In Vivo-Selected Pyrazinoic Acid-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Harbor Missense Mutations in the Aspartate Decarboxylase PanD and the Unfoldase ClpC1.
ABSTRACT: Through mutant selection on agar containing pyrazinoic acid (POA), the bioactive form of the prodrug pyrazinamide (PZA), we recently showed that missense mutations in the aspartate decarboxylase PanD and the unfoldase ClpC1, and loss-of-function mutation of polyketide synthases Mas and PpsA-E involved in phthiocerol dimycocerosate synthesis, cause resistance to POA and PZA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we first asked whether these in vitro-selected POA/PZA-resistant mutants are attenuated in vivo, to potentially explain the lack of evidence of these mutations among PZA-resistant clinical isolates. Infection of mice with panD, clpC1, and mas/ppsA-E mutants showed that whereas growth of clpC1 and mas/ppsA-E mutants was attenuated, the panD mutant grew as well as the wild-type. To determine whether these resistance mechanisms can emerge within the host, mice infected with wild-type M. tuberculosis were treated with POA, and POA-resistant colonies were confirmed for PZA and POA resistance. Genome sequencing revealed that 82 and 18% of the strains contained missense mutations in panD and clpC1, respectively. Consistent with their lower fitness and POA resistance level, independent mas/ppsA-E mutants were not found. In conclusion, we show that the POA/PZA resistance mechanisms due to panD and clpC1 missense mutations are recapitulated in vivo. Whereas the representative clpC1 mutant was attenuated for growth in the mouse infection model, providing a possible explanation for their absence among clinical isolates, the growth kinetics of the representative panD mutant was unaffected. Why POA/PZA resistance-conferring panD mutations are observed in POA-treated mice but not yet among clinical strains isolated from PZA-treated patients remains to be determined.
Project description:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a critical component of first- and second-line treatments of tuberculosis (TB), yet its mechanism of action largely remains an enigma. We carried out a genetic screen to isolate Mycobacterium bovis BCG mutants resistant to pyrazinoic acid (POA), the bioactive derivative of PZA, followed by whole genome sequencing of 26 POA resistant strains. Rather than finding mutations in the proposed candidate targets fatty acid synthase I and ribosomal protein S1, we found resistance conferring mutations in two pathways: missense mutations in aspartate decarboxylase panD, involved in the synthesis of the essential acyl carrier coenzyme A (CoA), and frameshift mutations in the vitro nonessential polyketide synthase genes mas and ppsA-E, involved in the synthesis of the virulence factor phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM). Probing for cross resistance to two structural analogs of POA, nicotinic acid and benzoic acid, showed that the analogs share the PDIM- but not the CoA-related mechanism of action with POA. We demonstrated that POA depletes CoA in wild-type bacteria, which is prevented by mutations in panD. Sequencing 10 POA-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv isolates confirmed the presence of at least 2 distinct mechanisms of resistance to the drug. The emergence of resistance through the loss of a virulence factor in vitro may explain the lack of clear molecular patterns in PZA-resistant clinical isolates, other than mutations in the prodrug-converting enzyme. The apparent interference of POA with virulence pathways may contribute to the drug's excellent in vivo efficacy compared to its modest in vitro potency.
Project description:Despite progress, the mechanisms of action and resistance of pyrazinamide (PZA) are not well understood. We characterized 109 mutants resistant to pyrazinoic acid (POA), the active form of PZA, and found that while most (n = 101 [93%]) mutants had panD mutations and 4 (4%) had clpC1 mutations (S91G), new mutations in lprG (rv1411c) and rv0521 (n = 4 [4%]), rv3630, rv0010c, ppsC, and cyp128 (cytochrome P450 128) were identified, shedding new light on the mechanisms of action and resistance of PZA in M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a frontline anti-tuberculosis drug that plays a crucial role in the treatment of both drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). PZA is a prodrug that is converted to its active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA), by a nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase encoded by the pncA gene, the mutation of which is the major cause of PZA resistance. Although RpsA (ribosomal protein S1, involved in trans-translation) has recently been shown to be a target of POA/PZA, whole-genome sequencing has identified mutations in the panD gene encoding aspartate decarboxylase in PZA-resistant strains lacking pncA and rpsA mutations. To gain more insight into a possible new target of PZA, we isolated 30 POA-resistant mutants lacking mutations in pncA and rpsA from M. tuberculosis in vitro, and whole-genome sequencing of 3 mutants identified various mutations in the panD gene. Additionally, sequencing analysis revealed that the remaining 27 POA-resistant mutants all harbored panD mutations affecting the C-terminus of the PanD protein, with PanD M117I being the most frequent mutation (24/30, 80%). Conditional overexpression of panD from M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis or E. coli, or of M. tuberculosis mutant PanD M117I, all conferred resistance to POA and PZA in M. tuberculosis. ?-alanine and pantothenate, which are downstream products of PanD, were found to antagonize the antituberculosis activity of POA. In addition, the activity of the M. tuberculosis PanD enzyme was inhibited by POA at therapeutically relevant concentrations in a concentration-dependent manner but was not inhibited by the prodrug PZA or the control compound nicotinamide. These findings suggest that PanD represents a new target of PZA/POA. These results have implications for a better understanding of this peculiar persister drug and for the design of new drugs targeting M. tuberculosis persisters for improved treatment.
Project description:Previously, we showed that a major in vitro and in vivo mechanism of resistance to pyrazinoic acid (POA), the bioactive component of the critical tuberculosis (TB) prodrug pyrazinamide (PZA), involves missense mutations in the aspartate decarboxylase PanD, an enzyme required for coenzyme A biosynthesis. What is the mechanism of action of POA? Upon demonstrating that treatment of M. bovis BCG with POA resulted in a depletion of intracellular coenzyme A and confirming that this POA-mediated depletion is prevented by either missense mutations in PanD or exogenous supplementation of pantothenate, we hypothesized that POA binds to PanD and that this binding blocks the biosynthetic pathway. Here, we confirm both hypotheses. First, metabolomic analyses showed that POA treatment resulted in a reduction of the concentrations of all coenzyme A precursors downstream of the PanD-mediated catalytic step. Second, using isothermal titration calorimetry, we established that POA, but not its prodrug PZA, binds to PanD. Binding was abolished for mutant PanD proteins. Taken together, these findings support a mechanism of action of POA in which the bioactive component of PZA inhibits coenzyme A biosynthesis via binding to aspartate decarboxylase PanD. Together with previous works, these results establish PanD as a genetically, metabolically, and biophysically validated target of PZA.
Project description:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a critical drug used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). PZA is a prodrug that requires conversion to the active component pyrazinoic acid (POA) by pyrazinamidase (PZase) encoded by the pncA gene. Although resistance to PZA is mostly caused by pncA mutations and less commonly by rpsA, panD, and clpC1 mutations, clinical strains without these mutations are known to exist. While efflux of POA was demonstrated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis previously, the efflux proteins involved have not been identified. Here we performed POA binding studies with an M. tuberculosis proteome microarray and identified four efflux proteins (Rv0191, Rv3756c, Rv3008, and Rv1667c) that bind POA. Overexpression of the four efflux pump genes in M. tuberculosis caused low-level resistance to PZA and POA but not to other drugs. Furthermore, addition of efflux pump inhibitors such as reserpine, piperine, and verapamil caused increased susceptibility to PZA in M. tuberculosis strains overexpressing the efflux proteins Rv0191, Rv3756c, Rv3008, and Rv1667c. Our studies indicate that these four efflux proteins may be responsible for PZA/POA efflux and cause PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis Future studies are needed to assess their roles in PZA resistance in clinical strains.
Project description:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a frontline anti-tuberculosis drug that plays a crucial role in the treatment of both drug susceptible and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Resistance to PZA is most commonly associated with mutations in the pncA gene encoding nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase which converts the prodrug PZA to the active form pyrazinoic acid (POA). RpsA (ribosomal protein S1) involved in trans-translation was recently shown to be a target of PZA and mutations in RpsA are found in some PZA-resistant TB strains. However, some other PZA-resistant strains lack mutations in either pncA or rpsA. To identify potential new mechanisms of PZA resistance, we isolated 174 in vitro mutants of M. tuberculosis H37Rv resistant to PZA to search for resistant isolates that do not have pncA or rpsA mutations. DNA sequencing revealed that 169 of the 174 (97.1%) PZA-resistant mutants had pncA mutations but 5 mutants lacked pncA or rpsA mutations. Whole genome sequencing analyses revealed that the 5 PZA-resistant mutants had different mutations all occurring in the same gene panD encoding aspartate decarboxylase, which is involved in synthesis of ?-alanine that is a precursor for pantothenate and co-enzyme A biosynthesis. panD mutations were identified in naturally PZA-resistant Mycobacterium canetti strain and a PZA-resistant MDR-TB clinical isolate. Future studies are needed to address the role of panD mutations in PZA resistance and confirm PanD as a new target of PZA.
Project description:Resistance to key first-line drugs is a major hurdle to achieve the global end tuberculosis (TB) targets. A prodrug, pyrazinamide (PZA) is the only drug, effective in latent TB, recommended in drug resistance and susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates. The prodrug conversion into active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA), required the activity of pncA gene encoded pyrazinamidase (PZase). Although pncA mutations have been commonly associated with PZA resistance but a small number of resistance cases have been associated with mutationss in RpsA protein. Here in this study a total of 69 PZA resistance isolates have been sequenced for pncA mutations. However, samples that were found PZA resistant but pncA wild type (pncAWT), have been sequenced for rpsA and panD genes mutation. We repeated a drug susceptibility testing according to the WHO guidelines on 18 pncAWT MTB isolates. The rpsA and panD genes were sequenced. Out of total 69 PZA resistant isolates, 51 harbored 36 mutations in pncA gene (GeneBank Accession No. MH46111) while, fifteen different mutations including seven novel, were detected in the fourth S1 domain of RpsA known as C-terminal (MtRpsACTD) end. We did not detect any mutations in panD gene. Among the rpsA mutations, we investigated the molecular mechanism of resistance behind mutations, D342N, D343N, A344P, and I351F, present in the MtRpsACTD through molecular dynamic simulations (MD). WT showed a good drug binding affinity as compared to mutants (MTs), D342N, D343N, A344P, and I351F. Binding pocket volume, stability, and fluctuations have been altered whereas the total energy, protein folding, and geometric shape analysis further explored a significant variation between WT and MTs. In conclusion, mutations in MtRpsACTD might be involved to alter the RpsA activity, resulting in drug resistance. Such molecular mechanism behind resistance may provide a better insight into the resistance mechanism to achieve the global TB control targets.
Project description:Objective:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a cornerstone of modern tuberculosis regimens. This study aimed to investigate the performance of genotypic testing of pncA + upstream region, rpsA, panD, Rv2783c, and clpC1 genes to add insights for more accurate molecular diagnosis of PZA-resistant (R) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods:Drug susceptibility testing, sequencing analysis of PZA-related genes including the entire operon of pncA (Rv2044c-pncA-Rv2042c) and PZase assay were performed for 448 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. Results:Our data showed that among 448 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 113 were MDR, 195 pre-XDR and 70 XDR TB, while the remaining 70 strains had other combinations of drug-resistance. A total of 60.04% (269/448) M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were resistant to PZA, of which 78/113 were MDR, 119/195 pre-XDR and 29/70 XDR TB strains. PZAR isolates have predominance (83.3%) of Beijing genotype. Genotypic characterization of Rv2044c-pncA-Rv2042c revealed novel nonsynonymous mutations in Rv2044c with negative PZase activity which led to confer PZAR. Compared with phenotypic data, 84.38% (227/269) PZAR strains with mutations in pncA + upstream region exhibited 83.64% sensitivity but the combined evaluation of the mutations in rpsA 2.60% (7/269), panD 1.48% (4/269), Rv2783c 1.11% (3/269) and Rv2044c 0.74% (2/269) increased the sensitivity to 89.59%. Fifty-seven novel mutations were identified in this study. Interestingly, a frameshift deletion (C-114del) in upstream of pncAwt nullified the effect of A-11G mutation and induced positive PZase activity, divergent from five PZase negative A-11G PZAR mutants. Twenty-six PZAR strains having wild-type-sequenced genes with positive or negative PZase suggest the existence of unknown resistance mechanisms. Conclusion:Our study revealed that PZAR rate in MDR and pre-XDR TB was markedly higher in southern China. The concomitant evaluation of pncA + UFR, rpsA, panD, Rv2783c, and Rv2044c provides more dependable genotypic results of PZA resistance. Fifty-seven novel mutations/indels in this study may play a vital role as diagnostic markers. The upstream region of pncA and PZase regulation are valuable to explore the unknown mechanism of PZA-resistance.
Project description:Pyrazinamide is a sterilizing first-line tuberculosis drug. Genetic, metabolomic and biophysical analyses previously demonstrated that pyrazinoic acid, the bioactive form of the prodrug pyrazinamide (PZA), interrupts biosynthesis of coenzyme A in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by binding to aspartate decarboxylase PanD. While most drugs act by inhibiting protein function upon target binding, we find here that pyrazinoic acid is only a weak enzyme inhibitor. We show that binding of pyrazinoic acid to PanD triggers degradation of the protein by the caseinolytic protease ClpC1-ClpP. Thus, the old tuberculosis drug pyrazinamide exerts antibacterial activity by acting as a target degrader, a mechanism of action that has recently emerged as a successful strategy in drug discovery across disease indications. Our findings provide the basis for the rational discovery of next generation PZA.
Project description:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key component for the effective treatment of drug-susceptible and PZA-susceptible multidrug-resistant (MDRPZA-S) tuberculosis (TB). pncA gene mutations are usually detected in a clear majority (>90%) of PZA-resistant strains but obviously not in all. Rapid and reliable PZA drug susceptibility testing (DST) is critical whenever PZA is to be used in a treatment regimen, not least for the treatment of MDRPZA-S TB. In this study, we selected 26 PZA-resistant isolates reported to carry a wild-type pncA gene. To confirm resistance, susceptibility testing was repeated using 100 mg/liter and 200 mg/liter PZA for all the 26 isolates and Sanger sequencing was repeated on the 18 isolates that remained PZA resistant. Apart from the eight isolates initially misclassified as PZA resistant, the retests identified three factors responsible for the phenotype-genotype discrepancy: panD or rpsA mutations identified by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) (n = 7), heteroresistance (n = 8), and mixed populations with Mycobacterium avium (n = 3). Additionally, we performed WGS on 400 PZA-susceptible isolates and 15 consecutive MDRPZA-R clinical isolates. Of the 400 PZA-susceptible isolates, only 1 harbored a nonsynonymous pncA mutation (Thr87Met), whereas a nonsynonymous rpsA mutation was found in 17 isolates. None of these isolates carried a nonsynonymous panD mutation, while all 15 of the MDRPZA-R isolates harbored a nonsynonymous pncA mutation. Our findings indicate that it is necessary to consider the occurrence of panD mutations in PZA-resistant isolates, as well as heteroresistance, for the development and evaluation of new molecular techniques to ensure high-quality DST performance. The identification of nonsynonymous rpsA mutations in both PZA-susceptible and PZA-resistant isolates also implies that further studies are needed in order to determine the role of rpsA in PZA resistance.