Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) lowers body weight and affects intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.
ABSTRACT: Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of glutamate and a critical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, shows beneficial effects on intestinal function. However, the influence of AKG on the intestinal innate immune system and intestinal microbiota is unknown. This study explores the effect of oral AKG administration in drinking water (10 g/L) on intestinal innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in a mouse model. Mouse water intake, feed intake and body weight were recorded throughout the entire experiment. The ileum was collected for detecting the expression of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines and innate immune factors by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Additionally, the ileal luminal contents and feces were collected for 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the microbial composition. The intestinal microbiota in mice was disrupted with an antibiotic cocktail. The results revealed that AKG supplementation lowered body weight, promoted ileal expression of mammalian defensins of the alpha subfamily (such as cryptdins-1, cryptdins-4, and cryptdins-5) while influencing the intestinal microbial composition (i.e., lowering the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio). In the antibiotic-treated mouse model, AKG supplementation failed to affect mouse body weight and inhibited the expression of cryptdins-1 and cryptdins-5 in the ileum. We concluded that AKG might affect body weight and intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.
Project description:Enteric ?-defensins, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, and lysozymes secreted by Paneth cells contribute to innate host defense in the ileum. Antimicrobial factors including lysozymes and ?-defensins are often embedded in luminal glycosylated colonic Muc2 mucin secreted by goblet cells that form the protective mucus layer critical in gut homeostasis and pathogen invasion. In this study we investigated ileal innate immunity against Entamoeba histolytica (Eh), the causative agent of intestinal amebiasis, by inoculating parasites in closed ileal loops in Muc2+/+ and Muc2-/- littermates and quantifying Paneth cell localization (lysozyme expression) and function (Crps secretion). Relative to Muc2+/+ littermates, Muc2-/- showed disorganized mislocalization of Paneth cells that was diffusely distributed with elevated lysozyme secretion in the crypts and on villi in response to Eh Inhibiting Eh Gal-lectin binding with exogenous galactose and EhCP5- Eh had no effect on parasite-induced erratic Paneth cell lysozyme synthesis. Although basal ileal expression of Crp genes was unaffected in Muc2-/- mice in response to Eh there was robust release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Crp peptide secretions in luminal exudates that was also present in the colon. Interestingly, Eh secreted cysteine proteinases cleaved the pro-region of Crp 4 but not the active form. These findings define Muc2 mucin as an essential component of ileal barrier function that regulates localization and function of Paneth cells critical in host defense against microbes.
Project description:Paneth cells contribute to intestinal innate immunity by sensing bacteria and secreting ?-defensin. In Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice, ?-defensin termed cryptdin (Crp) in Paneth cells consists of six major isoforms, Crp1 to 6. Despite accumulating evidences that ?-defensin functions in controlling the intestinal microbiota, topographical localization of Paneth cells in the small intestine in relation to functions of ?-defensin remains to be determined. In this study, we examined the expression level of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding six Crp-isoforms and Crp immunoreactivities using singly isolated crypts together with bactericidal activities of Paneth cell secretions from isolated crypts of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Here we showed that levels of Crp mRNAs in the single crypt ranged from 5 x 103 to 1 x 106 copies per 5 ng RNA. For each Crp isoform, the expression level in ileum was 4 to 50 times higher than that in duodenum and jejunum. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of isolated crypts revealed that the average number of Paneth cell per crypt in the small intestine increased from proximal to distal, three to seven-fold, respectively. Both Crp1 and 4 expressed greater in ileal Paneth cells than those in duodenum or jejunum. Bactericidal activities in secretions of ileal Paneth cell exposed to bacteria were significantly higher than those of duodenum or jejunum. In germ-free mice, Crp expression in each site of the small intestine was attenuated and bactericidal activities released by ileal Paneth cells were decreased compared to those in conventional mice. Taken together, Paneth cells and their ?-defensin in adult mouse appeared to be regulated topographically in innate immunity to control intestinal integrity.
Project description:The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, is attributed, in part, to intestinal bacteria that may initiate and perpetuate mucosal inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. Paneth cells (PC) are the major source of antimicrobial peptides in the small intestine, including human alpha-defensins HD5 and HD6. We tested the hypothesis that reduced expression of PC alpha-defensins compromises mucosal host defenses and predisposes patients to CD of the ileum. We report that patients with CD of the ileum have reduced antibacterial activity in their intestinal mucosal extracts. These specimens also showed decreased expression of PC alpha-defensins, whereas the expression of eight other PC products either remained unchanged or increased when compared with controls. The specific decrease of alpha-defensins was independent of the degree of inflammation in the specimens and was not observed in either CD of the colon, ulcerative colitis, or pouchitis. The functional consequence of alpha-defensin expression levels was examined by using a transgenic mouse model, where we found changes in HD5 expression levels, comparable to those observed in CD, had a pronounced impact on the luminal microbiota. Thus, the specific deficiency of PC defensins that characterizes ileal CD may compromise innate immune defenses of the ileal mucosa and initiate and/or perpetuate this disease.
Project description:To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus on immune responses, intestinal structure and microbiota in broilers, 840 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into seven groups (eight replicates) and were fed basal diets without or with 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 g/kg of K. marxianus (2.0×1010 CFU/g). Serum and intestine samples were collected at 21 d of age. The results showed that increasing K. marxianus addition linearly reduced feed conversion ratio but linearly elevated relative thymus weight, as well as quadratically increased serum lysozyme and IgG levels, with the medium dose (1.0 g/kg) being the most effective. The ratio of villus height to crypt depth of jejunum and ileum, ileal villus height and sucrase activity, as well as the mRNA expression of ileal mucin-2, claudin-1 and sodium glucose cotransporter 1 linearly responded to the increasing K. marxianus addition. Supplemental K. marxianus at low (0.5 g/kg), medium (1.5 g/kg) and high (2.5 g/kg) dose all decreased the abundance of phylum Cyanobacteria, increased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus in ileum. The high dose of K. marxianus addition also reduced the abundance of order Rickettsiales and Pseudomonadales along with species Acinetobacter junii. Ileal bacterial communities between K. marxianus-treated and untreated groups formed distinctly different clusters. In summary, K. marxianus supplementation benefits feed efficiency and immune function, as well as intestinal structure in broilers, which might be attributed to the improved ileal microbial structure. Supplemental K. marxianus at high dose (2.5 g/kg) was more effective for feed efficiency and intestinal health of broilers, while the innate immunity was optimized at a medium dose (1.0 g/kg).
Project description:Background:The effect of amylases combined with exogenous carbohydrase and protease in a newly harvested corn diet on starch digestibility, intestine health and cecal microbiota was investigated in broiler chickens. Methods:Two hunderd and eighty-eight 5-day-old female chickens were randomly divided into six treatments: a newly harvested corn-soybean meal diet (control); control supplemented with 1,500 U/g ?-amylase (Enzyme A); Enzyme A?+?300 U/g amylopectase +?20,000 U/g glucoamylase (Enzyme B); Enzyme B?+?protease 10,000 U/g (Enzyme C); Enzyme C?+?xylanase 15,000 U/g (Enzyme D); and Enzyme D?+?cellulase 200 U/g?+?pectinase 1,000 U/g (Enzyme E). Growth performance, starch digestibility, digestive organ morphology, and intestinal microbiota were evaluated in the birds at 16 and 23 d of age. Results:Compared with the control diet, supplementation with Enzyme A significantly decreased ileum lesion scoring at 16 d of age (P?<?0.05); supplementation with Enzyme B or Enzyme C showed positive effects on ileal amylopectin and total starch digestibility (P?<?0.05); Broilers fed with a diet supplemented with Enzyme D had a tendency to decrease body weight gain at 23 d. Enzyme E supplementation improved lesion scoring of jejunum and ileum at 16 d (P?<?0.05), and increased ileal amylopectin or total starch digestibility at 23 d (P?<?0.05). Supplementation of enzymes changed cecal microbiota diversity. High numbers of Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Butyricicoccus, Anaerostipes and Bifidobacterium, Sutterella and Odoribacter were the main genera detected in supplementations with Enzymes B, C, D, and E respectively. Conclusions:Supplementation with amylase combined with glucoamylase or protease showed a beneficial effect on starch digestibility and intestinal microbiota diversity, and increased growth of broilers fed with newly harvested corn.
Project description:The early-life intestinal microbiota plays a key role in shaping host immune system development. We found that a single early-life antibiotic course (1PAT) accelerated type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in male NOD mice. The single course had deep and persistent effects on the intestinal microbiome, leading to altered cecal, hepatic, and serum metabolites. The exposure elicited sex-specific effects on chromatin states in the ileum and liver and perturbed ileal gene expression, altering normal maturational patterns. The global signature changes included specific genes controlling both innate and adaptive immunity. Microbiome analysis revealed four taxa each that potentially protect against or accelerate T1D onset, that were linked in a network model to specific differences in ileal gene expression. This simplified animal model reveals multiple potential pathways to understand pathogenesis by which early-life gut microbiome perturbations alter a global suite of intestinal responses, contributing to the accelerated and enhanced T1D development.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the effects of early intervention with antibiotics and maternal fecal microbiota on ileal morphology and barrier function, and transcriptomic profiling in neonatal piglets. Piglets in the amoxicillin (AM), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and control (CO) groups were orally administrated with amoxicillin solution (6.94 mg/mL), maternal fecal microbiota suspension [>109 colony forming unit (CFU)/mL], and physiological saline, respectively. Compared with the CO group, early intervention with AM or FMT significantly decreased ileal crypt depth on day 7 and altered gene expression profiles in ileum on days 7 and 21, and especially promoted the expression of chemokines (CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL11) involved in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway on day 21. FMT changed major immune activities from B cell immunity on day 7 to T cell immunity on day 21 in the ileum. On the other hand, both AM and FMT predominantly downregulated the gene expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In summary, both early interventions modulated intestinal barrier function and immune system in the ileum with a low impact on ileal morphology and development.
Project description:Probiotic products have been shown to have beneficial effects on human hosts, but what happens in the gastrointestinal tract after its ingestion remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the changes within the small intestines after a single intake of a fermented milk product containing a probiotic. We have periodically collected the small-intestinal fluids from the terminal ileum of seven healthy subjects for up to 7 h after ingestion by small-intestinal fluid perfusion using an endoscopic retrograde bowel insertion technique. The bacterial composition of the terminal ileum clearly revealed that the ingested probiotics (Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota: LcS and Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult: BbrY) occupied the ileal microbiota for several hours, temporarily representing over 90% of the ileal microbiota in several subjects. Cultivation of ileal fluids showed that under a dramatic pH changes before reaching the terminal ileum, a certain number of the ingested bacteria survived (8.2 ± 6.4% of LcS, 7.8 ± 11.0% of BbrY). This means that more than 1 billion LcS and BbrY cells reached the terminal ileum with their colony-forming ability intact. These results indicate that there is adequate opportunity for the ingested probiotics to continuously stimulate the host cells in the small intestines. Our data suggest that probiotic fermented milk intake affects intestinal microbes and the host, explaining part of the process from the intake of probiotics to the exertion of their beneficial effects on the host.
Project description:CD4+ T cells are tightly regulated by microbiota in the intestine, but whether intestinal T cells interface with host-derived metabolites is less clear. Here, we show that CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells upregulated the xenobiotic transporter, Mdr1, in the ileum to maintain homeostasis in the presence of bile acids. Whereas wild-type Teff cells upregulated Mdr1 in the ileum, those lacking Mdr1 displayed mucosal dysfunction and induced Crohn's disease-like ileitis following transfer into Rag1-/- hosts. Mdr1 mitigated oxidative stress and enforced homeostasis in Teff cells exposed to conjugated bile acids (CBAs), a class of liver-derived emulsifying agents that actively circulate through the ileal mucosa. Blocking ileal CBA reabsorption in transferred Rag1-/- mice restored Mdr1-deficient Teff cell homeostasis and attenuated ileitis. Further, a subset of ileal Crohn's disease patients displayed MDR1 loss of function. Together, these results suggest that coordinated interaction between mucosal Teff cells and CBAs in the ileum regulate intestinal immune homeostasis.
Project description:In this study, we aimed to investigate the ileum digesta of a large cohort of Japanese quail fed the same diet, with similar environmental conditions. We also address how P utilization (PU), Ca utilization (CaU), and bird performance (feed intake (FI), feed conversion (FC), and body weight gain (BWG)) modify intestinal microbiota of male and female quail. Despite the great number of samples analyzed (760), a core microbiome was composed of five bacteria. The Unc. Lactobacillus, Unc. Clostridaceae 1, Clostridium sensu stricto, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus alactolyticus were detected in all samples and contributed to more than 70% of the total community. Depending on the bird predisposition for PU, CaU, FI, BWG, and FC, those species were present in higher or lower abundances. There was a significant gender effect on the ileal microbial community. While females had higher abundances of Lactobacillus, males were more colonized by Streptococcus alactolyticus. The entire cohort was highly colonized by Escherichia coli (8%-15%), an enteropathogenic bacteria. It remains unclear, if microbiota composition followed the mechanisms that caused different PU, CaU, FI, FC, and BWG or if the change in microbiota composition and function caused the differences in PU, CaU, and performance traits.