Pleural and Pericardiac Effusion as a Complication of Properly Placed Umbilical Venous Catheter.
ABSTRACT: Pleural and pericardial effusions are extremely rare complications of umbilical venous catheterization in newborns. A preterm male infant weighing 850g, with insertion of an umbilical venous catheter (UVC) developed massive right pleural and pericardial effusions. The position of catheter tip was verified by chest radiography and echocardiography. The effusions were drained by thoracentesis and pericardiocentesis without complication, and were biochemically similar as total parenteral infusion which infused through catheter.
Project description:The chylothorax is a lymphocyte predominant protein-discordant exudative pleural effusions with low lactate dehydrogenase and elevated triglyceride levels. Transudative chylothoraces associated with Superior Cava syndrome (SVC) are an extremely rare clinical entity. In this manuscript, we describe a case of transudative chylothorax due to SVC obstruction secondary to thrombosis of a peripheral inserted central venous catheter, which ultimately resolved after endovascular intervention. In our review of the literature, only five cases of transudative chylothorax associated with SVC syndrome were identified with 60% of cases associated with thrombosis and complications due to catheters in the central venous circulation. Treatment of the underlying cause is key to resolution of the chylothorax. Thoracentesis is an initial intervention for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Endovascular intervention is the primary mode of treatment for SVC thrombosis and stenting is preferred for malignant causes, however anticoagulation alone has been reported in the resolution of chylothorax. In patients with recurrent chylothorax despite of relief of SVC obstruction, a medium-chain triglyceride diet and octreotide can be prescribed in order to decrease the chyle flow in the thoracic duct. Surgical ligation of the thoracic duct can be considered if medical management and endovascular treatment fails.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Guidelines for recurrent malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) recommend definitive procedures, such as indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) or pleurodesis, over repeat thoracentesis. We hypothesized that many patients have multiple thoracenteses rather than definitive procedures and that this results in more procedures and complications. METHODS:Retrospective cohort study using SEER-Medicare data from 2007 to 2011. Patients 66 to 90 years of age with an MPE were included. The primary outcome was whether patients with rapidly recurring MPE, defined as recurrence within 2 weeks of first thoracentesis, received guideline consistent care. Guideline consistent care was defined as a definitive second pleural procedure. RESULTS:Thoracentesis for MPE was performed in 23,431 patients. A second pleural procedure because of recurrence was required in 12,967 (55%). Recurrence was rapid in 7,565 (58%) of the 12,967 patients that had a recurrence. Of the 7,565 patients with rapid recurrence, 1,811 (24%) received guideline consistent care. Definitive pleural procedures compared with repeat thoracentesis resulted in fewer subsequent pleural procedures (0.62 vs 1.44 procedures per patient, respectively; P < .0001), fewer pneumothoraxes (< 0.0037 vs 0.009 pneumothoraxes per patient, respectively; P = .001), and fewer ED procedures (0.02 vs 0.04 ED procedures per patient, respectively; P < .001). Repeat thoracentesis and IPCs resulted in fewer inpatient days compared with chest tube or thoracoscopic pleurodesis (0.013 vs 0.013 vs 0.085 vs 0.097 inpatient days per day of life, respectively; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Guideline consistent care using definitive procedures compared with repeat thoracentesis was associated with fewer subsequent procedures and complications; however, pleurodesis resulted in more inpatient days.
Project description:BACKGROUND Traditional diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) cannot be reliably applied to tuberculous pleurisy. Therefore, this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity and safety of ultrasound-guided cutting-needle pleural biopsy versus thoracoscopic pleural biopsy in patients suspected of tuberculous pleurisy following inconclusive thoracentesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 196 adult patients with acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-negative exudative pleural effusions clinically suspected of tuberculous pleurisy were recruited. Enrollees were randomized into 2 cohorts: ultrasound-guided cutting-needle pleural biopsy (n=96) or thoracoscopic pleural biopsy (n=96). The overall diagnostic yields, diagnostic sensitivities for tuberculous pleurisy, and post-procedural complications for both cohorts were statistically compared. RESULTS Ultrasound-guided pleural biopsy displayed an overall diagnostic yield of 83%, while thorascopic pleural biopsy displayed a similar overall diagnostic yield of 86% (?²=1.88, df=1, p=0.17). There were 127 patients conclusively diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy, resulting in a tuberculous pleurisy prevalence of 65% in this patient population (66% in the ultrasound cohort vs. 63% in the thoracoscopy cohort; p>0.05). Ultrasound-guided pleural biopsy displayed a sensitivity of 82% in detecting tuberculous pleurisy, while thorascopic pleural biopsy displayed a similar sensitivity of 90% (?²=1.05, df=1, p=0.30). The sensitivities of these 2 modalities did not significantly differ based on the degree of pleural thickening (p>0.05). Post-procedural complications were minor. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound-guided and thoracoscopic pleural biopsy both display strong (>80%) but statistically similar overall diagnostic yields for diagnosing pleural effusions following inconclusive thoracentesis. Both modalities also display strong (>80%) but statistically similar sensitivities in detecting tuberculous pleurisy.
Project description:We present a very rare case of right-sided isolated pleural effusion in a patient with severe endometriosis who, in relation to in vitro fertilization (IVF), developed ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Earlier laparotomy showed grade IV endometriosis including endometriotic implants of the diaphragm. The patient had no known risk factors for OHSS and only a moderate number of oocytes aspirated. She received, however, repeated hCG injections for luteal support. The patient did not achieve pregnancy but was hospitalized due to pain in the right side of the chest and dyspnoea. A chest computed tomography (CT) showed a pleural effusion on the right side. Total of 1000 ml of pleural fluid was drained after a single thoracentesis. After three days, the symptoms and fluid production ceased. Ascites is a common finding in OHSS, but pleural effusions are rare. Further, isolated pleural effusions have not previously been described in a patient with endometriosis. We suggest that the repeated hCG injections induced effusions from the endometriotic lesions at the diaphragm and as a consequence this patient developed isolated hydrothorax.
Project description:Dasatinib is considered an effective drug in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. Although reported to be well-tolerated, severe events such as pleural or pericardial effusion have been reported at 140 mg daily. We examined our chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with dasatinib at 100 mg or 50 mg daily and identified 4 of 13 patients who developed marked effusion formation. In 2 patients, grade III/IV pleural and/or pericardial effusions were recorded. All 4 patients had received previous anti-leukemia therapy but none had pre-existing cardiac or pulmonary diseases. In 3 patients, dasatinib had to be discontinued despite treatment with diuretics and glucocorticosteroids. In conclusion, dasatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia patients are at risk for the development of pleural and pericardial effusions even when the drug is administered at 100 mg or 50 mg daily. Therefore, all patients should be examined for pre-existing comorbidity and risk factors before starting dasatinib and all should have repeated chest X-rays during long-term dasatinib therapy.
Project description:Introduction:We investigated whether tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) in pleural effusions and serum can be used to distinguish pleural effusion aetiology. Materials and methods:During the first thoracentesis, we measured pleural fluid and serum tumour marker concentrations and calculated the pleural fluid/serum ratio for patients diagnosed with pleural effusion, using electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out and the Hanley and McNeil method was used to test the significance of the difference between the areas under ROC curves (AUCs). In order to detect which tumour marker best discriminates between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions and to establish the predictive value of those markers, discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis were utilized. Results:Serum tumour markers CYFRA 21-1 and NSE as well as pleural NSE were good predictors of pleural effusion malignancy and their combined model was found statistically significant (Chi-square = 28.415, P < 0.001). Respective ROC analysis showed significant discrimination value of the combination of these three markers (AUC = 0.79). Conclusions:Serum markers showed superiority to pleural fluid markers in determining pleural fluid aetiology. Serum CYFRA 21-1 and NSE concentrations as well as pleural fluid NSE values had the highest clinical value in differentiating between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions. The combination of these three markers produced a significant model to resolve pleural effusion aetiology.
Project description:Exudative pleural effusions, such as malignant and tuberculous pleural effusions, are associated with notable morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, a significant number of these effusions will remain undiagnosed despite thoracentesis. Traditionally, closed pleural biopsies have been the next best diagnostic step, but the diagnostic yield of blind closed pleural biopsies for malignant pleural effusions is insufficient. When image-guided targeted biopsies are not possible, both pleuroscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery are reasonable options for obtaining pleural biopsies, but the decision to select one procedure over the other continues to raise much debate. Pleuroscopy (aka. medical thoracoscopy, local anaesthetic thoracoscopy) is a relatively common procedure performed by interventional pulmonologists in the bronchoscopy suite with local anesthesia, often as an outpatient procedure, on spontaneously breathing patients. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, on the other hand, is performed by thoracic surgeons in the operating room, on mechanically ventilated patients under general anesthesia, though admittedly considerable overlap exists in practice. Both pleuroscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have reported diagnostic yields of over 90%, although pleuroscopy more often leads to the unsatisfactory diagnosis of 'non-specific' pleuritis. These cases of 'non-specific' pleuritis need to be followed up for at least one year, as 10-15% of them will eventually lead to the diagnosis of cancer, typically malignant pleural mesothelioma. Both procedures have their pros and cons, and it is therefore of paramount importance that all cases be discussed as part of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis within a "pleural team" that should ideally include interventional pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pleural or peritoneal effusions (ascites) are frequent in terminal stage malignancies. Medical management may be hazardous. METHODS: A 60-year-old man with metastatic malignant melanoma presented refractory ascites as well as bilateral pleural effusions. After failure of the medical treatment, bilateral pleural aspiration and paracentesis became necessary two to three times a week. A multi perforated 15F silicone catheter connected with a subcutaneous port was implanted in peritoneal and both pleural cavities surgically under general anesthesia. Leakage around the catheter is prevented by subcutaneous tunneling. Surgical technique is described and illustrated in a video. RESULTS: Implanted systems were immediately operational. Follow up period was 41 days. Each port was accessed 10 times and a total of 65'200 ml of fluid was drained. By the end of the forth week, pleural effusions diminished, systems were controlled for permeability and chest x-rays confirmed absence of effusion. CONCLUSION: Implanted port systems for refractory ascites and pleural effusions avoid morbidity and the patient's anxiety related to repeated puncture-aspiration. Large catheter diameter allows an easy and fast drainage of large volumes. Compared to chronic indwelling catheters, subcutaneous location of port system allows an entire integration, giving the patient a total liberty in daily life between two sessions of drainage. Drainage can be performed in an outpatient basis as an ambulatory procedure. This patient-friendly technique may be a treatment option in case of failure of other techniques.
Project description:A 46 year old lady presented three weeks after an oesophagectomy for oesophageal carcinoma with increasing breathlessness and a large left-sided pleural effusion. Computed tomography (CT) scan of her thorax, abdomen and pelvis revealed a large left-sided and small right-sided pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, ascites and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. The patient underwent both pericardial and pleural fluid drainage, however, unfortunately, deteriorated despite these interventions with increasing oxygen requirements requiring nasal high flow oxygen on the Intensive Care Unit. Her pleural and pericardial collections resolved with colchicine and later introduction of prednisolone over a period of 5 weeks. Polyserositis is well recognised after cardiac surgery, but such a dramatic complication after thoracotomy for non-cardiac surgery has as not previously been reported. The polyserositis may relate to the induction chemotherapy combined with surgery.
Project description:Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos.