both prolonged hospitalisation and death.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Preventable health problems, such as common bacterial infections and respiratory diseases, were the primary causes of hospital admissions in Vietnam.
Project description:The Beijing genotype is a lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is distributed worldwide and responsible for large epidemics, associated with multidrug-resistance. However, its distribution in Africa is less understood due to the lack of data. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and possible transmission of Beijing strains in Mozambique by a multivariate analysis of genotypic, geographic and demographic data. A total of 543 M. tuberculosis isolates from Mozambique were spoligotyped. Of these, 33 were of the Beijing lineage. The genetic relationship between the Beijing isolates were studied by identification of genomic deletions within some Regions of Difference (RD), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetivie Unit - variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR). Beijing strains from South Africa, representing different sublineages were included as reference strains. The association between Beijing genotype, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serology and baseline demographic data was investigated. HIV positive serostatus was significantly (p=0.023) more common in patients with Beijing strains than in patients with non-Beijing strains in a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex and province (14 (10.9%) of the 129 HIV positive patients had Beijing strains while 6/141 (4.3%) of HIV negative patients had Beijing strains). The majority of Beijing strains were found in the Southern region of Mozambique, particularly in Maputo City (17%). Only one Beijing strain was drug resistant (multi-drug resistant). By combined use of RD and spoligotyping, three genetic sublineages could be tentatively identified where a distinct group of four isolates had deletion of RD150, a signature of the "sublineage 7" recently emerging in South Africa. The same group was very similar to South African "sublineage 7" by RFLP and MIRU-VNTR, suggesting that this sublineage could have been recently introduced in Mozambique from South Africa, in association with HIV infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious problem in China. While there have been some studies on the nationwide genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), there has been little detailed research in Beijing, the capital of China, which has a huge population. Here, M. tuberculosis clinical strains collected in Beijing during 2009 were genotyped by classical methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our aim was to analyze the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains within the Beijing metropolitan area. We characterized these strains using two standard methods, spoligotyping (n?=?1585) and variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing (n?=?1053). We found that the most prominent genotype was Beijing family genotype. Other genotypes included the MANU, T and H families etc. Spoligotyping resulted in 137 type patterns, included 101 unclustered strains and 1484 strains clustered into 36 clusters. In VNTR typing analysis, we selected 12-locus (QUB-11b, MIRU10, Mtub21, MIRU 23, MIRU39, MIRU16, MIRU40, MIRU31, Mtub24, Mtub04, MIRU20, and QUB-4156c) and named it 12-locus (BJ) VNTR. VNTR resulted in 869 type patterns, included 796 unclustered strains and 257 strains clustered into 73 clusters. It has almost equal discriminatory power to the 24-locus VNTR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a detailed characterization of the genotypic diversity of M. tuberculosis in Beijing. Combining spoligotyping and VNTR typing to study the genotyping of M. tuberculosis gave superior results than when these techniques were used separately. Our results indicated that Beijing family strains were still the most prevalent M. tuberculosis in Beijing. Moreover, VNTR typing analyzing of M. tuberculosis strains in Beijing was successfully accomplished using 12-locus (BJ) VNTR. This method used for strains genotyping from the Beijing metropolitan area was comparable. This study will not only provide TB researchers with valuable information for related studies, but also provides guidance for the prevention and control of TB in Beijing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Beijing sub-pedigree 2 (BSP2) and T sub-lineage 6 (TSL6) are two clades belonging to Beijing and T family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), respectively, defined by Bayesian population structure analysis based on 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR). Globally, over 99% of BSP2 and 89% of TSL6 isolates were distributed in Chongqing, suggesting their possible local adaptive evolution. The objective of this paper is to explore whether BSP2 and TSL6 originated by their local adaptive evolution from the specific isolates of Beijing and T families in Chongqing. METHODS:The genotyping data of 16?090 MTB isolates were collected from laboratory collection, published literatures and SITVIT database before subjected to Bayesian population structure analysis based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. Spacer Oligonucleotide Forest (Spoligoforest) and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR-based minimum spanning tree (MST) were used to explore their phylogenetic pathways, with Bayesian demographic analysis for exploring the recent demographic change of TSL6. RESULTS:Phylogenetic analysis suggested that BSP2 and TSL6 in Chongqing may evolve from BSP4 and TSL5, respectively, which were locally predominant in Tibet and Jiangsu, respectively. Spoligoforest showed that Beijing and T families were genetically distant, while the convergence of the MIRU-VNTR pattern of BSP2 and TSL6 was revealed by WebLogo. The demographic analysis concluded that the recent demographic change of TSL6 might take 111.25?years. CONCLUSIONS:BSP2 and TSL6 clades might originate from BSP4 and TSL5, respectively, by their local adaptive evolution in Chongqing. Our study suggests MIRU-VNTR be combined with other robust markers for a more comprehensive genotyping approach, especially for families of clades with the same MIRU-VNTR pattern.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Different combinations of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci have been proposed for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Existing VNTR schemes show different discriminatory capacity among the six human MTBC lineages. Here, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a "customized MIRU12" loci format proposed previously by Comas et al. based on the standard 24 loci defined by Supply et al. for VNTR-typing of MTBC in Ghana.<h4>Method</h4>One hundred and fifty-eight MTBC isolates classified into Lineage 4 and Lineage 5 were used to compare a customized lineage-specific panel of 12 MIRU-VNTR loci ("customized MIRU-12") to the standard MIRU-15 genotyping scheme. The resolution power of each typing method was determined based on the Hunter-Gaston- Discriminatory Index (HGDI). A minimal set of customized MIRU-VNTR loci for typing Lineages 4 (Euro-American) and 5 (M. africanum West African 1) strains from Ghana was defined based on the cumulative HGDI.<h4>Results and conclusion</h4>Among the 106 Lineage 4 strains, the customized MIRU-12 identified a total of 104 distinct genotypes consisting of 2 clusters of 2 isolates each (clustering rate 1.8%), and 102 unique strains while standard MIRU-15 yielded a total of 105 different genotypes, including 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9%) and 104 singletons. Among, 52 Lineage 5 isolates, customized MIRU-12 genotyping defined 51 patterns with 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9%) and 50 unique strains whereas MIRU-15 classified all 52 strains as unique. Cumulative HGDI values for customized MIRU-12 for Lineages 4 and 5 were 0.98 respectively whilst that of standard MIRU-15 was 0.99. A union of loci from the customised MIRU-12 and standard MIRU-15 revealed a set of customized eight highly discriminatory loci: 4052, 2163B, 40, 4165, 2165, 10,16 and 26 with a cumulative HGDI of 0.99 for genotyping Lineage 4 and 5 strains from Ghana.
Project description:Background:Tuberculosis (TB) resulted in an estimated 1.7 million deaths in the year 2016. The disease is caused by the members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and other closely related TB causing organisms. In order to understand the epidemiological dynamics of TB, national TB control programs often conduct standardized genotyping at 24 Mycobacterial-Interspersed-Repetitive-Units (MIRU)-Variable-Number-of-Tandem-Repeats (VNTR) loci. With the advent of next generation sequencing technology, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been widely used for studying TB transmission. However, an open-source software that can connect WGS and MIRU-VNTR typing is currently unavailable, which hinders interlaboratory communication. In this manuscript, we introduce the MIRU-profiler program which could be used for prediction of MIRU-VNTR profile from WGS of M. tuberculosis. Implementation:The MIRU-profiler is implemented in shell scripting language and depends on EMBOSS software. The in-silico workflow of MIRU-profiler is similar to those described in the laboratory manuals for genotyping M. tuberculosis. Given an input genome sequence, the MIRU-profiler computes alleles at the standard 24-loci based on in-silico PCR amplicon lengths. The final output is a tab-delimited text file detailing the 24-loci MIRU-VNTR pattern of the input sequence. Validation:The MIRU-profiler was validated on four datasets: complete genomes from NCBI-GenBank (n = 11), complete genomes for locally isolated strains sequenced using PacBio (n = 4), complete genomes for BCG vaccine strains (n = 2) and draft genomes based on 250 bp paired-end Illumina reads (n = 106). Results:The digital MIRU-VNTR results were identical to the experimental genotyping results for complete genomes of locally isolated strains, BCG vaccine strains and five out of 11 genomes from the NCBI-GenBank. For draft genomes based on short Illumina reads, 21 out of 24 loci were inferred with a high accuracy, while a number of inaccuracies were recorded for three specific loci (ETRA, QUB11b and QUB26). One of the unique features of the MIRU-profiler was its ability to process multiple genomes in a batch. This feature was tested on all complete M. tuberculosis genome (n = 157), for which results were successfully obtained in approximately 14 min. Conclusion:The MIRU-profiler is a rapid tool for inference of digital MIRU-VNTR profile from the assembled genome sequences. The tool can accurately infer repeat numbers at the standard 24 or 21/24 MIRU-VNTR loci from the complete or draft genomes respectively. Thus, the tool is expected to bridge the communication gap between the laboratories using WGS and those using the conventional MIRU-VNTR typing.