PORPHOBILINOGEN DEAMINASE AND ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AS A POSSIBLE DIAGNOSTIC AID IN LYMPHATIC LEUKEMIAS.
ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated recently that in addition to morphologic and immunologic methods, enzyme characterisation of lymphoid cells is useful in the study and classification of lympho proliferative disorders. Heme biosynthetic pathway and purine metabolism are reported to be disturbed in such patients, this study was an attempt to estimate two enzymes Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) and Porphobilinogen Deaminase (PBGD) and correlate them with cytological and morphological parameters in lymphatic leukemias. Fasting heparinized venous blood samples were collected from 40 patients and 20 controls. Porphobilinogen Deaminase (PBGD) and Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) assays were carried out in peripheral mononuclear cells. Both enzyme activities were significantly elevated in ALL. In CLL, while PBGD activity was elevated, ADA remained in normal limits. Our study indicates that PBGD and ADA Assays will be useful adjuncts to cytomorphological studies in differentiating ALL from CLL.
Project description:Human porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), the third enzyme in the heme pathway, catalyzes four times a single reaction to convert porphobilinogen into hydroxymethylbilane. Remarkably, PBGD employs a single active site during the process, with a distinct yet chemically equivalent bond formed each time. The four intermediate complexes of the enzyme have been biochemically validated and they can be isolated but they have never been structurally characterized other than the apo- and holo-enzyme bound to the cofactor. We present crystal structures for two human PBGD intermediates: PBGD loaded with the cofactor and with the reaction intermediate containing two additional substrate pyrrole rings. These results, combined with SAXS and NMR experiments, allow us to propose a mechanism for the reaction progression that requires less structural rearrangements than previously suggested: the enzyme slides a flexible loop over the growing-product active site cavity. The structures and the mechanism proposed for this essential reaction explain how a set of missense mutations result in acute intermittent porphyria.
Project description:The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 18.104.22.168) catalyses an early step of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis pathway in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. The enzyme possesses a dipyrromethane cofactor which is covalently linked by a thioether bridge to an invariant cysteine residue. Expression in Escherichia coli of a His-tagged form of Bacillus megaterium PBGD permitted the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the enzyme from this species at high resolution.
Project description:The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 22.214.171.124) catalyses a key early step of the haem-biosynthesis pathway in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. The enzyme possesses a dipyrromethane cofactor which is covalently linked by a thioether bridge to an invariant cysteine residue. Since PBGD catalyses a reaction which is common to the biosynthesis of both haem and chlorophyll, structural studies of a plant PBGD enzyme offer great potential for the discovery of novel herbicides. Until recently, structural data have only been available for the Escherichia coli and human forms of the enzyme. Expression in E. coli of a codon-optimized gene for Arabidopsis thaliana PBGD has permitted for the first time the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the enzyme from a plant species at high resolution.
Project description:We report a new assay of human porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). Deficiency in this enzyme activity causes acute intermittent porphyria, the most common disorder of heme biosynthesis. The assay involves incubation of blood erythrocyte lysate with porphobilinogen, the natural PBGD substrate. Two subsequent enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway, uroporphyrinogen III synthase and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, are deactivated by heating so that their activity does not interfere with the PBGD assay. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is used to monitor the production of uroporphyrinogen I and thus measure the PGBD activity. A simple and efficient workup using liquid-liquid extraction with >90% product recovery was employed to avoid separation by liquid chromatography. The assays show good reproducibility (+/-3.3%) and linear dependence of the uroporphyrinogen I formation on incubation time and protein amount. The Km of PGBD for porphobilinogen was measured as 11.2 +/- 0.5 microM with Vmax of 0.0041 +/- 0.0002 microM/(min.mg of hemoglobin). The coefficient of variation of PBGD activity among several unaffected individuals (12%) is significantly lower than the decrease due to acute intermittent porphyria (50%).
Project description:Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), the third enzyme in the heme biosynthesis, catalyzes the sequential coupling of four porphobilinogen (PBG) molecules into a heme precursor. Mutations in PBGD are associated with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), a rare metabolic disorder. We used Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) to demonstrate that wild-type PBGD and AIP-associated mutant R167W both existed as holoenzymes (E<sub>holo</sub>) covalently attached to the dipyrromethane cofactor, and three intermediate complexes, ES, ES<sub>2</sub>, and ES<sub>3</sub>, where S represents PBG. In contrast, only ES<sub>2</sub> was detected in AIP-associated mutant R173W, indicating that the formation of ES<sub>3</sub> is inhibited. The R173W crystal structure in the ES<sub>2</sub>-state revealed major rearrangements of the loops around the active site, compared to wild-type PBGD in the E<sub>holo</sub>-state. These results contribute to elucidating the structural pathogenesis of two common AIP-associated mutations and reveal the important structural role of Arg173 in the polypyrrole elongation mechanism.
Project description:The Arabidopsis rugosa1 (rug1) mutant has irregularly shaped leaves and reduced growth. In the absence of pathogens, leaves of rug1 plants have spontaneous lesions reminiscent of those seen in lesion-mimic mutants; rug1 plants also express cytological and molecular markers associated with defence against pathogens. These rug1 phenotypes are made stronger by dark/light transitions. The rug1 mutant also has delayed flowering time, upregulation of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and downregulation of the flowering promoters FT and SOC1/AGL20. Vernalization suppresses the late flowering phenotype of rug1 by repressing FLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 280 nuclear genes are differentially expressed between rug1 and wild type; almost a quarter of these genes are involved in plant defence. In rug1, the auxin response is also affected and several auxin-responsive genes are downregulated. We identified the RUG1 gene by map-based cloning and found that it encodes porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), also known as hydroxymethylbilane synthase, an enzyme of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway, which produces chlorophyll, heme, siroheme and phytochromobilin in plants. PBGD activity is reduced in rug1 plants, which accumulate porphobilinogen. Our results indicate that Arabidopsis PBGD deficiency impairs the porphyrin pathway and triggers constitutive activation of plant defence mechanisms leading to leaf lesions and affecting vegetative and reproductive development.
Project description:Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) catalyzes the formation of 1-hydroxymethylbilane (HMB), a crucial intermediate in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, through a step-wise polymerization of four molecules of porphobilinogen (PBG), using a unique dipyrromethane (DPM) cofactor. Structural and biochemical studies have suggested residues with catalytic importance, but their specific role in the mechanism and the dynamic behavior of the protein with respect to the growing pyrrole chain remains unknown. Molecular dynamics simulations of the protein through the different stages of pyrrole chain elongation suggested that the compactness of the overall protein decreases progressively with addition of each pyrrole ring. Essential dynamics showed that domains move apart while the cofactor turn region moves towards the second domain, thus creating space for the pyrrole rings added at each stage. Residues of the flexible active site loop play a significant role in its modulation. Steered molecular dynamics was performed to predict the exit mechanism of HMB from PBGD at the end of the catalytic cycle. Based on the force profile and minimal structural changes the proposed path for the exit of HMB is through the space between the domains flanking the active site loop. Residues reported as catalytically important, also play an important role in the exit of HMB. Further, upon removal of HMB, the structure of PBGD gradually relaxes to resemble its initial stage structure, indicating its readiness to resume a new catalytic cycle.
Project description:The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) is one of the key enzymes in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. It catalyses the formation of a linear tetrapyrrole from four molecules of the substrate porphobilinogen (PBG). It has a dipyrromethane cofactor (DPM) in the active site which is covalently linked to a conserved cysteine residue through a thioether bridge. The substrate molecules are linked to the cofactor in a stepwise head-to-tail manner during the reaction, which is catalysed by a conserved aspartate residue: Asp82 in the B. megaterium enzyme. Three mutations have been made affecting Asp82 (D82A, D82E and D82N) and their crystal structures have been determined at resolutions of 2.7, 1.8 and 1.9?Å, respectively. These structures reveal that whilst the D82E mutant possesses the DPM cofactor, in the D82N and D82A mutants the cofactor is likely to be missing, incompletely assembled or disordered. Comparison of the mutant PBGD structures with that of the wild-type enzyme shows that there are significant domain movements and suggests that the enzyme adopts `open' and `closed' conformations, potentially in response to substrate binding.
Project description:Highly stable labelled complexes are formed between porphobilinogen deaminase and stoicheiometric amounts of [14C]porphobilinogen. On completion of the catalytic cycle by the addition of excess of substrate, the complexes yield labelled product and display all the properties expected from covalently bound enzyme intermediates involved in the deaminase catalytic sequence.
Project description:The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 126.96.36.199) catalyses an early step of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis pathway in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. The enzyme possesses a dipyrromethane cofactor, which is covalently linked by a thioether bridge to an invariant cysteine residue (Cys241 in the Bacillus megaterium enzyme). The cofactor is extended during the reaction by the sequential addition of the four substrate molecules, which are released as a linear tetrapyrrole product. Expression in Escherichia coli of a His-tagged form of B. megaterium PBGD has permitted the X-ray analysis of the enzyme from this species at high resolution, showing that the cofactor becomes progressively oxidized to the dipyrromethene and dipyrromethanone forms. In previously solved PBGD structures, the oxidized cofactor is in the dipyromethenone form, in which both pyrrole rings are approximately coplanar. In contrast, the oxidized cofactor in the B. megaterium enzyme appears to be in the dipyrromethanone form, in which the C atom at the bridging ?-position of the outer pyrrole ring is very clearly in a tetrahedral configuration. It is suggested that the pink colour of the freshly purified protein is owing to the presence of the dipyrromethene form of the cofactor which, in the structure reported here, adopts the same conformation as the fully reduced dipyrromethane form.