Effect of Ischemia Duration and Protective Interventions on the Temporal Dynamics of Tissue Composition After Myocardial Infarction.
ABSTRACT: The impact of cardioprotective strategies and ischemia duration on postischemia/reperfusion (I/R) myocardial tissue composition (edema, myocardium at risk, infarct size, salvage, intramyocardial hemorrhage, and microvascular obstruction) is not well understood.To study the effect of ischemia duration and protective interventions on the temporal dynamics of myocardial tissue composition in a translational animal model of I/R by the use of state-of-the-art imaging technology.Four 5-pig groups underwent different I/R protocols: 40-minute I/R (prolonged ischemia, controls), 20-minute I/R (short-duration ischemia), prolonged ischemia preceded by preconditioning, or prolonged ischemia followed by postconditioning. Serial cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-based tissue characterization was done in all pigs at baseline and at 120 minutes, day 1, day 4, and day 7 after I/R. Reference myocardium at risk was assessed by multidetector computed tomography during the index coronary occlusion. After the final CMR, hearts were excised and processed for water content quantification and histology. Five additional healthy pigs were euthanized after baseline CMR as reference. Edema formation followed a bimodal pattern in all 40-minute I/R pigs, regardless of cardioprotective strategy and the degree of intramyocardial hemorrhage or microvascular obstruction. The hyperacute edematous wave was ameliorated only in pigs showing cardioprotection (ie, those undergoing short-duration ischemia or preconditioning). In all groups, CMR-measured edema was barely detectable at 24 hours postreperfusion. The deferred healing-related edematous wave was blunted or absent in pigs undergoing preconditioning or short-duration ischemia, respectively. CMR-measured infarct size declined progressively after reperfusion in all groups. CMR-measured myocardial salvage, and the extent of intramyocardial hemorrhage and microvascular obstruction varied dramatically according to CMR timing, ischemia duration, and cardioprotective strategy.Cardioprotective therapies, duration of index ischemia, and the interplay between these greatly influence temporal dynamics and extent of tissue composition changes after I/R. Consequently, imaging techniques and protocols for assessing edema, myocardium at risk, infarct size, salvage, intramyocardial hemorrhage, and microvascular obstruction should be standardized accordingly.
Project description:Cardioprotective value of ischemic post- (IPostC), remote (RIC) conditioning in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear in clinical trials. To evaluate cardioprotection, most translational animal studies and clinical trials utilize necrotic tissue referred to the area at risk (AAR) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, determination of AAR by MRI' may not be accurate, since MRI-indices of microvascular damage, i.e., myocardial edema and microvascular obstruction (MVO), may be affected by cardioprotection independently from myocardial necrosis. Therefore, we assessed the effect of IPostC, RIC conditioning and ischemic preconditioning (IPreC; positive control) on myocardial necrosis, edema and MVO in a clinically relevant, closed-chest pig model of AMI.Acute myocardial infarction was induced by a 90-min balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in domestic juvenile female pigs. IPostC (6 × 30 s ischemia/reperfusion after 90-min occlusion) and RIC (4 × 5 min hind limb ischemia/reperfusion during 90-min LAD occlusion) did not reduce myocardial necrosis as assessed by late gadolinium enhancement 3 days after reperfusion and by ex vivo triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining 3 h after reperfusion, however, the positive control, IPreC (3 × 5 min ischemia/reperfusion before 90-min LAD occlusion) did. IPostC and RIC attenuated myocardial edema as measured by cardiac T2-weighted MRI 3 days after reperfusion, however, AAR measured by Evans blue staining was not different among groups, which confirms that myocardial edema is not a measure of AAR, IPostC and IPreC but not RIC decreased MVO.We conclude that IPostC and RIC interventions may protect the coronary microvasculature even without reducing myocardial necrosis.
Project description:Importance:Myocardial tissue injury due to acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) initiates an inflammatory response that leads to a release of systemic inflammatory biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells, consequently reducing the usefulness of these routine biomarkers for identifying concomitant infections. The clinical role of procalcitonin (PCT), a promising marker of bacterial infection, to detect concomitant infection in acute STEMI is unknown, mainly because it is unclear whether myocardial injury per se induces systemic PCT release. Objective:To investigate the release of serum PCT in the acute setting of STEMI (24 and 48 hours after primary percutaneous coronary intervention) and to elucidate any associations with myocardial injury markers through a comprehensive assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective cohort study conducted between 2016 and 2018 included 141 consecutive patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Concentrations of PCT, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and white blood cell counts were measured serially 24 and 48 hours after infarct. Exposures:Acute STEMI and primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Main Outcomes and Measures:The association of PCT and typical inflammatory marker levels with CMR-determined myocardial damage was assessed. Infarct size, extent of microvascular obstruction, and occurrence of intramyocardial hemorrhage as determined by CMR within the first week following STEMI were also evaluated. Results:In total, 141 patients with STEMI (117 men [83%]) having a median age of 56 years (interquartile range, 50-66 years) were included. The median PCT concentration was 0.07 ?g/L (interquartile range, <0.06-0.11 ?g/L) 24 hours after intervention and 0.07 ?g/L (interquartile range, <0.06-0.09 ?g/L) 48 hours after intervention. Whereas hs-CRP and hs-cTnT levels and white blood cell counts were significantly correlated with CMR markers of myocardial damage at both 24 and 48 hours after intervention, the PCT level showed no significant correlation with infarct size (at 24 hours: r?=?0.07; P?=?.40; at 48 hours: r?=?0.13; P?=?.12) or with microvascular obstruction (at 24 hours: r?=?-0.03; P?=?.75; at 48 hours: r?=?0.09; P?=?.30). Furthermore, PCT levels at 24 hours (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.63-2.48; P?=?.52) and 48 hours (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.72-3.41; P?=?.26) were not significantly associated with the presence of intramyocardial hemorrhage. Conclusions and Relevance:In the acute phase after percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI, circulating PCT levels remained unassociated with the extent of myocardial and microvascular tissue damage as visualized by CMR imaging.
Project description:Reperfusion may cause intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) by extravasation of erythrocytes through severely damaged endothelial walls. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance of IMH in relation to infarct size, microvascular obstruction (MVO) and function in patients after primary percutaneous intervention. Forty-five patients underwent cardiovascular MR imaging (CMR) 1 week and 4 months after primary stenting for a first acute myocardial infarction. T2-weighted spin-echo imaging (T2W) was used to assess infarct related edema and IMH, and delayed enhancement (DE) was used to assess infarct size and MVO. Cine CMR was used to assess left ventricular volumes and function at baseline and at 4 months follow-up. In 22 (49%) patients, IMH was detected as areas of attenuated signal in the core of the high signal intensity region on T2W images. Patients with IMH had larger infarcts, higher left ventricular volumes and lower ejection fraction. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between hyperintense periphery and the hypo-intense core of the T2W ischemic area correlated to peak CKMB, total infarct size and MVO size. Using univariable analysis, CNR predicted ejection fraction at baseline (beta = -0.62, P = 0.003) and follow-up (beta = -0.84, P < 0.001). However, after multivariable analysis, baseline ejection fraction and presence of MVO were the only parameters that predicted functional changes at follow-up. IMH was found in the majority of patients with MVO after reperfused myocardial infarction. It was closely related to markers of infarct size, MVO and function, but did not have prognostic significance beyond MVO.
Project description:After a reperfused myocardial infarction (MI), dynamic tissue changes occur (edema, inflammation, microvascular obstruction, hemorrhage, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and ultimately replacement by fibrosis). The extension and magnitude of these changes contribute to long-term prognosis after MI. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold-standard technique for noninvasive myocardial tissue characterization. CMR is also the preferred methodology for the identification of potential benefits associated with new cardioprotective strategies both in experimental and clinical trials. However, there is a wide heterogeneity in CMR methodologies used in experimental and clinical trials, including time of post-MI scan, acquisition protocols, and, more importantly, selection of endpoints. There is a need for standardization of these methodologies to improve the translation into a real clinical benefit. The main objective of this scientific expert panel consensus document is to provide recommendations for CMR endpoint selection in experimental and clinical trials based on pathophysiology and its association with hard outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) and microvascular obstruction (MVO) represent reperfusion injury after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with prognostic impact and "hypointense core" (HIC) appearance in T2-weighted images. We aimed to distinguish between IMH and MVO by using T2 (*)-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and analysed influencing factors for IMH development. METHODS AND RESULTS:A total of 151 patients with acute STEMI underwent CMR after primary angioplasty. T2-STIR sequences were used to identify HIC, late gadolinium enhancement to visualise MVO and T2 (*)-weighted sequences to detect IMH. IMH(+)/IMH(-) patients were compared considering infarct size, myocardial salvage, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow, reperfusion time, ventricular volumes, function and pre-interventional medication. Seventy-six patients (50%) were IMH(+), 82 (54%) demonstrated HIC and 100 (66%) MVO. IMH was detectable without HIC in 16 %, without MVO in 5% and HIC without MVO in 6%. Multivariable analyses revealed that IMH was associated with significant lower left ventricular ejection fraction and myocardial salvage index, larger left ventricular volume and infarct size. Patients with TIMI flow grade ?1 before angioplasty demonstrated IMH significantly more often. CONCLUSIONS:IMH is associated with impaired left ventricular function and higher infarct size. T2 and HIC imaging showed moderate agreement for IMH detection. T2 (*) imaging might be the preferred CMR imaging method for comprehensive IMH assessment. KEY POINTS:Intramyocardial haemorrhage is a common finding in patients with acute reperfused myocardial-infarction. T 2 (*) imaging should be the preferred CMR method for assessment of intramyocardial haemorrhage. Intramyocardial haemorrhage can be considered as an important influencing factor on patient's outcome.
Project description:The left ventricular performance index (LVGFI) as a comprehensive marker of cardiac performance integrates LV structure with global function within one index. In a prospective cohort study of healthy individuals the LVGFI demonstrated a superior prognostic value as compared to LV ejection fraction (LVEF). In patients after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), however, the role of the LVGFI is unknown. Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the LVGFI and infarct characteristics as well as prognosis in a large multicenter STEMI population.In total 795 STEMI patients reperfused by primary angioplasty (<12 h after symptom onset) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at 8 centers. CMR was completed within one week after infarction using a standardized protocol including LV dimensions, mass and function for calculation of the LVGFI. The primary clinical endpoint of the study was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE).The median LVGFI was 31.2 % (interquartile range 25.7 to 36.6). Patients with LVGFI?<?median had significantly larger infarcts, less myocardial salvage, a larger extent of microvascular obstruction, higher incidence of intramyocardial hemorrhage and more pronounced LV dysfunction (p?<?0.001 for all). MACE and mortality rates were significantly higher in the LVGFI?<?median group (p?<?0.001 and p?=?0.003, respectively). The LVGFI had an incremental prognostic value in addition to LVEF for prediction of all-cause mortality.The LVGFI strongly correlates with markers of severe myocardial and microvascular damage in patients with STEMI, offering prognostic information beyond traditional cardiac risk factors including the LVEF.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00712101.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The occurrence of intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) and microvascular obstruction (MVO) in myocardial infarction (MI), known as severe ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), has been associated with adverse remodeling. APT102, a soluble human recombinant ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1, can hydrolyze extracellular nucleotides to attenuate their prothrombotic and proinflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to temporally evaluate the therapeutic effect of APT102 on IRI in rats and to elucidate the evolution of IRI in the acute stage using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Fifty-four rats with MI, induced by ligation of the origin of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60 minutes, were randomly divided into the APT102 (n = 27) or control (n = 27) group. Intravenous infusion of APT102 (0.3 mg/kg) or placebo was administered 15 minutes before reperfusion, and then 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and on day 4 after reperfusion. CMRI was performed at 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and on day 5 post-reperfusion using a 7T system and the hearts were collected for histopathological examination. Cardiac function was quantified using cine imaging and IMH/edema using T2 mapping, and infarct/MVO using late gadolinium enhancement. RESULTS:The extent of infarction (p < 0.001), edema (p < 0.001), IMH (p = 0.013), and MVO (p = 0.049) was less severe in the APT102 group than in the control group. IMH size at 48 hours was significantly greater than that at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 5 days after reperfusion (all p < 0.001). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly greater in the APT102 group than in the control group (p = 0.006). There was a negative correlation between LVEF and IMH (r = -0.294, p = 0.010) and a positive correlation between IMH and MVO (r = 0.392, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:APT102 can significantly alleviate damage to the ischemic myocardium and microvasculature. IMH size peaked at 48 hours post reperfusion and IMH is a downstream consequence of MVO. IMH may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent adverse remodeling in MI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We aimed to evaluate the effect of early intravenous metoprolol treatment, microvascular obstruction (MVO), intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) and adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling on the evolution of infarct and remote zone circumferential strain after acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with feature-tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS:A total of 191 patients with acute anterior STEMI enrolled in the METOCARD-CNIC randomized clinical trial were evaluated. LV infarct zone and remote zone circumferential strain were measured with feature-tracking CMR at 1?week and 6?months after STEMI. RESULTS:In the overall population, the infarct zone circumferential strain significantly improved from 1?week to 6?months after STEMI (-?8.6?±?9.0% to -?14.5?±?8.0%; P?<?0.001), while no changes in the remote zone strain were observed (-?19.5?±?5.9% to -?19.2?±?3.9%; P?=?0.466). Patients who received early intravenous metoprolol had significantly more preserved infarct zone circumferential strain compared to the controls at 1?week (P?=?0.038) and at 6?months (P?=?0.033) after STEMI, while no differences in remote zone strain were observed. The infarct zone circumferential strain was significantly impaired in patients with MVO and IMH compared to those without (P?<?0.001 at 1?week and 6?months), however it improved between both time points regardless of the presence of MVO or IMH (P?<?0.001). In patients who developed adverse LV remodeling (defined as ??20% increase in LV end-diastolic volume) remote zone circumferential strain worsened between 1?week and 6?months after STEMI (P?=?0.036), while in the absence of adverse LV remodeling no significant changes in remote zone strain were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Regional LV circumferential strain with feature-tracking CMR allowed comprehensive evaluation of the sequelae of an acute STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and demonstrated long-lasting cardioprotective effects of early intravenous metoprolol. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01311700. Registered 8 March 2011 - Retrospectively registered.
Project description:For patients presenting with a ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), early myocardial reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) remains the most effective treatment strategy for limiting myocardial infarct size, preserving left ventricular systolic function, and preventing the onset of heart failure. Recent advances in PCI technology to improve myocardial reperfusion and the introduction of novel anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic agents to maintain the patency of the infarct-related coronary artery continue to optimize PPCI procedure. However, despite these improvements, STEMI patients still experience significant major adverse cardiovascular events. One major contributing factor has been the inability to protect the heart against the lethal myocardial reperfusion injury, which accompanies PPCI. Past attempts to translate cardioprotective strategies, discovered in experimental studies to prevent lethal myocardial reperfusion injury, into the clinical setting of PPCI have been disappointing. However, a number of recent proof-of-concept clinical studies suggest that the heart can be 'conditioned' to protect itself against lethal myocardial reperfusion injury, as evidenced by a reduction in myocardial infarct size. This can be achieved using either mechanical (such as ischaemic postconditioning, remote ischaemic preconditioning, therapeutic hypothermia, or hyperoxaemia) or pharmacological (such as cyclosporin-A, natriuretic peptide, exenatide) 'conditioning' strategies as adjuncts to PPCI. Furthermore, recent developments in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can provide a non-invasive imaging strategy for assessing the efficacy of these novel adjunctive therapies to PPCI in terms of key surrogate clinical endpoints such as myocardial infarct size, myocardial salvage, left ventricular ejection fraction, and the presence of microvascular obstruction or intramyocardial haemorrhage. In this article, we review the therapeutic potential of 'conditioning' to protect the heart against lethal myocardial reperfusion injury in STEMI patients undergoing PPCI.
Project description:Postconditioning and cyclosporine A prevent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening providing cardioprotection during ischemia/reperfusion. Whether microvascular obstruction is affected by these interventions is largely unknown. Pigs subjected to coronary occlusion for 1 h followed by 3 h of reperfusion were assigned to control (n = 8), postconditioning (n = 9) or cyclosporine A intravenous infusion 10-15 min before the end of ischemia (n = 8). Postconditioning was induced by 8 cycles of repeated 30-s balloon inflation and deflation. After 3 h of reperfusion magnetic resonance imaging, triphenyltetrazolium chloride/Evans blue staining and histopathology were performed. Microvascular obstruction (MVO, percentage of gadolinium-hyperenhanced area) was measured early (3 min) and late (12 min) after contrast injection. Infarct size with double staining was smaller in cyclosporine (46.2 ± 3.1%, P = 0.016) and postconditioning pigs (47.6 ± 3.9%, P = 0.008) versus controls (53.8 ± 4.1%). Late MVO was significantly reduced by cyclosporine (13.9 ± 9.6%, P = 0.047) but not postconditioning (23.6 ± 11.7%, P = 0.66) when compared with controls (32.0 ± 16.9%). Myocardial blood flow in the late MVO was improved with cyclosporine versus controls (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.21 ± 0.03 ml/g/min, P = 0.002) and was inversely correlated with late-MVO extent (R(2) = 0.93, P < 0.0001). Deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between baseline and 3 h of reperfusion was smaller with cyclosporine (-7.9 ± 2.4%, P = 0.008) but not postconditioning (-12.0 ± 5.5%, P = 0.22) when compared with controls (-16.4 ± 5.5%). In the three groups, infarct size (? = -0.69, P < 0.001) and late MVO (? = -0.33, P = 0.02) were independent predictors of LVEF deterioration following ischemia/reperfusion (R(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Despite both cyclosporine A and postconditioning reduce infarct size, only cyclosporine A infusion had a beneficial effect on microvascular damage and was associated with better preserved LV function when compared with controls.