The association of lipoprotein(a) with incident heart failure hospitalization: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.
ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a proatherogenic lipoprotein associated with coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and more recently aortic stenosis and heart failure (HF). We examined the association of Lp(a) levels with incident HF hospitalization in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We also assessed the relationship between Lp(a) levels and arterial stiffness as a potential mechanism for development of HF.Lp(a) was measured in 14,154 ARIC participants without prevalent HF at ARIC visit 1 (1987-1989). The association of Lp(a) quintiles with incident HF hospitalization was assessed using Cox proportional-hazards models. Arterial stiffness parameters were stratified based on Lp(a) quintiles, and p-trend was calculated across ordered groups.At a median follow-up of 23.4 years, there were 2605 incident HF hospitalizations. Lp(a) levels were directly associated with incident HF hospitalization in models adjusted for age, race, gender, systolic blood pressure, history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, body mass index, heart rate, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1: hazard ratio [HR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.41; p-trend across increasing quintiles <0.01), but not after excluding prevalent and incident myocardial infarction cases (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.91-1.27; p-trend = 0.70). When adjusted for age, gender, and race, Lp(a) quintiles were not significantly associated with arterial stiffness parameters.Increased Lp(a) levels were associated with increased risk of incident HF hospitalization. After excluding prevalent and incident myocardial infarction, the association was no longer significant. Lp(a) levels were not associated with arterial stiffness parameters.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increased left ventricular (LV) myocardial stiffness may be associated with impaired LV hemodynamics and incident heart failure (HF). However, an indicator that estimates LV myocardial stiffness easily and non-invasively is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diastolic wall strain (DWS), an echocardiographic estimator of LV myocardial stiffness, is associated with incident HF in a middle-aged community-based cohort of African Americans. METHODS AND RESULTS:We investigated associations between DWS and incident HF among 1528 African Americans (mean age 58.5 years, 66% women) with preserved LV ejection fraction (EF ?50%) and without a history of cardiovascular disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Participants with the smallest DWS quintile (more LV myocardial stiffness) had a higher LV mass index, higher relative wall thickness, and lower arterial compliance than those in the larger four DWS quintiles (p<0.01 for all). Over a mean follow-up of 15.6 years, there were 251 incident HF events (incidence rate: 10.9 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for traditional risk factors and incident coronary artery disease, both continuous and categorical DWS were independently associated with incident HF (HR 1.21, 95%CI 1.04-1.41 for 0.1 decrease in continuous DWS, p=0.014, HR 1.40, 95%CI 1.05-1.87 for the smallest DWS quintile vs other combined quintiles, p=0.022). CONCLUSIONS:DWS was independently associated with an increased risk of incident HF in a community-based cohort of African Americans. DWS could be used as a qualitative estimator of LV myocardial stiffness.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Results from prospective studies evaluating the relationship between elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and incident peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have been mixed. We investigated whether higher Lp-PLA2 levels are associated with increased risk of incident PAD and whether PLA2G7 gene variants, which result in lower Lp-PLA2 levels, are associated with reduced risk of incident PAD. METHODS:Our analysis included 9922 participants (56% female; 21% African-American; mean age 63 years) without baseline PAD at ARIC Visit 4 (1996-1998), who had Lp-PLA2 activity measured and were subsequently followed for the development of PAD, defined by occurrence of a PAD-related hospitalization, through 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to determine the association of Lp-PLA2 levels and PLA2G7 gene variants with incident PAD. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 14.9 years, we identified 756 incident cases of PAD. In analyses adjusting for age, race, and sex, each standard deviation increment in Lp-PLA2 activity (62 nmol/ml/min) was associated with a higher risk of developing PAD (hazard ratio (HR) 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.26). This association remained significant after additional adjustment for risk factors, other cardiovascular disease, and medication use, but was strongly attenuated (HR: 1.09; 95% CI 1.00, 1.20). PLA2G7 variants were not associated with a lower risk of PAD in both white carriers (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.17-8.56) and African-American carriers (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.41-1.67), although statistical power was quite limited for this analysis, particularly in whites. CONCLUSIONS:While higher Lp-PLA2 activity was associated with an increased risk for incident PAD, it is likely a risk marker largely represented by traditional risk factors.
Project description:Ultrasound measurements of arterial stiffness are associated with atherosclerosis risk factors, but limited data exist on their association with incident cardiovascular events. We evaluated the association of carotid ultrasound-derived arterial stiffness measures with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.Carotid arterial strain and compliance, distensibility and stiffness indices, pressure-strain, and Young elastic moduli were measured in 10 407 individuals using ultrasound. Hazard ratios for incident CHD (myocardial infarction, fatal CHD, coronary revascularization) and stroke in minimally adjusted (age, sex, center, race) and fully adjusted models (minimally adjusted model+diabetes, height, weight, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, tobacco use, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and carotid intima-media thickness) were calculated.The mean age was 55.3 years. Over a mean follow-up of 13.8 years, 1267 incident CHD and 383 ischemic stroke events occurred. After full adjustment for risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness, all arterial stiffness parameters (carotid arterial strain hazard ratio [HR], 1.14 [95% CI, 1.02-1.28]; arterial distensibility HR, 1.19 [1.02-1.39]; stiffness indices HR, 1.14 [1.04-1.25]; pressure-strain HR, 1.17 [1.06-1.28]; Young elastic moduli HR, 1.13 [1.03-1.24]), except arterial compliance (HR, 1.02 [0.90-1.16], were significantly associated with incident stroke but not with CHD.After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, ultrasound measures of carotid arterial stiffness are associated with incident ischemic stroke but not incident CHD events despite that the 2 outcomes sharing similar risk factors.URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005131.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multiple prospective studies have established an association between inflammation and higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) mass and activity and incident AF has not been extensively evaluated. METHODS:Using data from 10,794 Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study participants aged 53-75 years, 5,181 Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants aged 65 to 100 years, and 5,425 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants aged 45-84 years, we investigated the association between baseline Lp-PLA2 levels and the risk of developing AF. Incident AF was identified in each cohort by follow-up visit electrocardiograms, hospital discharge coding of AF, or Medicare claims data. RESULTS:Over a mean of 13.1, 11.5, and 10.0 years of follow-up, 1,439 (13%), 2,084 (40%), and 615 (11%) incident AF events occurred in ARIC, CHS, and MESA, respectively. In adjusted analyses, each SD increment in Lp-PLA2 activity was associated with incident AF in both ARIC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.20) and MESA (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.46). Each SD increment in Lp-PLA2 mass was also associated with incident AF in MESA (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41). No significant associations were observed among CHS participants. CONCLUSIONS:Although higher Lp-PLA2 mass and activity were associated with development of AF in ARIC and MESA, this relationship was not observed in CHS, a cohort of older individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Heart failure (HF) hospitalization places patients at increased short-term risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Long-term risk for VTE associated with incident HF, HF subtypes, or structural heart disease is unknown. OBJECTIVES:In the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) cohort, VTE risk associated with incident HF, HF subtypes, and abnormal echocardiographic measures in the absence of clinical HF was assessed. METHODS:During follow-up, ARIC identified incident HF and subcategorized HF with preserved ejection fraction or reduced ejection fraction. At the fifth clinical examination, echocardiography was performed. Physicians adjudicated incident VTE using hospital records. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between HF or echocardiographic exposures and VTE. RESULTS:Over a mean of 22 years in 13,728 subjects, of whom 2,696 (20%) developed incident HF, 729 subsequent VTE events were identified. HF was associated with increased long-term risk for VTE (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.13; 95% confidence interval: 2.58 to 3.80). In 7,588 subjects followed for a mean of 10 years, the risk for VTE was similar for HF with preserved ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio: 4.71; 95% CI: 2.94 to 7.52) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio: 5.53; 95% confidence interval: 3.42 to 8.94). In 5,438 subjects without HF followed for a mean of 3.5 years, left ventricular relative wall thickness and mean left ventricular wall thickness were independent predictors of VTE. CONCLUSIONS:In this prospective population-based study, incident hospitalized HF (including both heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and reduced ejection fraction), as well as echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular remodeling, were associated with greatly increased risk for VTE, which persisted through long-term follow-up. Evidence-based strategies to prevent long-term VTE in patients with HF, beyond time of hospitalization, are needed.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to determine whether pre-heart failure (HF) myocardial injury explains the differential mortality after HF across weight categories. BACKGROUND:Obesity is a risk factor for HF, but pre-HF obesity is associated with lower mortality after incident HF. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is a sensitive marker of myocardial injury, and predicts incident HF and mortality. METHODS:Stratifying 1,279 individuals with incident HF hospitalizations by their pre-HF hs-cTnT levels (< and ? 14 ng/l), we examined the association of pre-HF body mass index (BMI) with mortality after incident HF hospitalization in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study. RESULTS:Mean age at HF was 74 years (53% women, 27% black). Individuals with pre-HF hs-cTnT ?14 ng/l had higher mortality after incident HF (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18 to 1.80) compared to individuals with hs-cTnT <14 ng/l in an adjusted model including BMI. Compared with normal weight subjects, the mortality was lower in overweight (HR: 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.98) and obese individuals (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.72) with hs-cTnT <14 ng/l; and in those with hs-cTnT ?14 ng/l (overweight HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.83; obese HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.91; interaction: p = 0.154 between BMI and hs-cTnT). The lower mortality risk in obese and overweight subjects remained similar when log hs-cTnT was added as a continuous variable to a multivariable model, and in sensitivity analyses after further adjusting for left ventricular hypertrophy or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION:Although greater pre-existing subclinical myocardial injury was associated with higher mortality after incident HF hospitalization, it did not explain the obesity paradox in HF, which was observed irrespective of subclinical myocardial injury. (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities [ARIC]; NCT00005131).
Project description:This study assesses whether the relationship of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] with cardiovascular risk may be modified by concurrent hormone replacement therapy (HT).Prior studies indicate that HT decreases plasma levels of Lp(a), but few have been powered to assess whether it modifies the relationship of Lp(a) with cardiovascular disease (CVD).Lipoprotein(a) at baseline was measured among 27,736 initially healthy women, of whom 12,075 indicated active HT use at the time of blood draw at study initiation and 15,661 did not. The risk of first-ever major cardiovascular event (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal cerebrovascular event, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death) over a 10-year period was assessed with Cox proportional hazard models according to Lp(a) levels and HT status and adjusted for potential confounding variables.As anticipated, Lp(a) values were lower among women taking HT (median 9.4 mg/dl vs. 11.6 mg/dl, p < 0.0001). In women not taking HT, the hazard ratio of future CVD for the highest Lp(a) quintile compared with the lowest was 1.8 (p trend <0.0001), after adjusting for age, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, and treatment arms of aspirin and vitamin E. In contrast, among women taking HT, there was little evidence of association with CVD (hazard ratio: 1.1, p trend = 0.18; interaction p value = 0.0009 between Lp(a) quintiles and HT on incident CVD).The relationship of high Lp(a) levels with increased CVD is modified by HT. These data suggest that the predictive utility of Lp(a) is markedly attenuated among women taking HT and may inform clinicians' interpretation of Lp(a) values in such patients. (Women's Health Study [WHS]; NCT00000479).
Project description:Objective- Lp(a) [lipoprotein(a)] levels vary by race/ethnicity and were recently found to be associated with risk of heart failure (HF). We aimed to determine whether Lp(a)-related risk of HF is similar across different races and whether Lp(a) may further be related to HF with reduced ejection fraction or HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Approach and Results- In 6809 participants of the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), aged 45 to 84 years and free of cardiovascular disease, 308 incident HF events occurred during a median 13-year follow-up. Baseline Lp(a) concentrations were determined by immunoassay. Incident HF was adjudicated, distinguishing HF with reduced ejection fraction (ejection fraction, <45%) from HFpEF (ejection fraction, ?45%). Cox regression assessed relations between Lp(a) and HF risk among 4 races/ethnicities. Lp(a) was examined as a continuous variable (per log unit) and using clinical cutoff values, 30 and 50 mg/dL. Lp(a) was related to greater risk of HF in whites alone: per log unit Lp(a) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; P=0.02); Lp(a) ?30 mg/dL (HR, 1.69; P=0.01), Lp(a) ?50 mg/dL (HR, 1.87; P=0.006). No significant relations were found in black, Hispanic, or Chinese participants, and significant race interactions were observed. Lp(a) was additionally related to greater risk of HFpEF in white participants: per log unit Lp(a) (HR, 1.48; P=0.001), Lp(a) ?30 mg/dL (HR, 2.15; P=0.01), Lp(a) ?50 mg/dL (HR, 2.60; P=0.004). Lp(a)-related risk of HF and HFpEF in whites was independent of aortic valve disease. Conclusions- In a multiethnic sample, Lp(a)-related risks of HF and HFpEF were only evident in white participants. If confirmed, these findings have implications in further Lp(a) research and clinical practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although age-associated changes in left ventricular diastolic function are well recognized, limited data exist characterizing measures of diastolic function in older adults, including both reference ranges reflecting the older adult population and prognostically relevant values for incident heart failure (HF), as well as their associations with circulating biomarkers of HF risk. METHODS:Among 5801 elderly participants in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; age range, 67-90 years; mean age, 76±5 years; 42% male; 21% black), we determined the continuous association of diastolic measures (tissue Doppler imaging [TDI] e', E/e', and left atrial size) with concomitant N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and subsequent HF hospitalization or death. We also determined sex-specific 10th and 90th percentile limits for these measures using quantile regression in 401 participants free of prevalent cardiovascular disease and risk factors. RESULTS:Each measure of diastolic function was robustly associated with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and incident HF or death. ARIC-based reference limits for TDI e' (4.6 and 5.2 cm/s for septal and lateral TDI e', respectively) were substantially lower than guideline cut points (7 and 10 cm/s, respectively), whereas E/e' and left atrial size demonstrated good agreement with guideline cut points. TDI e' was nonlinearly associated with incident HF or death, with inflection points for risk supportive of ARIC-based limits. ARIC-based limits for diastolic function improved risk discrimination over guideline-based cut points based on the integrated discrimination improvement (P<0.001) and continuous net reclassification improvement (P<0.001), reclassifying 42% of the study population as having normal diastolic function. We replicate these findings in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. With these limits, 46% had normal diastolic function and were at low risk of HF hospitalization or death (1%/y over a mean 1.7-year follow-up), 49% had 1 or 2 abnormal measures and were at intermediate risk (2.4%/y), and all 3 diastolic measures were abnormal in 5% who were at high risk (7.5%/y). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that left ventricular longitudinal relaxation velocity declines as a part of healthy aging and is largely prognostically benign. The use of age-based normative values when considering an elderly population improves the risk discrimination of diastolic measures for incident HF or death.
Project description:Although studies of the accuracy of heart failure (HF) classification scoring systems are available, few have examined their performance when restricted to self-reported items.We evaluated the association between a simplified version of the Gothenburg score, a validated HF score comprised of cardiac and pulmonary signs and symptoms and medication use, and incident HF hospitalizations in 15,430 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants. Gothenburg scores (range: 0-3) were constructed using self-reported items obtained at study baseline (1987-89). Incident HF hospitalization over 14.7 years of follow-up was defined as the first identified hospitalization with an ICD-9 discharge code of 428 (n = 1,668). Self-reported Gothenburg scores demonstrated very high agreement with the original metric comprised of self-reported and clinical measures and were directly associated with incident HF hospitalizations: [score = 1: hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 1.23 (1.07-1.42); score = 2: HRR = 2.17 (1.92-2.43); score = 3: HRR = 3.98 (3.37-4.70)].In a population-based cohort, self-reported Gothenburg criteria items were associated with hospitalized HF over a prolonged follow-up time. The association was also consistent across groups defined by sex and race, suggesting that this simple score deserves further study as a screening tool for the identification of individuals at high risk of HF in resource-limited settings.