Optimization of a genotyping screening based on hydrolysis probes to detect the main mutations related to Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).
ABSTRACT: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial inherited disease characterized by bilateral vision problems, such as reduced visual acuity, dyschromatopsia, and central or centrocecal scotoma. Of these cases, 95% are caused by three mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): m.G11778A, followed by m.T14484C and m.G3460A. The remaining 5% of cases of LHON are caused by rare mutations also present in mtDNA. Although conventional molecular tools for molecular screening of LHON are becoming popular, in most cases these tools are still expensive and time-consuming and are difficult to reproduce. Therefore, to meet the need for more accurate, faster, and cheaper techniques for molecular screening, as well as make it more accessible, we used the high-throughput method TaqMan® OpenArray™ Genotyping platform for developing a customized high-throughput assay for the three main mutations related to LHON.The assay was performed for 87 individuals diagnosed with LHON or acquired optic neuropathy of unknown origin. The three main mutations were screened using the customized assay with the TaqMan® OpenArray™ Genotyping platform, and all reactions were performed in triplicate. The positive and negative results were revalidated with restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR) and Sanger sequencing.The main mutations related to LHON were detected in 34 patients with genotyping reactions, of which 27 cases had the m.G11778A mutation, and seven had the m.T14484C mutation.The TaqMan® OpenArray™ Genotyping platform was shown to be an effective tool for molecular screening of the most common mutations related to LHON without presenting false positive or negative results for the analyzed mutations. In addition, this tool can be considered a cheaper, faster, and more accurate alternative for molecular screening of LHON mutations than PCR and Sanger sequencing, as 94 genotyping reactions can be performed within 6 h and specific TaqMan probes are used.
Project description:Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a degenerative disease of the optic nerve associated with one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C mutations. Although several procedures are available to genotype these mutations, quantitative approaches with rapid, low-cost and easy to handle advantages for three LHON mtDNA mutations are rarely reported. Here, we firstly developed a "one-step" tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system (T-ARMS) PCR for qualitative genotyping of three LHON mtDNA mutations. Subsequently, we established single, duplex and triplex TaqMan MGB probe-based fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to perform both qualitative and quantitative analyses of three LHON mtDNA mutations. Standard curves based on tenfold diluted plasmid standard exhibited high specificity and sensitivity, stable repeatability and reliable detectable ability of TaqMan probe qPCR assays without cross-reactivity upon probes combination. Moreover, by comparing with SYBR Green qPCR, we further validated the feasibility of the triplex-probe qPCR assay for the quantitative detection of mtDNA copy number in blood samples. In conclusion, our study describes a rapid, low-cost, easy to-handle, and high-throughput TaqMan-MGB probe qPCR assay to perform both qualitative and quantitative analysis of three primary LHON mtDNA mutations, offering a promising approach for genetic screening and testing of LHON mutations.
Project description:Compared with the standard qPCR, nanoliter-scale qPCR can use smaller quantities of RNA and increase throughput. The TaqMan™ OpenArray® NT Cycler System was assessed for use with degraded RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors.Expression of candidate prognostic genes was quantified using the OpenArray platform and matching fresh frozen and FFPE patient renal cell carcinomas. Reverse transcription, with gene-specific reverse transcription and preamplification, optimized the percentage of detectable transcripts. When using high quality RNA from fresh frozen tumors, the OpenArray platform identified 30 prognostic genes. However, when using RNA from FFPE tumors, only 13 prognostic genes were identified, but this increased to 33 with addition of preamplification.The OpenArray platform can be optimized to quantify gene expressions from FFPE tumors.
Project description:AIM:We report the prevalence and effect of genetic variability on pharmacokinetic parameters of isoniazid and rifampicin. MATERIALS & METHODS:Genotypes for SLCO1B1, NAT2, PXR, ABCB1 and UGT1A genes were determined using a TaqMan® Genotyping OpenArray™. Nonlinear mixed-effects models were used to describe drug pharmacokinetics. RESULTS:Among 172 patients, 18, 43 and 34% were classified as rapid, intermediate and slow NAT2 acetylators, respectively. Of the 58 patients contributing drug concentrations, rapid and intermediate acetylators had 2.3- and 1.6-times faster isoniazid clearance than slow acetylators. No association was observed between rifampicin pharmacokinetics and SLCO1B1, ABCB1, UGT1A or PXR genotypes. CONCLUSION:Clinical relevance of the effects of genetic variation on isoniazid concentrations and low first-line tuberculosis drug exposures observed require further investigation.
Project description:AIM:We assessed the effect of genetic variability in UGT1A and ABCB1 genes on moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics. METHODS:Genotypes for selected UGT1A and ABCB1 SNPs were determined using a TaqMan® Genotyping OpenArray™ and high-resolution melt analysis for rs8175347. A nonlinear mixed-effects model was used to describe moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics. RESULTS:Genotypes of UGT1A SNPs, rs8175347 and rs3755319 (20.6% lower and 11.6% increased clearance, respectively) and ABCB1 SNP rs2032582 (40% reduced bioavailability in one individual) were significantly associated with changes in moxifloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters. CONCLUSION:Genetic variation in UGT1A as represented by rs8175347 to a lesser extent rs3755319 and the ABCB1 rs2032582 SNP is modestly associated with the interindividual variability reported in moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics and exposure. Clinical relevance of the effects of genetic variation on moxifloxacin pharmacokinetic requires further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several breast cancer susceptibility loci, and one genetic variant, rs11249433, at 1p11.2 was reported to be associated with breast cancer in European populations. To explore the genetic variants in this region associated with breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a two-stage fine-mapping study with a total of 1792 breast cancer cases and 1867 controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including rs11249433 in a 277 kb region at 1p11.2 were selected and genotyping was performed by using TaqMan® OpenArray™ Genotyping System for stage 1 samples (878 cases and 900 controls). In stage 2 (914 cases and 967 controls), three SNPs (rs2580520, rs4844616 and rs11249433) were further selected and genotyped for validation. The results showed that one SNP (rs2580520) located at a predicted enhancer region of SRGAP2 was consistently associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in a recessive genetic model [Odds Ratio (OR) ?=? 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?=? 1.16-2.36 for stage 2 samples; OR ?=? 1.51, 95% CI ?=? 1.16-1.97 for combined samples, respectively]. However, no significant association was observed between rs11249433 and breast cancer risk in this Chinese population (dominant genetic model in combined samples: OR ?=? 1.20, 95% CI ?=? 0.92-1.57). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genotypes of rs2580520 at 1p11.2 suggest that Chinese women may have different breast cancer susceptibility loci, which may contribute to the development of breast cancer in this population.
Project description:Resistance to colistin, mediated by chromosomal mutations and more recently, by plasmid-borne mcr genes, is increasingly being reported in bacterial isolates taken from humans, animals, farms, foods, and the environment. To easily identify and contain this quickly spreading menace, efficient diagnostics that are cheaper, faster, simpler, sensitive, and specific have become indispensable and urgently necessary. A thorough and systematic review of the literature available at Pubmed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science was thus undertaken to identify articles describing novel and efficient colistin resistance- and mcr gene-detecting methods. From the final 23 studies included in this review, both phenotypic and molecular tests were found. The phenotypic tests consisted of novel culture media viz., SuperPolymyxin™, CHROMagar COL-APSE and LBJMR media, commercial automated MIC-determining instruments such as MICRONAUT-S, Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, Sensititre and MicroScan, and novel assays such as Colistin MAC test, Colispot, rapid polymxin NP test (RPNP), alteration of Zeta potential, modified RPNP test, MICRONAUT-MIC Strip, MIC Test Strip, UMIC System, and Sensitest™ Colistin. Molecular diagnostics consisted of the CT103XL microarray, eazyplex® SuperBug kit, and Taqman® /SYBR Green® real-time PCR assays, with 100% sensitivity and specificity plus a shorter turnaround time (<3 hr). Based on the sensitivity, specificity, cost, required skill and turnaround time, the RPNP test and/or novel culture media is recommended for under-resourced laboratories while the Multiplex PCR or Taqman® /SYBR Green® real-time PCR assay alongside the RPNP or novel culture media is suggested for well-resourced ones.
Project description:Genome mapping has promised much to tree fruit breeding during the last 10 years. Nevertheless, one of the greatest challenges remaining to tree fruit geneticists is the translation of trait loci and whole genome sequences into diagnostic genetic markers that are efficient and cost-effective for use by breeders, who must select genetically optimal parents and subsequently select genetically superior individuals among their progeny. To take this translational step, we designed the apple International RosBREED SNP Consortium OpenArray v1.0 (IRSCOA v1.0) assay using a set of 128 apple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to fruit quality and pest and disease resistance trait loci. The Thermo Fisher Scientific OpenArray® technology enables multiplexed screening of SNP markers using a real-time PCR instrument with fluorescent probe-based Taqman® assays. We validated the apple IRSCOA v1.0 multi-trait assay by screening 240 phenotyped individuals from the Plant & Food Research apple cultivar breeding programme. This set of individuals comprised commercial and heritage cultivars, elite selections, and families segregating for traits of importance to breeders. In total, 33 SNP markers of the IRSCOA v1.0 were validated for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for the scab resistances Rvi2/Vh2, Rvi4/Vh4, Rvi6/Vf, fire blight resistance MR5/RLP1, powdery mildew resistance Pl2, fruit firmness, skin colour, flavour intensity, and acidity. The availability of this set of validated trait-associated SNP markers, which can be used individually on multiple genotyping platforms available to various apple breeding programmes or re-designed using the flanking sequences, represents a large translational genetics step from genomics to crop improvement of apple.
Project description:TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact the performance of PCR-based genotype assays, including TaqMan. Regardless of the test platform used, it is prudent to confirm rare allele calls by an independent method.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) considered to be the primary sensors of pathogens in innate immunity. Genetic variants could be associated to differences in breed innate immune response to pathogens and thus to susceptibility to infections or autoimmune diseases. There is therefore great interest in the characterization of canine TLRs. RESULTS:Polymorphisms in canine TLRs have been characterized by massive sequencing after enrichment of their exonic regions. DNAs from 335 dogs (seven different breeds) and 100 wolves (two different populations) were used in pools. The ratio of SNP discovery was 76.5% (in relation to CanFam 3.1); 155 out of 204 variants identified were new. Functional annotation identified 64 non-synonymous variants (43 new), 73 synonymous variants (56 new) and 67 modifier variants (57 new). 12 out of 64 non-synonymous variants are breed or wolf specific. TLR5 has been found to be the most polymorphic among canine TLRs. Finally, a TaqMan OpenArray® plate containing 64 SNPs with a possible functional effect in the protein (4 frameshifts and 60 non-synonymous codons) has been designed and validated. CONCLUSIONS:Non-synonymous genetic variation has been characterized in exonic regions of canine Toll-like Receptors. The TaqMan OpenArray® plate developed to capture the individual variability that affects protein function will allow high-throughput genotyping either to study association to infection susceptibility or even TLR evolution in the canine genome.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether the association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) (known as "Harding disease") is a chance finding, or the 2 disorders are mechanistically linked.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a United Kingdom-wide prospective cohort study of prevalent cases of MS with LHON mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. The new cases were compared with published cases, enabling a comprehensive clinical description. We also performed a meta-analysis of studies screening patients with MS for LHON mtDNA mutations to find evidence of a genetic association.<h4>Results</h4>Twelve new patients were identified from 11 pedigrees, and 44 cases were identified in the literature. The combined cohort had the following characteristics: multiple episodes of visual loss, predominance for women, and lengthy time interval before the fellow eye is affected (average 1.66 years), which is very atypical of LHON; conversely, most patients presented without eye pain and had a poor visual prognosis, which is unusual for optic neuritis associated with MS. The number of UK cases of LHON-MS fell well within the range predicted by the chance occurrence of MS and the mtDNA mutations known to cause LHON. There was no association between LHON mtDNA mutations and MS in a meta-analysis of the published data.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although the co-occurrence of MS and LHON mtDNA mutations is likely to be due to chance, the resulting disorder has a distinct phenotype, implicating a mechanistic interaction. Patients with LHON-MS have a more aggressive course, and prognostication and treatment should be guarded.