Ongoing developments in RSV prophylaxis: a clinician's analysis.
ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children worldwide. Lower respiratory tract infection due to RSV is one of the most common causes of hospitalization for infants, especially those born premature or with chronic lung or heart disease. Furthermore, RSV infection is an important cause of morbidity in adults, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The acute phase of this infection is often followed by episodes of wheezing that recur for months or years and usually lead to a physician diagnosis of asthma. RSV was discovered more than 50 years ago, and despite extensive research to identify pharmacological therapies, the most effective management of this infection remains supportive care. The trial of a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine in the 1960s resulted in priming the severe illness upon natural infection. Currently, Palivizumab is the only available option for RSV prophylaxis, and because of restricted clinical benefits and high costs, it has been limited to a group of high-risk infants. There are several ongoing trials in preclinical, Phase-I, Phase-II, or Phase-III clinical stages for RSV vaccine development based on various strategies. Here we review the existing available prophylactic options, the current stages of RSV vaccine clinical trials, different strategies, and major hurdles in the development of an effective RSV vaccine.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute respiratory infections in children, yet no vaccine is available. The sole licensed preventive treatment against RSV is composed of a monoclonal neutralizing antibody (palivizumab), which targets a conformational epitope located on the fusion protein (F). Palivizumab reduces the burden of bronchiolitis but does not prevent infection. Thus, the development of RSV vaccines remains a priority. We previously evaluated nanorings formed by RSV nucleoprotein (N) as an RSV vaccine, as well as an immunostimulatory carrier for heterologous antigens. Here, we linked the palivizumab-targeted epitope (called FsII) to N, to generate N-FsII-nanorings. Intranasal N-FsII immunization elicited anti-F antibodies in mice that were non-neutralizing in vitro. Nevertheless, RSV-challenged animals were better protected against virus replication than mice immunized with N-nanorings, especially in the upper airways. In conclusion, an N-FsII-focused vaccine is an attractive candidate combining N-specific cellular immunity and F-specific antibodies for protection.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of pediatric respiratory infections. Palivizumab (Synagis®), a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been used successfully for a number of years to prevent severe RSV disease in at-risk infants. However, despite intense efforts, there is no approved vaccine or small molecule drug for RSV. As an enveloped virus, RSV must fuse its envelope with the host cell membrane, which is accomplished through the actions of the fusion (F) glycoprotein, with attachment help from the G glycoprotein. Because of their integral role in initiation of infection and their accessibility outside the lipid bilayer, these proteins have been popular targets in the discovery and development of antiviral compounds and vaccines against RSV. This review examines advances in the development of antiviral compounds and vaccine candidates.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Immunoprophylaxis with the anti-RSV monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, reduces the risk for RSV-related hospitalizations, but its use is restricted to high-risk infants due to the high costs. In this study, we investigated if genetic delivery of anti-RSV antibody to neonatal mice by chimpanzee adenovirus type 7 expressing the murine form of palivizumab (AdC7αRSV) can provide protection against RSV. Intranasal and intramuscular administration of AdC7αRSV to adult mice resulted in similar levels of anti-RSV IgG in the serum. However, only intranasal administration resulted in detectable levels of anti-RSV IgG in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Intranasal administration of AdC7αRSV provided protection against subsequent RSV challenge. Expression of the anti-RSV antibody was prolonged following intranasal administration of AdC7αRSV to neonatal mice. Protection against RSV was confirmed at 6 weeks of age. These data suggest that neonatal genetic delivery of anti-RSV antibody by AdC7αRSV can provide protection against RSV.
Project description:Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is one of the most important viral pathogen related to acute lower respiratory infection in young children. The virus surface envelope contains the G, F, and SH proteins as spike proteins. The F protein is considered to be a major antigenic target for the neutralizing (NT) epitope as only the F protein is essential for cell infection among the three viral envelope proteins, and it is more highly conserved than the G protein. Recently, four antigenic targets related to NT activity have been reported;site I, site II, site IV, and site zero (0). Site II is the target for palivizumab used throughout the world to suppress severe RSV infection as passive immunity in high-risk children since 1998. Under the recent conditions in which indications for palivizumab administered subjects are being expanded, palivizumab-resistant mutations have been confirmed overseas in children with RSV infection, although they remain infrequent. Therefore, continuous genetic analysis of the palivizumab-binding region of the F protein is necessary. In addition, as vaccine development progresses, RSV infection control is expected to improve greatly over the next decade.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of serious viral bronchiolitis in infants, young children, and the elderly. Currently, there is not an FDA-approved vaccine available for RSV, though the mAb palivizumab is licensed to reduce the incidence of RSV disease in premature or at-risk infants. The palivizumab epitope is a well-characterized, approximately 24-aa helix-loop-helix structure on the RSV fusion (F) protein (F254-277). Here, we genetically inserted this epitope and multiple site variants of this epitope within a versatile woodchuck hepadnavirus core-based virus-like particle (WHcAg-VLP) to generate hybrid VLPs that each bears 240 copies of the RSV epitope in a highly immunogenic arrayed format. A challenge of such an epitope-focused approach is that to be effective, the conformational F254-277 epitope must elicit antibodies that recognize the intact virus. A number of hybrid VLPs containing RSV F254-277 were recognized by palivizumab in vitro and elicited high-titer and protective neutralizing antibody in rodents. Together, the results from this proof-of-principle study suggest that the WHcAg-VLP technology may be an applicable approach to eliciting a response to other structural epitopes.
Project description:Severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants and small children is commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Palivizumab (Synagis(®)), a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved for RSV immunoprophylaxis in at-risk neonates, is highly effective, but pharmacoeconomic analyses suggest its use may not be cost-effective. Previously described potent RSV neutralizers (human Fab R19 and F2-5; human IgG RF-1 and RF-2) were produced in IgG format in a rapid and inexpensive Nicotiana-based manufacturing system for comparison with palivizumab. Both plant-derived (palivizumab-N) and commercial palivizumab, which is produced in a mouse myeloma cell line, showed protection in prophylactic (p < 0.001 for both mAbs) and therapeutic protocols (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05 respectively). The additional plant-derived human mAbs directed against alternative epitopes displayed neutralizing activity, but conferred less protection in vivo than palivizumab-N or palivizumab. Palivizumab remains one of the most efficacious RSV mAbs described to date. Production in plants may reduce manufacturing costs and improve the pharmacoeconomics of RSV immunoprophylaxis and therapy.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in young children and the elderly. There are currently no licensed RSV vaccines, and passive prophylaxis with the monoclonal antibody palivizumab is restricted to high-risk infants in part due to its modest efficacy. Although it is widely agreed that an effective RSV vaccine will require the induction of a potent neutralizing antibody response against the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein, little is known about the specificities and functional activities of RSV F-specific antibodies induced by natural infection. Here, we have comprehensively profiled the human antibody response to RSV F by isolating and characterizing 364 RSV F-specific monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of three healthy adult donors. In all donors, the antibody response to RSV F is comprised of a broad diversity of clones that target several antigenic sites. Nearly half of the most potent antibodies target a previously undefined site of vulnerability near the apex of the prefusion conformation of RSV F (preF), providing strong support for the development of RSV vaccine candidates that preserve the membrane-distal hemisphere of the preF protein. Additionally, the antibodies targeting this new site display convergent sequence features, thus providing a future means to rapidly detect the presence of these antibodies in human vaccine samples. Many of the antibodies that bind preF-specific surfaces are over 100 times more potent than palivizumab, and several cross-neutralize human metapneumovirus (HMPV). Taken together, the results have implications for the design and evaluation of RSV vaccine candidates and offer new options for passive prophylaxis.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of severe respiratory illness in infants. There is no effective vaccine and the only effective treatment available is the monoclonal antibody palivizumab which reduces the risk of severe RSV disease in prematurely born infants. However, palivizumab is too costly to allow for wide implementation and thus treatment is restricted to supportive care. Despite extensive efforts to develop a vaccine, progress has been hindered by the difficulty in measuring and assessing immunological correlates of RSV vaccine efficacy in the presence of high levels of pre-existing RSV antibodies.<h4>Methods</h4>Here we describe a new method for measuring the functional activity of antibodies induced by vaccination distinct from pre-existing antibodies. Antibodies in lymphocyte supernatants (ALS) from the cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of young adults who had recently been vaccinated with a novel RSV candidate vaccine were directly assayed for virus neutralising activity. An ELISA method was used to measure antibodies in nasal and serum samples and then compared with the adapted ALS based method.<h4>Results</h4>There was a wide background distribution of RSV-specific antibodies in serum and nasal samples that obscured vaccine-specific responses measured two weeks after vaccination. No RSV-specific antibodies were observed at baseline in ALS samples, but a clear vaccine-specific antibody response was observed in ALS seven days after the administration of each dose of vaccine. These vaccine-specific antibodies in ALS displayed functional activity in vitro, and quantification of this functional activity was unperturbed by pre-existing antibodies from natural exposure. The results demonstrate a promising new approach for assessing functional immune responses attributed to RSV vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody and the only licensed immunization product for preventing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, is recommended for children with certain high-risk conditions. Other antibody products and maternal vaccines targeting young infants are in clinical development. Few studies have compared products closest to potential licensure and have primarily focused on the effects on hospitalizations only. Estimates of the impact of these products on medically-attended (MA) infections in a variety of healthcare settings are needed to assist with developing RSV immunization recommendations. METHODS:We developed a tool for practicing public health officials to estimate the impact of immunization strategies on RSV-associated MA lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in various healthcare settings among infants <12?months. Users input RSV burden and seasonality and examine the influence of altering product efficacy and uptake assumptions. We used the tool to evaluate candidate products' impacts among a US birth cohort. RESULTS:We estimated without immunization, 407,360 (range: 339,650-475,980) LRTIs are attended annually in outpatient clinics, 147,240 (126,070-168,510) in emergency departments (EDs), and 33,180 (24,760-42,900) in hospitals. A passive antibody candidate targeting all infants prevented the most LRTIs: 196,470 (48% of visits without immunization) outpatient clinic visits (range: 163,810-229,650), 75,250 (51%) EDs visits (64,430-86,090), and 18,140 (55%) hospitalizations (13,770-23,160). A strategy combining maternal vaccine candidate and palivizumab prevented 58,210 (14% of visits without immunization) LRTIs in outpatient clinics (range: 48,520-67,970), 19,580 (13%) in EDs (16,760-22,400), and 8,190 (25%) hospitalizations (6,390-10,150). CONCLUSIONS:Results underscore the potential for anticipated products to reduce serious RSV illness. Our tool (provided to readers) can be used by different jurisdictions and accept updated data. Results can aid economic evaluations and public health decision-making regarding RSV immunization products.
Project description:Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) in infants has proven challenging to prevent. In the last 50 years, conceptually different approaches failed to evolve into viable preventive alternatives for routine use. Inactivated RSV vaccine (that is, formalin-inactivated RSV) elicited severe LRTI in RSV-infected toddlers pre-immunized as infants; early purified F protein approaches in pregnant women failed to elicit sufficient immunity more than a decade ago; a second-generation monoclonal antibody (mAb) of high potency against the virus (that is, motavizumab) caused severe adverse reactions in the skin, and owing to lack of efficacy against RSV subgroup B, an extended half-life mAb targeting site V in the RSV fusion protein (that is, REG2222) did not meet its primary endpoint. In the meantime, two protein F vaccines failed to prevent medically attended LRTI in the elderly. However, palivizumab and the recent results of the Novavax maternal immunization trial with ResVax demonstrate that severe RSV LRTI can be prevented by mAb and by maternal immunization (at least to a certain extent). In fact, disease prevention may also decrease the rates of recurrent wheezing and all-cause pneumonia for at least 180 days. In this review, we discuss the history of RSV vaccine development, previous and current vaccine strategies undergoing evaluation, and recent information about disease burden and its implications for the effects of successful preventive strategies.